Premium Essay

How Did the Failure of the Directory Lead to Napoleon's Rise to Power

In: Historical Events

Submitted By hahara8
Words 1719
Pages 7
To what extent was Napoleon’s rise to power aided by the failings of the Directory?!

! Introduction! !

Crook comments that Napoleon’s rise to power had “acquired an aura of inevitability”1, and such inevitability was aided by the fall of the French monarchy, the failings of the Directory, and more importantly, Napoleon’s personal ability and appeal to employ such opportunity. This essay will argue that his rise to power was indeed very much aided by the failings of the Directory, but it was Napoleon who recognized such failures and used these to his advantage that ensured his rise. It will begin with a short background of the origins and result of the French Revolution. It will then summarize the failings of the Directory and how Napoleon used such failings to rise to power. !

! The French Revolution! !

To evaluate the Directory’s impact on Napoleon’s rise to power it is essential to examine France in the late 18th century, a time of uprisings and turmoils. There was a general public discontent in the French monarch, Louis XVI, due to his inability to find a solution of the impoverished France. France was in such a state because it spent a large sum on warfare, namely the funding of the American War of Independence. This Pyrrhic victory almost bankrupted France. While the King taxed the poor, the royal family and the nobles still lived in luxurious lifestyles. After a series of events, the King was overthrown. !

! Napoleon Under the Directory! !

After the overthrown, the 1795 Constitution was passed by voting. It also established the Directoire, the Directory, with five directors, and one was to be replaced each year. The Parliament was formed of two bodies, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of the Elders. The Directory regime lasted for four years, from 1795 to 1799. Louis XVI’s brother attempted to bring the monarchy system back to…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How China Rises

...How China rises What lessons can be drawn from China's spectacular and sustained economic growth? As Hu Jintau remarked at the 17th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the period since the previous Congress five years ago has been extraordinary. China's economic achievements have been arousing not only astonishment and admiration but also some anxiety. In the past twelve months alone, The People's Republic of China (PRC) has overtaken Canada as the biggest source of imports to the USA, and overtaken the USA as the biggest source of imports to the European Union. Concern about the low level of investment in Africa has been displaced by concern about the effects of the high level of Chinese investment in Africa; there is now even anxiety about the effects of investment by Chinese state-owned firms into the Western economies. The Chinese Communist Party is also expressing concerns. The themes of its 2007 Congress included protection of the environment and the achievement of social harmony. According to some estimates, China has displaced the USA as the world's biggest source of greenhouse gases. Inequality is rising as fast as pollution: China now has over 800 individuals with a personal wealth of more than a hundred million US dollars each, up from 500 in 2006; while the average income in rural areas of China is 480 dollars per year. Made in China. Hu Jintau's remark on the extraordinary nature of the most recent years can be faulted in only one sense: China......

Words: 51278 - Pages: 206

Premium Essay

Supreme Court Rise to Power

...branches. Each branch was meant to keep the other in check and make sure that they did not abuse their powers. The branches of government were as follow the lawmaking, executive and the jurisdictive. The constitution started out has simple two page document because the founding fathers couldn’t agree on much of anything. When the framers first thought of the Supreme Court they were thinking of a branch of government that would have supreme power. This is evident by the way each branch is laid out in the establishment. Each branch of government has its power expounded to them in detail. When it came to the court the description of power became vague. Some scholars believe that the founding fathers didn’t give the Supreme Court as many restrictions because they wanted a court of judge that would rule and intrepid the constitution as they would. The constitution was never meant to govern the people of America it was meant to rule and control them. The founding fathers picked people for the court that had the same backgrounds as them. According to the how the constitution is worded the framers gave the court the right to make law based on thing un for seen by them. This means that they have the right to make laws on thing that are being invented and used by Americans today The responsibilities and limitations of each branch of government are set forth in the constitution. For example specific powers are granted to the congress concerning their jurisdiction and job details. For......

Words: 3569 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Why Did Gorbachev's Reforms Fail and How Did Yeltsin Rise to Power?

...Why did Gorbachev's reforms fail and how did Yeltsin rise to power? In typical political terms, Gorbachev unsuccessful, and did thus catastrophically: the "democratic reformation" he tried to enact within the Soviet Union led to the breakup of his state and country. However that's not the total story of his six and a half years as leader, throughout that Gorbachev had two unprecedented achievements. He led Russia (then Soviet Russia) nearer to real democracy than it had ever been in its centuries-long history. And, with the partners he found in American presidents Ronald Reagan and the first George Bush, he came nearer to ending the decades-long cold war than had anyone before him. Nor is it reasonable to assume that Gorbachev should have completed those undertakings. Few transformational leaders, even "event-making" and "historically fateful" ones, are able to see their missions to completion. This is especially true of leaders of great reformations, whose nature and period generate additional opposition and problems than their initiators (unless they are a Stalin) have power or time to overcome. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, to require a well-known example, a perestroika of American capitalism, continued to unfold and undergo setbacks long after his death. Most such leaders can solely open political doors; leave behind alternative ways that did not exist before, and hope, as Gorbachev usually did publically, that what they began would be "irreversible." How is this......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hitler Rise to Power

...The rise to power of Adolf Hitler was not just some fluke of history, as many would have you believe. It was all part of a conspiracy planned out in advance by heads of multi national corporations, international bankers, and globalist politicians. The same forces that are behind the worldwide chaos we are witnessing now, were behind the rise of Hitler, and were directly responsible for World War II. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the most important causes that led to Hitler's rise in Germany. From the German point of view the treaty was incredibly harsh and devastating for Germany. The leaders of the allies drew up this treaty to purposely revenge and weaken Germany. The treaty contained five major points that would be Germany's demise. The first part was to revenge and weaken Germany. Many rules were laid down to Germany, which they had to obey. The German territory to the west of the Rhine would be occupied by allied troops for 15 years. The Germans did not like this because they did not want enemy troops in their own country. Even though the war was over they still hated the allies. Germany was not allowed to put any defences or troops on the east bank of the Rhine. This made Germany feel weak and vulnerable to invasion. They also hated the thought of a foreign president telling them what to do. Germany had to agree never to combine with Austria again. They had to strictly respect the independence of Austria. This was hard for both countries to accept as they both...

Words: 4437 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

“Will China’s Rise Lead to War?”

...The rise of China and the impact it will have is the subject of much speculation. In his paper, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War?” Glaser (2011) looks at this issue. Glaser contends that the outcome of China-U.S. relations is not predetermined to be a repetition of the U.S.-Soviet Cold War or even a hegemonic war as per the standard realist’s view, nor does he agree with the liberal view that the current international order will accept China’s rise peacefully. Glaser’s thesis is that major confrontation can be avoided; he argues that the forces that could create a hegemonic conflict between the two powers are weak; that the greatest dangers will be created through “secondary disputes.” Glaser also contends that the US will have to make concessions alliances to China regarding U.S. to avoid a major clash and that the way the two nation’s leaders handle those issues will determine the eventual outcome. To the world China is an unknown actor upon the world stage, a communist regime that until 1980’s was for the greater part a closed country. Today as a growing world power, both economically and militarily China like any nation requires respect, security and economic growth and development for her people. In this endeavor China has created something of a security dilemma as no one really knows what role China will seek, what she will demand from those nations around her, nor the consequences of these desires. John Herz (1950) describes a security dilemma as being when a......

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

How Dreams Lead to Sucess

...“How Dreams Lead to Success” Each and every person has dreams. Most dream of happiness, wealth or fear. The way we choose to interpret and act upon these dreams, will have an effect on our entire lives. To achieve success we must follow our dreams overcome obstacles and not let the fear of failure interfere with our goals. A perfect example of how a dream leads to success is the Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur. They were the first innovators of flight and created the world’s first working airplane. When the brothers were young, they opened their own bike company to capitalize on the public’s new interest in bicycling. Once they earned enough money from their cycling company they wanted pursue their dreams of flying and flying machines. At first they tried to use gliders to fly, which worked but it wasn’t considered actually flying. A few years later they managed to put an engine on a plane and on December 17, 1903, they recorded the first flight. Although they had many critics, they proved all of them wrong when they flew publically in air shows. The two brothers had a dream that one day humans would take to the skies for transportation. Today most of their planes and equipment are scattered all over the country in different museums, including the Smithsonian. Wilbur and Orville Wright faced numerous hurdles that seemed impossible but they did not let challenges or failure deter them. The Wright brothers serve as an example of how hard work and dedication pays off in......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How Did the Bolsheviks Seize Power?

...were the Bolsheviks able to seize power in 1917 and how did they consolidate their rule? The Bolsheviks mainly gained their power by using force and violence. During 1971 the Bolsheviks were quickly gaining popularity among the Russian people, they took control by attacking the unpopular, weak Provisional Government’s meeting place in the Winter Palace and then declared a new workers government, this was just one of the factors that led to the Bolsheviks success. A rise in popularity definitely led to the success of the Bolsheviks. One of the reasons why the Bolsheviks popularity was increasing was because they promised the people of Russia the things that they wanted most of all, which was to provide food for all families, end the war to reduce Russian deaths and bring in land reform in the countryside. This was all very well advertised with the slogan ‘Peace! Bread! Land!’ created by Lenin. It appealed to all people, the soldiers who were tired of war, to the hungry workers in the town and to the poverty-stricken peasants. The Germans financed the Bolsheviks because they knew that Lenin wanted to take Russia out of the war, this gave them the money to mount their publicity campaigns. In September 1917, the army commander in chief, general Kornilov, attempted to move troops back from the front to Petrograd in order to destroy the soviets and arrest leading Bolsheviks. Kerensky was afraid that Kornilov might be planning to take power for himself so he decided to......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Rise of a Market Power: D’long,

...The Rise of a Market Power: D’Long, 1996-2001 Little is publicly known about D’Long’s early years beyond rough details. The original parent company of the group, Xinjiang Delong Co., was formed in 1986 by four brothers: Tang Wanxin, Tang Wanli, Tang Wanping, and Tang Wanchuan. Tang Wanxin, the youngest of the brothers and CEO of the company, was the key strategist and apparently the only person with complete knowledge of D’Long’s operations; Tang Wanli served the number two position as chairman of the board. The company was originally involved in color film processing, but soon branched out into other fields.20 One of the firm’s first successful large-scale ventures came in 1994 with JJ’s Disco in Beijing, which reportedly yielded RMB 30 million in annual income. In 1992, two years after the creation of China’s first formal stock exchanges in Shanghai and Shenzhen, D’Long began investing in China’s stock market; by 2003, many people believed it to be the market’s single largest investor.21 D’Long’s rise as a stock market superpower began in October 1996, when it became the fourth- largest shareholder in Xinjiang Tunhe, a state owned cement company that had gone public three months earlier, by acquiring legal person shares from two affiliated SOEs.22 In 1998, D’Long increased its control over Tunhe from 10% to 40% by acquiring the company’s non-listed parent. Under D’Long’s control, Tunhe soon moved beyond cement to invest heavily in tomato paste, building new......

Words: 4503 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Hitler Rise to Power

...Hitlers Rise to Power, Fueled by The Treaty of Versailles By: Jacob Presley When the name Adolf Hitler is said many thoughts go through one's head. The thought of mass genocide, riveting speeches, political mastermind, and many more. Many people before Hitler had tried to take power and do very similar things throughout history. Hitler had one key factor on his side that set him aside from those before him, the right circumstances. After World War I, Germany was left in an a state as opposite as ideal that one could imagine. The Treaty of Versailles left Germany with heavy reparations to pay, an overwhelming shame in the country, and massive unemployment rates. Perfect conditions for a revolutionary like Hitler to start a radical change amongst the government. By looking at Hitler's actions after World War I and the punishments left to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles it can be seen how such a ruthless tyrant could be allowed to gain control over a world power. Hitler was a dispatch runner in World War I, where he ran messages between command posts. During his time in the Bavarian Regiment Hitler volunteered for dangerous missions even after near death experiences, seeming almost fearless. The even more unbelievable part is he almost always escaped without a scratch. Although on October 7, 1916 this luck ran out, Hitler was struck in the leg with a piece of shrapnel from an artillery shell. He was sent to Munich to heal and had only a few light duties to carry out......

Words: 1348 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

In What Ways Did the First World War Lead to a Greater Power for the Federal Government?

...examining how the Federal Government gained greater power through the First World War During the war the government built up the armed forces to strength of four million officers and men. Of those added to the armed forces after the U.S. declaration of war. Men alone, however, did not make an army. They required barracks and training facilities, transportation, food, clothing, and health care. They had to be equipped with modern arms and great stocks of ammunition. I believe that this strengthened the Federal Government because of the fact that they had such a big army due to the amount of conscription during the war, people would be afraid to go against the government in case the army would get involved, therefore giving the government more power over the people. Another way in which the Federal Government increased its power was through The Espionage Act, June 1917 and The Sedation Act, May 1918. The Espionage Act made it illegal to encourage disloyalty or obstruct military recruitment and could be punished by a big fine or imprisonment of up to 20 years. The first target of the Espionage Act was anti-war labour organisers against conscription. The Sedation act made it illegal to verbally attack the constitution, or the war effort, and one could be arrested for trying to discourage people from buying war bonds. These 2 acts greatly increased the power of government but by doing so it reduced the amount of personal freedom the people had. The government increased their......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Did Tensions Between Britain and the Colonies Rise in the Late 1760’s and Early 1770’s?

...Haleigh Denny Ms. Powers History 1483 8 February 2015 Topic 4: Revolution How did tensions between Britain and the colonies rise in the late 1760’s and early 1770’s? Life for colonists after the Seven Year’s War was prosperous for a short time period. Many had made fortunes with military contracts to the British crown during the war, even with the heavy taxes already on the colonists. The colonists who had supported England in the war against France hoped to gain access to lands further west of the colonies that were acquired from the war. England however, had gained major debt and looked to the colonies for assistance in paying off their bills with more taxes upon the colonies. In the early 1760’s, bickering and arguments between the colonists and England occurred. A large part of the problem was the Stamp Act. This policy from England imposed high taxes on the colonists without any representation in Parliament. The colonies, which once struggled to get along without bickering, began to unite themselves and push back on the Crown. Groups such as the Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty were formed. The colonists imposed a boycott on English goods and refused to use the stamps on legal documents that were required under the Stamp Act. England was surprised by the colonist’s reactions and repealed it in March 1766. In 1767, Charles Townsend was named Prime Minister of England. Colonists were hopeful he would be their supporter because he had opposed both the......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nazi Rise to Power

...Michael Bergin Professor Patricia Chappine GSS 2248 February 17, 2016 Nazi Rise to Power The Nazi party’s rapid rise to power did not go off without a hitch. After the hangover from WW1, the mood surrounding Germany was grim. Germany was slapped with international sanctions and forced to pay reparations to France and Britain for the huge costs of the war. The German people were looking for hope and a leader that could generate some real positive changes. In 1919, Adolf Hitler joined a small political party where he quickly rose to leadership through a number of emotional and captivating speeches. He “promoted a national sense of pride, militarism, and a concept of a radically “pure” Germany” (1). By the end of that year Hitler became the official Fuhrer of this small political party called the Nazi party which consisted of about 3,000 members. Hitler used the Jews as a scapegoat for Germany’s economic issues while encouraging anti-Semitic views and behaviors. In 1923, any momentum the Nazi party possessed came to a halt in Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch. In an attempt to overthrow local authorities in Munich, Hitler was sentenced to jail and charged with high treason. As things were looking bleak for the Nazi’s Hitler utilized the courtroom as a platform for his greatest attribute, propaganda. He would rant for hours and hours against the Weimar government demanding change. Throughout his trail Hitler actually gained support for his cause. At the end of the day the......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bolsheviks Rise to Power

...Bolsheviks consolidation of power How did the Bolsheviks deal with the socialists? Lenin started talking to other parties about a power-sharing government because he was forced after the railwaymen`s union, the post and telegraph union threatened to cut off communications if the Bolsheviks didn't hold talks with the other different parties. What could have happened is that food supplies would be paralyzed to get to Petrograd and also to other cities. Brest-litovsk treaty consequences The main implications of the treaty were that Russia ceded Finland, the Baltic states and Poland – a million square kilometres of territory which contained 74% of the country´s coal and iron ore mines, 27% of their productive farmland as west Russia had the best agricultural resources, one fourth of the railway, and 30% (62 million people ) of the population. Finland had been ruled by the Tsars since 1809, the Germans helped the Finns to defeat a Bolshevik rising and Finland remained independent under the Brest-litovsk treaty. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became independent republics as well as some of the Russian-held area of Poland, Bessarabia was handed over to Romania. Germany set up semi-independent governments in Belarus, Ukraine and Georgia. Patriotic Russians started loathing the Bolsheviks and a civil war seemed inevitable. The Social revolutionaries left the Svornkom as they rather have a revolution that a Coup d´ état. The Cheka leader was captured during an uprising, however......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Failure Breeds Success

...How Failure Breeds Success Shevelle Green Principles of Management Professor James Day May 30, 2010 The purpose of this paper is to explore business failures and the effect of studying the failure can have on managing the control processes and performance improvements. I will point out specific changes in control systems that studying failures may lead to. Many reputable businesses have had failed products in their history. Business such as Nestlé’s Choglit, a chocolate-flavored milk drink, test marketed in 2002 failed according to businessweek.com. Ben Gay Aspirin was another failed product that many consumers never even heard of. Although having a failed product is not a good thing, businesses are turning the study of these failures into somewhat of learning experience. They are using the results as a way to improve the performance of an existing or new product. To achieve innovation sometimes means that you will produce a product that may fail. Companies need to be comfortable with this concept and not afraid to take the risk of failing. For a company that is not already successful and have the resources this may be easier said than done. Companies that are already established stand a better chance taking this risk without worrying about the success of their business. Coca Cola is a perfect example of the preceding statement. Coca Cola has had many failed products over the years. “New Coke” was a product introduced by Coca Cola in 1985. This......

Words: 921 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Northern Grid Power Failure

...Just when North India thought a nightmarish power crisis was behind them, the Northern ,Eastern and north eastern grids have failed again at 1 PM. Technical snag hit the Northern Grid for the second consecutive day on Tuesday leading to paralyzing of all services in northern region. Along with northern grid eastern and north eastern grid also collapsed simultaneously leading to black out in 12 states. Heavy over drawl by Uttar Pardesh, Haryana and Rajasthan is the likely cause of grid failure. All the three states were overdrawing to the extent of 1200 MW each. The reason for the grid failures in the North and East have reportedly been caused because frequency has dipped below the optimal level of 49 HZ . However officials have been unable to identify exactly where the fault has occurred. The power supply in Punjab and Haryana are likely to be restored late in evening. The supply to thermal plants from hydro station is being arranged and it will take 4 to 6 hours to start thermal units. Earlier on Monday, seven states in the northern region saw power trip off at 2.32 am due to a major breakdown in the Northern Grid. The power failure had hit rail, Metro and road-traffic operations, as well as services at hospitals and civic bodies. Meanwhile CERC in its order said today that in case the constituents do not comply with the directions of NRLDC with regard to overdrawal NRLDC shall take necessary steps to open the identified feeder(s) to the constituent States in order to......

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

2x (Seated, Mezzanine ROW 2) Robyn Tickets Paris | Kendal Farr | Marvel - Homem-Aranha - 2ª Temporada Desenho 2018 Torrent Ação / Animação / Aventura / Heróis 720p Marvel - Homem-Aranha - 2ª Temporada