Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Lenin’s Leadership Was the Main Reason for Why the Bolsheviks Were Able to Seize Power in 1917.

In: Historical Events

Submitted By qw1207
Words 1325
Pages 6
How far do you agree that Lenin’s leadership was the main reason for why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in 1917.

Lenin was a very significant figure during the Russian revolution, under his strong leadership and the advice of some of his advisors, Lenin helped the Bolsheviks come to power. However I would not agree that his leadership was the main reason to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power as factors such as the weakness of the provisional government, the home front and most importantly Trotsky role all played a significant role to why the Bolsheviks were successful.

Lenin’s leadership played a significant role to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in 1917 due to his clear and persuading aims. Lenin was an influential figure in the eyes of the proletariat. Due to the April thesis clear aims resulted in that he was able to gain greater support and he succeeded in having 200,000 members. The vast amount of members meant that the Bolsheviks had greater support when it came to seizing power. The main aims of the April theses were, Peace, Land and Bread and power to the soviets. Many supported the idea of Peace, Land and bread as they were fed up with the affect the war was having on them and wanted to bring it to an end, people were also starving due to the war and therefore welcomed the idea of Peace, Land and bread. Lenin also promised the confiscation of landed estates from landowners and the aristocracy. The slogan all power to the soviets played on the feelings of the proletariat that the provisional government were made up of landowners and middle class men who would not look out for their interests and if they would give all the power to the soviets their interests would be recognised and dealt with. The slogan gained the Bolsheviks more power. Lenin also realised that the timing of the seizure was very important and that it was essential to seize power before the elections as otherwise the Social Revolutionaries would gain more seats and so chose this time. Lenin also felt that it was time to act as his newspapers were banned which could result in the loss of seats. Since Lenin believed that revolution was in the hands of the workers he knew it was essential to act before his support was lost. However, the July days organised by Lenin was a major setback for the Bolsheviks. Lenin thought that the provisional government could be overthrown in the same way that the Tsar was during the February Revolution; instead of causing a successful demonstration he united the Provisional government and the soviets against the Bolsheviks. After this, Lenin was branded a traitor and had to flee Russia. The Bolshevik organisation in Petrograd was in tatters with most officials in prison and there leader on the run. Lenin may have had a clear aim and plan with what he wanted for Russian and his aim for, Peace, Land and bread appealed too many and gained him many supporters, however due to the July days Lenin lost some support though those who really wanted change still stuck by him and awaited his return. Lenin had evidently failed when he tried to organise a demonstration to overthrow the provisional government and needed the help of Trotsky to be able to overthrow the government as in 1917, Trotsky organised the seizure and this time it was successful. This point proves that Lenin was not capable of leading and instructing a revolution but needed guidance in order to be able to succeed however credit is still given to Lenin as he was clear sighted and had aims that appealed to the working class.

Trotsky’s role in the 1917 revolution is a very important and significant reason to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power. Using the military revolutionary committee (MRC) of the Petrograd soviet, the Bolsheviks planned to take over the capital. The MRC was under the control of Trotsky and so the planning of the takeover was left to Trotsky, this way the Bolshevik involvement would not be so obvious and unnecessary retaliation would be avoided. Trotsky’s strategic plan was a key feature to why the revolution was successful. On the 24th October MRC units occupied key areas of Petrograd and arrested most of the Provisional Government. The MRC did not face much resistance at the winter palace which made the task a lot easier for them. During the seizure of power the MRC did not face much retaliation at all, most were eager to accept the Bolsheviks with open arms. It was due to Trotsky’s role in the MRC and past experience which enabled this seizure of power to be a success. This point is one of the most important reason or if anything the most important reason to why the Bolsheviks succeeded in seizing power in 1917. It is evidently seen that Lenin was incapable of organising and planning out a revolution which can be seen with the July days and it was only due to Trotsky’s strategic plans and his role in the MRC which allowed the Bolsheviks to be successful. Without the instruction of Trotsky, this takeover may have been just as unsuccessful as the July days.

The weakness of the provisional government and the lack of support from the general population is a key point to why the Bolsheviks were successful in 1917. The provisional government’s failure to work with the Petrograd Soviet is an important reason to why there were weak and why they eventually failed. The Petrograd soviets were a lot more popular in the people eyes and therefore having them as a rival isn’t going to gain them much support. The provisional government’s decision to continue fighting the war when the country was already in an economic mess, resulted in less support for the provisional government. The people in Russia had ill feelings towards the war due to the defeat and the impact on the home front. People were starving and yet they still made the decision to continue fighting. The Kornilov affair in august 1917 was a fatal blow to the position of the provisional government. Kornilov’s attention was always for the support of the provisional government however Kerensky saw him as a threat when kornilov ordered troops into Petrograd. Kerensky ordered his arrest and sought the aid of the Bolsheviks to insure Kornilov does not maintain power. This was a fatal area of Kerensky, as this had a negative effect on the provisional government and they lost many supporters. It also allowed the Bolsheviks to rise back to power, the Kornilov affair gave the Bolsheviks an element of power of the government as Kerensky was seeking their help and was relying on them. He made them look strong which resulted in more support for them. The greatest weakness of the provisional government was the kornilov affair as this allowed the Bolsheviks to get back on their feet and reassemble as Kerensky released a number from prison. The Bolsheviks may not have been able to gain power back without the unintentional aid of Kerensky, they may have not seized power and Lenin actually believed that after the July days a revolution in the near future was out of the question. It was due to Kerensky’s motives that allowed a successful revolution so close after the July days.

In conclusion, I find that Trotsky role is the most important factor which allows the Bolsheviks to seize power as it was his thinking and clever plans which allowed this takeover to be successful unlike the previous time although I find that the Kornilov affair is also a very significant factor to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power. Kerensky made a fatal error when he confronted the Bolsheviks for aid as it showed great weakness of the provisional government.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years 1945-55?

...How far do you agree that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years 1945-55? It is clear that the Second World War played a vital part in improving the lives of African Americans between 1945 and 1955. However, the impact of the war was lessened by other factors that brought about change such as the civil rights groups and President Truman. These factors were able to convert de jure change into de facto change; something the Second World Wars alone was unable to do. World War Two had a dramatic effect on civil rights for Black Americans. Over 1.2 million black men joined the U.S army during the war and the experience radicalised them. Northern blacks were often trained in rural military camps in the Southern states, this was their first experience of formal racial segregation. They were appalled to know they were fighting a racist opponent, yet being treated as a second class citizen and receiving prejudice treatment back home. Consequently, the black soldiers used the ‘Double V’ sign, which meant they were fighting for two victories: victory overseas and victory over racism at home. The war also began to change the racist attitudes of whites. The United States and her allies were fighting a racist opponent, Hitler, who passionately believed in a ‘Master race’. In the past, white supremacy groups such as the Ku Klux Klan had presented racism as something that was both natural and noble, however,......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Stalin’s Position as General Secretary Was the Main Factor in His Emergence as Leader of Russia?

...How far do you agree that Stalin’s position as General Secretary was the main factor in his emergence as leader of Russia? After Lenin’s death in 1924, the Communist leadership of Russia was thrown into disarray. There were many different ideas for the future of the country, the strongest of which was socialism, which caused many various contenders for the party to emerge. There was a struggle of power between these contenders, but Stalin eventually emerged as the successful new leader of the USSR. Stalin’s position as General Secretary was the main factor in this emergence as leader. Stalin’s position of General Secretary allowed him to use and abuse Lenin’s systems to get to the top. Stalin had the power to control what was discussed and how politburo decisions were carried out, and he also had the significant influence of patronage. This allowed him to access most of the Communist party, his power of patronage allowed him to use his authority to place his most reliable supporters in key positions within the party. As a result, there people were extremely loyal to Stalin as they owed their place to him, and therefore he could count on their support. These people became known as his delegates as they could also be known to vote in Stalin’s favour. Stalin also had other key positions in the party, which allowed him to outmanoeuvre his rivals through a series of alliances. He was head of the Sovnarkom, which allowed him to expel any party members who disagreed with his......

Words: 1111 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Brutality of the Bolsheviks Was the Main Reason Why They Remained in Power in the Years 1917-24?

...I believe that the brutality of the Bolsheviks was the main reason why they remained in power. However on the other hand it could be due to other factors such as the Sovnarkom and the weakness of the White’s. Firstly another reason why the Bolsheviks remained in power was because of their brutality using the CHEKA. This was established by Lenin on the 20th of December 1917. It was used as a secret police force to deal with opposition. The CHEKA used many methods all of which were brutal and included arrests, kidnapping, torture, sending of to labour camps and murder. This meant hat through the CHEKA Lenin could deal with any opposition that could affect his remaining in power. Secondly, One reason why the Bolsheviks remained in power was because of their brutality was due to Trotsky and the red army. For example Trotsky introduced the death penalty for any conscripts who deserted the army. He blackmailed them into doing this by holding their families hostage. This meant that not only did the army hold together but was also being trained by the best people there were around. Meaning this would enable them to have a much better chance of lacking opposition e.g. the white’s. This is a brutal and forceful tactic for the Bolsheviks and it worked. Not only did this lead them to win the civil war but in turn by doing that, the Bolsheviks remained in power. Lastly, another reason why the Bolsheviks remained in power because of their brutality was due to the murder of the royal......

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years 1945

...How far do you agree that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years 1945–55? The impact of the Second World War was, without a doubt, crucial in improving the lives of black Americans over the years 1945-55, as it led to federal support of the cause. However, it wasn’t as important as the use of direct action which, for the first time, was able to convert de jure into de facto change. This, not the War, was therefore the most significant factor in the improvement; achieving something which federal support and the work of civil rights organisations which did not engage in direct action were alone unable to do. The impact of the Second World War was influential in improving the lives of Black Americans because it led to increased federal support of the Civil Rights movement. During the Second World War, approximately 1.2 million black joined the United States armed forces. Their experience in the army allowed understanding the extent to which they were being discriminated against. The hypocrisy of the USA was discovered, a country claiming to be fighting a war of freedom yet oppressed ethnic minorities in their own country. Being sent to Europe, where formal segregation did not exist, the soldiers were able to see what could be achieved from desegregation. African Americans were encouraged to. The War brought significant economic changes to the lives of black Americans. Initially munitions factories......

Words: 1438 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Bolsheviks Consolidated Their Power in the Years After the October/November Revolution Mainly Through the Use of Violence Against Their Opponents

...The Bolsheviks acted in a brutal manner during the year 1917-1924; however this was why they remained in power after the October/November revolution. However their survival can also be attributed to the weakness of their opposition, who displayed a lack of organisation and unification. There were other reasons for the Bolsheviks' remaining in power after the revolution, such as the efficiency and strong leadership of the Bolsheviks, and their geographical advantages; but these were ultimately not as significant as the weaknesses of their opposition, as their survival was dictated by how they exploited their enemies' flaws. The brutal methods of violence employed by the Bolsheviks certainly helped the Bolsheviks to remain in power. The use of the Cheka was one such brutal method; it ensured that the Bolsheviks remained the dominant authority, by suppressing their opponent’s activity through the use of terror. However the Bolsheviks were only able to do this because their opposition was too weak to rebel; the Bolsheviks had gained dominance, while all others were clearly weak and submissive. This meant that the Bolsheviks use of terror only had the effect of making a weak opposition even weaker, therefore this form of brutality was only successful due to an already weak opposition. Violence was also seen as key for maintaining power as the freely elected Constituent Assembly was dissolved at gunpoint in January 1918. This showed that the Bolsheviks were prepared to go to......

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Asses the Reasons Why Lenin and the Bolsheviks Were Able to Seize Power in October 1917

...The Bolshevik seize of power in October 1917 was undoubtedly a turning point for Russia’s political situation and a point that would set the tone for the future rulings. It can be easily argued that the Bolsheviks were only able to take over as a result of the long term weaknesses and failures of the Provisional Government. However, as with all events in history, the final seizure in October would not have been possible had it not been for the more recent, trigger causes. The roles of Lenin and Trotsky, during the later months of 1917, were key factors in allowing the takeover to happen; and the extremely poor decisions and military leadership executed by Kerensky strengthened the Bolsheviks position for revolution. Whilst these short term causes played a major role in October, it cannot be argued that without the weaknesses of the Provisional Government, the Bolsheviks would not have been sitting in power by the end of 1917. The weakness of the Provisional Government was one the most important factors in the Bolshevik takeover in October 1917. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in March 1917, the Provisional Government, formed from some of the previous Dumas, was set up to govern Russia. The new government was weak and unstable from the start, mainly due to whom it was made up of. It was a coalition, if you could call it that, between the Liberals, the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries; and thus the new government had no unity from the start. With each part...

Words: 2132 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Main Reason for the Fall of the Provisional Government Was the Skill and Determination of Lenin in 1917?

...that Lenin's skill and determination as leader of the Bolsheviks was the main reason for the overthrow of the Provisional government. Although, there are significant other factors that contributed to the downfall of the government, such as the weakness the government it in itself possessed, the misjudgment and mistakes it made, and other contributing factors, such as the influential role of Trotsky, which helped impact on the eventual overthrow of the government. Evidence suggests that one of the main reasons for the fall of the Provisional government, was the weaknesses it in itself possessed. For example, the dual authority government can be seen as a weakness because it was not an elected body, and came into being as a rebellious committee of the old duma, refusing to disband at the Tsar's order. This meant it consequently lacked legitimate authority as a result. It had no constitutional claim upon the loyalty of Russian people and no natural fund of good will to rely on, meaning it was judged entirely on how it dealt with the nations problems, making it vulnerable from the start. Its second major weakness was that its authority was limited by its unofficial partnership with the Petrograd Soviet. To begin with there was considerable co-operation between the two, with some people (e.g.- Kerensky) being members of both bodies. The soviet did not set out to be an alternative government, and regarded its role as supervisory, checking that the interests of the people were......

Words: 2202 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the March Revolution of 1917 Was Due to the Failures of Nicholas 2?

...How far do you agree that the March Revolution of 1917 was due to the failures of Nicholas 2? The March Revolution of 1917 brought autocracy in Russia to an end, when ministers of the last Duma forced the Tsar Nicholas 2 to abdicate. The Revolution happened due to the Nicholas's 2 failures due his reign, however there was a number of problems which appeared before Nicholas 2 or happened without the will of Nicholas 2. When Nicholas 2 came to power in 1894, his main objective was to keep all power in his hand, in another words, Nicholas wanted to remain as an autocrat and be the only ruler of Russia. On the other hand, Nicholas 2 wasn't as reactionary as his father, because Nicholas was not prepared to be extreme in dealing with the social and political unrest in the same manner as his father. His weak leadership led to the policies which after worked against the Tsar. The first social reform was done by Nicholas 2 in 1897. It was reform which limited the working to 11,5 hours from Monday to Friday and to 10 hours on Saturday. However, these policy didn't change the attitude of workers against the Tsarist regime, because people still wanted more liberal social system and a new government which Nicholas was not intend to change. This unhappiness caused by the lack of changes or reforms led to the strike in Saint Petersburg by factory workers who were led by Father Gapon in 1905. The strike finished really dramatically, because a lot demonstrators were killed......

Words: 1372 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree the Impact of the Second World War Was the Main Reason Why the Position of African Americans Improved in the Years to 1945-55?

...How far do you agree the impact of the Second World War was the main reason why the position of African Americans improved in the years to 1945-55? I agree thoroughly that the impact of the Second World War was the main reason behind the improvement in the loves of African Americans. There are two other factors which help elevate the position of African Americans after the war these were the Federal Government and the NAACP. The Federal Government can be split into two parts the President and the Supreme Court. Before the Second World War most of the African Americans were working in the south of the country in agriculture. For many they had been born into that life and their parents and grandparents had been slaves. World War two had large impact on the lives of African Americans because it gave a chance for people to start anew. Many people had become tiered of doing hard manual labour every day in the farms. The 1920 and 30s had already seen an increase in the number of black people coming down from the south to the northern and western areas. These areas were considered to be industrial areas. After the war started new jobs were created this meant the demand for workers increased. More black people stated to migrate to the north and west for a job. For many of the black people this could have been a raise in there level of confidence. A crucial part of the employment was in the army, many men had signed up to protect their county. Figures show the migration of black......

Words: 1328 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Was War Communism the Main Reason Why the Bolsheviks Were Able to Remain in Power Between 1918-1924?

...Was war communism the main reason why the Bolsheviks were able to remain in power between 1918-1924? There were many reasons why the Bolsheviks were able to remain in power. Lenin and Trotsky teamwork and leadership gave them a great advantage because they really knew how to control their team. The red army was incredibly stronger than the whites. The red army knew what they were fighting for whereas the whites really didn’t have any idea of what their ambition was. The Bolsheviks also had the central lines, which enabled them to travel all around the country guaranteeing that the red army troops could get all the necessities that they needed. Finally, war communism was also a contributor to why the Bolsheviks were able to remain in power. Although it kept the troops fed and healthy, it had devastating effects on the rest of the public who weren’t soldiers. This caused havoc in Russia, but was unfortunately vital during the Civil War. Lenin and Trotsky were responsible for everything that the Bolsheviks were linked to; Lenin was more based in the organisation and policies of the party. Lenin created and put the War Communism in order, which caused disruption and huge complications in Russia. This caused anger between the peasants, working class and the Bolsheviks. Lenin also solved his own problem, by creating the New Economic Policy. The new economic policy again, created and solved lots of Russia’s problems. Trotsky was more in charge of the military side of...

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Trotsky’s Leadership of the Red Army Was Responsible for the Survival of the Bolshevik Government? (30 Marks)

...How far do you agree that Trotsky’s leadership of the Red Army was responsible for the survival of the Bolshevik government? (30 marks) There were many factors that contributed to the survival of the Bolshevik Government, ranging from Trotsky’s leadership of the Red Army to the failings of the Bolsheviks’ rivals for power. This essay shows that the main reason for the Bolsheviks’ continued survival through the period was not Trotsky’s great leadership of the Red Army, but the opposition’s mistakes and failings. This will be demonstrated by analysing the key factors leading to the survival of the Bolshevik Government: Trotsky’s leadership; Lenin’s leadership; The Bolsheviks’ geographical advantage; and finally the Bolsheviks’ enemies’ misunderstandings. The first key factor that contributed to the Bolshevik Governments’ survival was Trotsky’s great leadership of the Red Army. Trotsky created the Red Army from nothing and by 1919 it contained roughly 400,000 troops rising to 5 million troops by 1921. The Red Army outnumbered all opposition and when directed effectively by Trotsky they were easily able to crush any opposition. Furthermore, all enemy attacks came at different times and so could be put down individually and therefore more easily. Another way that Trotsky showed his good leadership qualities was through his forward thinking: for example, many of the troops in the Red Army were inexperienced and so Trotsky “recruited” officers from the Tsar’s army and kept them in...

Words: 1461 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Why Were the Bolsheviks Able to Seize Power Without Widespread Popular Support?

...Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power without widespread popular support? The Bolsheviks came into power for many reasons. The provisional government was now weak, they hadn’t kept the promises they had made and had little support because of the Bolsheviks were basically handed the power. The Bolsheviks were a left wing party however they were not first choice to govern Russia, however the Bolshevik claimed power in the name of the people so didn’t need overall support. The Bolsheviks had suffered a great loss in the July days when they tried to provide leadership as soldiers and industrial works protested against the provisional government, they used the Bolsheviks slogan ‘All power to the soviets’. However the military attacked the pacifist protests and began to repress the Bolsheviks. Lenin went in to hiding whereas the other Bolshevik leaders were arrested, this lead to a temporary decline in Bolshevik power and influence. Lenin and the leaders remained hidden/locked away until Kerensky released them in a response to the Kornilov affair, where the commander and chief of the army attempts to march and army to Petrograd, the Provisional Government have no choice but to release the Bolsheviks that were imprisoned to help prevent the attempted coup. Another of the Bolsheviks slogans was “Peace, Bread, Land”. N the cities many workers were starving as the peasants were hoarding food or fighting in the war. This meant that there want enough food for everyone, the......

Words: 675 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

How Far Do You Agree That the Main Reason for the Survival of Weimar Government 1919 – 1923 Was the Weakness of Its Opponents?

...How far do you agree that the main reason for the survival of Weimar government 1919 – 1923 was the weakness of its opponents? (30 Marks) The reason for the survival of the Weimar Republic can be shifted onto many factors such as the weakness of the opposition. The opposition can be said to be clearly shown through the the Munich Putsch in which there is clear evidence of movements against the government. However, this opposition never managed to over come the army and freikorps who through the Ebert-Groener pact pledged their commitment to support the Weimar Government. However, this may not be the main reason for the governments survival between 1919-1923 as other factors can be said to have influenced the survival of the government such as the accomplishments from Stresemann and Dawes who were the chancellor of Germany and the American budget director respectively. Their joint effort ensured the recovery of the German economy which was collapsing. This work can therefore be said to be a major factor for the survival of the government but to what extent it can be called the main reason must be explored. To an extent it can be argued that the main reason for the survival of the Weimar government in the year 1919-1923 was the weakness of its opponents due to the success the government had in eradicating the multiple attempts to overthrow them, that were attempted in the Munich putsch and the Kapp Putsch. Firstly, the Munich Putsch can be seen as a clear showing of the......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Structure of the Prc Into 6 Regions Was the Main Reason Mao Was Able to Consolidate His Power over China, How Far Do You Agree?

...Mao used various tactics and strategies to be able to consolidate his power over china. He used social, admin, military and political aspects to help him in the process. I do agree that the structure of the PRC in the 6 regions played a huge role in Mao’s consolidation of power but I don’t think it was the main reason. I believe that along with it, other factors were equally as important, such as training people who weren’t members of the CCP to join the government, terror with mass killings, imposed starvation and letting the national capitalists keep their job until he needed them to, so that the system was stable enough for him to control. He also made land reforms and introduced a registration system, which also helped consolidate his power. Mao also extended his political control with the “anti-movements” and the Politburo. The Anti-Movements was a movement against waste, bribery, and inefficiency. It was used as an excuse to getting rid of anybody standing in Mao’s was of ruling. He used to get rid of the people whom he had given jobs to in the beginning, those who weren’t past of the CCP, accusing them of inefficiency. He called these people “the bureaucratic capitalist class”. The Politburo was a circle of twenty leading members of the Communist Party, and the carried the government under the authority of Mao of course. So it was the party that ruled, and not the people. This helped Mao have a better control on the decisions taken for the country and therefore......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

‘the Main Reason Why Edward and Mary’s Religious Settlements Had Limited Success Was Because Their Reigns Were so Short.’ How Far Do You Agree with This Statement?

...‘The main reason why Edward and Mary’s religious settlements had limited success was because their reigns were so short.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Jake Nicholls To an extent I do agree with this statement as Edward a devout protestant took England to the most protestant it has ever experienced this is also the same for Mary who restored the country to papal supremacy. However, due to the rebellion and opposition each of these monarchs received it hindered the complete success of their religious settlements. Edward VI, reigned for a total of six years, however what limited Edward even further is the fact he didn’t even reach the age of majority (which had been reduced to the age of sixteen) by the time of his death in 1553, which significantly reduced his level of religious influence. Perhaps if he reached the age of majority he would have brought in more extreme protestant reforms than those of his regents, this might be explained by his upbringing as his step mother Catherine Parr was a protestant therefore provided him with reformist tutors. This shows that due to his short reign it limited the success of Edward’s religious settlement. Furthermore, Edward’s issue of not providing an heir can be blamed upon his short reign, as he was only fifteen when he died. If he had produced an heir it would have meant that his Religious settlement would have been inherited and it would have been likely his heir would have been brought up a devout protestant,......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Secondhand Spo season 12 episode 15 | Watch Movie | └ Cine, DVD y películas