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Impacts of Migration: Focus on the Philippines

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OUTLINE:
Topic - Impact of Migration: Focus on Philippines
I. Introduction Ia. Defining Migration a.1 Kinds of Migration a.2 Who are Migrants a.3 Factors of Migration a.4 Reasons for Migration
II. Review of Related Literature
III. History of Migration and its Policies III.a. Migration Policies - Critique III.b. Statistics b.1.Number of Migrants b.2.Main destinations b.3.Occupations b.4.Sex b.5.Remittances III.c. Case Study c.1. Flor Contemplacion c.2. Angelo Dela Cruz c.3. Rodelio “Dondon” Lanuza
IV. Impact of Saudization to Filipino OFWs
V. Impact of Migration V.a. Impact of Migration to the Sending State a.1 Positive effects a.2 Negative effects V.b. Impact of Migration to the Receiving State b.1. Positive effects b.2. Negative effects
VI. Implication of the Effects to the Philippines (Actions made to combat negative migration effects)
VII. Implications of Migration to the Youth - Youth Migration
VIII. Migration and Filipino Family Life, Society and Culture VIII.a. Effects on the family of an OFW VIII.b. Migration and Filipino Society
IX. Solving Migration Problems
X. Conclusion

I. Introduction What is migration? According to National Geographic, Human Migration is the movement of people from one place to another for the purpose work or permanent residence in a country either cross boundary or just within the state. There are several types of migration: (1) Internal Migration, which is simply migration happening within a state. (2) External Migration of international migration, which means migration happening cross state boundaries or in simpler terms from one state to another. (3) Step Migration, which is a series of shorter less extreme migration from one’s place of origin to a permanent destination like moving from a village to a town then to a city. (4) Chain Migration is a series of migration happening within a family or defined group of people, where one family member send money to bring other family members to a new place. (5) Population Transfer, Involuntary or forced Migration where a government forces a large group of people out of a region. (5) Impelled Migration or imposed Migration, Individuals are forced out of their country but leave because of unfavorable situation. (6) Return Migration, where migrants go back to their home country voluntarily. (7) Seasonal Migration, where it involves the process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or climate conditions. Another question that we should tackle is who migrates or who are migrants, there are certain categories that they fall into: (1) Refugees, who are people that are forced to leave their homes due to fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social or political affiliation, (2) Asylum Seekers which are people that have fled to another country where they have applied for state protection by claiming refugee status, but have not received a final decision on their application, (3) Development Displaced Persons who are people that have moved as a result of policies and projects undertaken in the name of "development", (4) Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) which are people who are forced to relocate within their own State because of circumstances such as war, civil conflict and political persecution, (5) Foreign Students, they are people who move to benefit from academic programs and opportunities offered by countries and educational institutions, and lastly, (6) Migrant Workers, they are people who work in a state other than their country of origin or nationality. There are two kinds of migrant workers, first is permanent migrants, these are migrant workers who intends to establish their permanent residence in a new country and obtain that country’s citizenship, and the second is temporary contract workers, who are the most common category of documented labor migrants, basically they are allowed to enter a country for a limited period of time or until their contract expires. There are certain reasons that compel migration known as push factors and also other reasons that attract migration known as pull factors. Push factors are the following: Increased armed violence, Ethnic and racial conflict, Development-induced displacement, Economic insecurity, Features of globalization, Environmental degradation, Large-scale corruption, and Denial of democracy, while pull factors are Family decision, To study or get training, To get married, and Social, economic and health benefits. Push factors are more of economic, political, humanitarian reasons that makes people think of migrating to someplace better in order to feel secure and safe while with pull factors people migrate because they think that other countries can bring them a better life, that they will have better income, pull factors are mostly for personal advancement.
II. Review of Related Literature The review of related literature for this study will focus on the importance of interaction between different societies and the social change within societies, why trade with one country can cause economic decline in another and why this becomes an incentive for one to migrate to another country with greener pastures. The review would focus on explaining migration between countries that are geographically far apart and to study the effects of migration to both the sending and receiving state, also to provide solutions to the negative effects in order to maximize gain and minimize loss. The Paper will also try to understand why many decide to take upon the role of being a modern hero (Overseas Filipino Worker), whether they are forced out of the country due to mass unemployment or is it their own freewill, also does our government do something about the mass migration happening or are they simply relying on the OFW’s for economic stability? Why people choose to leave their country instead of serving their own homeland and If a country could provide the needs of its own citizens would the percentage of people choosing to migrate be lessened, this paper will tackle upon the effort of the Philippine government in providing for the Overseas Filipino Workers; this paper will also study the case of Flor Contemplacion, Angelo Dela Cruz and the recent case of Rodelio Lanuza, it will have an in depth case study for these three cases to see whether the government is effective with its third pillar of Foreign Affairs which is assistance to nationals. Most literature focused more on discussing migration effects to the current world, stating that though it has an inevitable cost it is only short term for there is a long term benefit that could be achieved with migration and it varies per country therefore the paper will investigate whether the impact of migration is only short term in the Philippines since most of the papers did not thoroughly discuss the effects it could pose to a specific country. The paper will also focus on the impacts of migration to Philippines and the country where most of our Overseas Filipino Workers go, also how Overseas Filipino Worker’s are treated abroad and if our current policies cater to their needs. Migration is a global phenomenon; UN Findings stated that the number of international migrants around the world has expanded very rapidly over the past decade; 191 million people around the world are now living outside the country in which they were born. (UN High Commission on Refugees, 2005) and those 191 million international migrants represent about 3% of the world’s population (2005) if this is so it means that as of 2005, one person out of 30 is an international migrant thus the increase of human trafficking and exploitation. According to the International Organization of Migration (IOM), there are 2 main reasons why people move out of their home countries, first is the Economic reason where differentials in living standards among countries affect the people and the second one is the Social reason which pertains to Problems of human security in different parts of the world. According to IOM, “People tend to move only when their situation and that of their families fall below a critical threshold of tolerance, below which they no longer perceive possibilities of survival according to local norms of safety, dignity and well-being." To put it simply, when people's basic human needs are not being met in where they live, they see no other option than to look for another place to live. Before discussing the views of different authors we must first know what the difference of emigration is from immigration, emigration is leaving one's country to settle permanently in another, it is the same as immigration but from the perspective of the country of origin. According to Benjamin V. Carino, the author of Impact of Emigration to the Sending Country stated that emigration may either hinder or aid the development of a country, he points out that remittance brought by the migrant workers of the sending state would help its society economically however with migrant selectivity in terms of age and sex imbalance for instance, decreases marriage percentage thus lowering population growth in one country. A country that has a low labor force then suffers the loss, this can be known as brain drain as well for other developed or undeveloped country either these consequences are permanent or just short term effects, immigrant flows influenced by the uneven sex ratios has certain effects that tend to disrupt marriage process like in the Philippines as stated by the Carino. This delayed marriage results to low nuptiality and a high incidence of celibacy, which leads to lower fertility rates and population growth in a country. In Pacific Island countries, there is much evidence that male-dominant emigration has slowed down the birthrate and, in some areas; Emigration has been regarded as one means of family planning (Howard, 1961). Another effect of age and sex imbalance in immigration also affects households in having either the husband or wife do the job of the other or vice versa since the other is working abroad. The author regarding the brain drain phenomena further stated that brain drain may not be so harmful to sending nations if one would take the factors into consideration since like in Philippines or even India, these said countries cannot cater to these unemployed professionals therefore through emigration the country could sort of solve its unemployment and underemployment problem in the country also if a country is overpopulated it could somehow depopulate by emigration. He concluded by stating that the demographic, social, and economic effects of emigration are complex, and that both can be beneficial and detrimental to the sending nation, that there are different levels and types of emigration produce different effects for countries with different socio-cultural, economic, and political structures, and that generalizing the impact of emigration on sending countries is pointless. Luke Martell, the author of The Sociology of Globalization in the chapter six of his book discussed about the effects of migration like Carino did but he focused more on the public and political dissertations in rich countries he focused on immigration rather than emigration unlike Carino who focused more on the effects of emigration economically and socially. Martell stated that citizenship should be constructed to fit migration because the statistics on the scale of migration is not consistent. Carino and Martell have the same views regarding the effects that migration to a state that it can reduce unemployment in the source countries, that migration can increase remittances in the host country and he also saw the problems of labor supply of the source country. He further stated that emigrant workers can also gain skills and access to contacts, capital and markets of benefit to their home country and like Carino, Martell stated that brain drain can have certain benefits as opposed to the negativity most people see, he also mentioned that the work most migrants undertake are those jobs that offer low wages or are low status jobs since most local workers do not want to do those jobs therefore even if migrating to another country solves the problems of unemployment still they are sometimes still underemployed in another country. The author of the citizenship study, Migrant Heroes: Nationalism, Citizenship and the Politics of Filipino Migrant Labor, Robyn M. Rodriguez shares the sentiments of Martel in stating that citizenship should be molded to fit migrants, that for instance, Flor Contemplacion’s execution in Singapore is an example of how migrants’ lack of citizenship rights in their host countries because of a different citizenship, the failure to conform to their host state’s expectations of foreign labor leads to the violence of these states to the migrants. While Filipino migrants suffer consequences as workers in foreign countries, they struggle for better rights in these countries these migrants also fight for their rights as citizens in the Philippines. As opposed to the views of both Martell and Carino, Rodolfo De La Garza thinks that the more one looks at the effects of migration the worse it gets. He states that even though migration stimulate development it does it mainly through remittances since remittances are sufficient enough to have developmental potential but in his view remittances cannot be relied upon to generate economic growth in a country or to solve structural problems like unstable political environment, bad economic policy, insecurity, or corruption. Garza supported his claim by pointing out that there is no evidence that remittances stimulate national economic development even though it makes a positive contribution to a family however there is no conclusive evidence that it helps the society by creating business enterprises that would not continue to depend directly or indirectly on remittance flows to remain feasible in sustaining the community even in the absence of continued migration and remittance. Garza further stated that from a cost-benefit perspective, claims regarding the positive impact of migration on development are either exaggerated or wrong that on the other hand, the overall loss that countries experience strongly suggest that migration is not only a drain on the economy, but it generates additional social long-term costs that can destabilize the society due to the large sum that migrants send back to their home country, that even though governments of the sending country see remittances as a major source of foreign capital it promotes the mindset of avoiding the difficult task of institution building and strengthening that is essential to development. In other words, rather than generate development, migration probably exacerbates the economic, social and political problems that provoke migration in the first place. Unless state leaders confront this reality, they will never escape it. These authors contesting views are indeed very insightful, there are some that I agree with and some to which I disagree to. With respect to the views of Carino and Martell, brain drain does have some positive effects however it is only minimal, although many looks at brain drain as something negative, I think that it depends on one’s view of things whether they are positive or negative, in short how it affects a country goes both ways but then I think that the negative effects portrays more in Philippine society, it is true that it diminishes the problems of unemployment and also the problem of overpopulation and the remittances do help the economic stability, Philippines still loose its professionals to other states, instead of utilizing these skilled professionals other countries are the ones using them, in fact in the middle east have brilliant architectures now, most of their engineers are Filipinos if one would think about it what if these OFWs are utilized by Philippines itself. I agree with the view of Garza that the government tends to rely on remittances and thus disregard improvement of its political structures also due to the unstable political environment, bad economic policy, insecurity, or corruption. The government should not only rely from the help outside of its country however it must also work internally to be able to improve, although Migration helps to stabilize a country’s economy it still causes economic problems to both the sending and receiving state, in order to minimize the cost, the sending country must be able to cope to the needs of its citizens, not rely on remittances for economic stability, and make the youth realize the importance of working in their home country.
III. History of Migration Philippine Migration history started with the first stream of Filipino migrants they are the Filipino-Mexicans or Mexicans with Filipino descent or in simpler terms they are Mexican citizens who are descendants with Filipino origin. The actual population count of Filipino-Mexicans is not known, but there is an estimate of about 200,000 in 1998. They are found mostly in communities in Michoacán, Guerrero and Colima. The First Wave of Filipino-Mexicans started 1565-1815, when Filipinos arrived in Mexico during the Spanish colonial period when the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade was flourishing. That time, many Filipinos and Mexicans sailed to and fro from Mexico and Manila as sailors, crew, slaves, prisoners, adventurers and soldiers in the Galleons. They were assisting Spain in its trade between Asia and the Americas. Some of these sailors never returned to the Philippines and most of them settled in and got integrated into the Mexican society. In the late 19th and early 20th century, some Filipinos came to Mexico as refugees from Spain during General Francisco Franco’s dictatorship and these Filipinos were descendants of Filipino and Filipino mestizo settlers who entered Spain after the Spanish-American war during 1898 to 1900, smaller waves of Filipino also emigrated to Mexico after the Philippines was annexed by the United States after the war. About 20,000 Filipino farm laborers and fishermen arrived to work in the Mexican west coast - in Baja, California; Sonora, and Sinaloa, some awaited to enter the US to reunite with family members in Filipino-American communities in California, and elsewhere. Mexican immigration law continues to grant special status for Filipinos; from 1970 to 2005 about 100,000 Filipinos migrated to Mexico. Today, newly arrived Filipinos (in Mexico) are overseas or contract workers who went to Mexico to obtain employment. The second stream of Filipino migrants are the Filipino-Americans, the First Wave was from 1763 to 1781, during 1763 Filipino seamen or known as the Manila men in Acapulco crossed the Gulf of Mexico to Bataria Bay in Louisiana, USA and established a series of Philippine-style fishing villages. These seamen were the ones who pioneered the dried shrimp industry in America. In 1781, Antonio Miranda Rodríguez, a Filipino and his eleven-year-old daughter were sent by the Spanish government from Mexico to settle in Pueblo de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles de Porciúncula, later known as the city of Los Angeles, they ended the first wave. The second wave was during 1906 and 1935. In 1906, after the US had gained control of the Philippines and brought 15 Filipino farmers from the Ilocos Region to work in the sugarcane and pineapple plantations in Hawaii, this then led to the passing of Act No. 2486 in 1915 under the American controlled Philippine Legislature, which created a commission to protect the welfare of the first Overseas Filipino Workers. In 1924 and 1928, Act No. 3148 and 3957 was amended to further regulate recruitment agencies. The large movement of Filipino workers from Ilocos continued until the Great Depression in the US in 1929 but when the workers’ union went on strike in 1924, the American government in Hawaii banned the hiring of Filipinos. This forced Filipinos to move to California and other states. From 1906 to 1930, A total of 120,000 Filipinos were living and working in the US and was regarded as US nationals but on the other hand, the Tydings-Mcduffie Act of 1934, which proclaimed Philippine independence from US colonization reclassified Filipinos as aliens. The law did not only discriminated Filipinos in the US but it also deprived them to work legally in the United States, the bill also established a quota of 50 Filipino immigrants per year. As a result, many Filipinos left Hawaii in 1924 however Filipino presence in Hawaii continues to be significant. In 1994, Ben Cayetano, who was the first Filipino to hold public office in Hawaii and in the whole USA as Hawaii's fifth governor was reelected in 1998. Some Filipinos in this first wave of emigration to the US mainland went to work in the farms of California and canneries of Alaska. In California, Filipino workers became active union members of the United Farm Workers. The Union became famous for its 1965 Delano, California, grape strike. Part of second wave of Fil-Ams are the Pensionados or scholars, during 1903, 100 students were sponsored by the US government to study in different high schools and universities in the US through the Pensionado Act 834 of 1903 during the time of Gov. Gen. William Howard Taft. One of these scholars was Jorge Bocobo who later became President of University of the Philippines. Third wave of Filipino migrants was just before World War II, it was during 1939 until 1960’s, the third wave of emigrants traveled to the US mainland mostly to join the US Navy as noncitizens. Many of them are now US citizens and residents of San Diego, CA. The fourth wave of Fil-Ams was After World War II and during the Cold War which was from 1947 to 1965, During the Cold War (1947 – 1960s), Filipino migration was encouraged by the U.S. to show to the Soviets the attractive values of democracy being sponsored by the US. Filipinos then migrated to Guam starting in 1947 to work as teachers and engineers, Filipino students were granted scholarships to study in American high schools and universities, they came back to the Philippines and later went back to live permanently in the US. Fifth wave of Fil-Ams was from 1965 up to the present, Stimulated by the passage in 1965 in the US Congress of the Immigration and Nationality Act that removed the 1924 national origins quota system, this wave of migration has been characterized as the "brain drain" wave because of the high numbers of Filipino professionals like nurses and medical doctors that moved to the United States, Filipino-Americans make up 2.4 million (20%) of the 11.9 million Asian Americans in the U.S. (in 1998). Fil-Ams are the second largest Asian subgroup in the US, closely trailing the 2.7 million Chinese-Americans in the U.S. There were 927,000 Fil-Ams in the US between 1981-1987, 47% of them are in California (based on 1998 data). In 1999, 1.5 million foreign born Filipinos living in the US, 61 percent were naturalized citizens. Filipino-Americans are most notably visible in Hawaii (24%), Guam (40%), Alaska, California, and Nevada. In 2012, there are more than 4 million Fil-Ams in the US, many are qualified to vote in U.S. elections, and most of them are professionals and highly educated persons. The first Filipino migration to Hawaii in 1906 paved the way for continued migration of Filipinos to the US, it gave opportunities to Filipinos for self-advancement, economically and socially, it also showcased the virtues of industry, determination and excellence of Filipinos. The third stream of Filipino migrants started in the Oil Boom in 1960’s and Migration to the Middle East, recruitment of Filipino engineers, architects and construction workers to work in the oil fields and infrastructure projects in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, also a lot of other Arab countries. Filipino women were also recruited as nurses, caregivers and domestic helpers. Migration continued up to the present. From 1960’s to the 1990’s or the Present, Increased diaspora and new destinations are evident, there are increased demand for nurses and other medical professionals in Europe (UK, Germany, France, Switz., etc.), demand for professionals in banking and finance in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, demand for factory workers and domestic helpers in Hong Kong and Taiwan, demand for entertainers in Japan, Taiwan, other countries in Asia and Middle East, demand for various kinds of professionals in Australia and New Zealand, demand for factory workers, teachers, IT professionals in South Korea, and lastly demand for seafarers by the shipping industry of Japan, Greece, Norway, UK and others. As of 2010, there are more than 8 million OFW’s both legal and illegal in 186 countries in the world.
III.a. Migration Policies – Critique According to Attorney Romeo T. Capulong, ad litem judge of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), there should be no differentiation of distinction between legal migrant workers to the illegal ones, whether they may be irregular or regular, also the policies must also apply to immigrants, refugees, asylum seekers and stranded persons. We are now living in a world where people are free to travel, to work or to live in another country aside from their own state, people have the human right to choose where they want to go. Human rights is one of the fundamental law preserved and protected by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) also by other international and regional institutions but to millions of people in countries like the Philippines, this basic right is simply not relieved. In reality, because of the conditions of poverty and unemployment, many choose to migrate to other countries everyday because of having no other choice but they feel the need, the desperation to survive. According to the United Nations and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), they estimated that there are now more than 150 million persons who live outside their countries of origin as migrants and refugees. This means that one in every 50 human being or 2.5% of the total population of the world is a migrant worker, a refugee, an asylum-seeker or an immigrant living in a foreign country. IOM further predicts that the total number of international migrants will reach 250 million by year 2050. The statistics however only include documented or legal migrants, undocumented migrants that are due to human trafficking, overstaying and such are hard to keep track of and it is proving to be difficult. About 10% of the 74 million Filipinos are migrants and immigrants scattered in 181 countries. This means that there are only eight countries in the world where there are no Filipinos, 20% of our population is directly dependent upon the incomes of Filipinos working abroad. The Philippine government used this as a chance to ease the unemployment problem and earn remittances to improve its balance of payments position and to neutralize internal social tensions. Despite some limitations and constraints in organizing them, some experts have advanced the view that it is now time to consider migrant workers as a distinct sector or labor force. As migration becomes more common, Studies and documentation on the human rights conditions of migrant workers shows common problems and violations migrants encounter, Migrant workers are often victims of deceit, fraud or misrepresentation committed by illegal recruiters. Contract substitutions, excessive fees, promise of non-existent jobs, human trafficking and human smuggling are common practice. These violations are often committed through conspiracy of the violator with corrupt officials of the sending government. If one would study the procedure of recruitment, one would notice the helplessness of migrant workers in the system, they used by the government to solve its economic and political problems. The violations will only keep on intensifying if the government continues to rely on the labor export program to solve their unemployment problems to neutralize the internal political crisis happening. While the migrant’s human right is violated in the recruitment process, the bigger problem awaits them in the receiving countries. They become victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and other forms of human rights abuse and intolerance. They are discriminated and exploited by their employers and are asked to work long hours without overtime pay if they are paid, they are given low wages often without medical, welfare and retirement benefits, in short they are denied of their basic human rights under international and domestic laws and subjected to various forms of discrimination. They are often assigned to types of work avoided by the nationals of host countries. Even with the contribution they give to the economy of the receiving state, they are maltreated. Migrant workers are denied access to judicial administration. The laws and policies of the receiving government often provoke the lack of judicial access to the migrants, they tend to protect their nationals and discriminate against migrant workers by denying due process to them. According to Attorney Romeo T. Capulong, legal solution however is illusory. In protecting people from being exploited policies have been made and is enshrined in the legal systems which is now found in international and regional instruments to protect all migrants whether refugees, illegal’s, legal documented migrants, displaced persons and so on but how effective are these laws in protecting them. There are a number of organizations and institutions that are protecting migrant worker rights, this include Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), UN Protocol Against Trafficking in Persons – Especially Women and Children or Trafficking Protocol, UN Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air or Migrant Smuggling Protocol and others spearheaded by the International Labor Organization. These institutions show that as early as 1949 international organizations, International Labor Organization (ILO) recognized the problems that migrants would encounter and thus adopted instruments to solve such issues. Principal among such measures are international treaties, which are in varying ratification status and degrees of acceptability and implementation. If one would, a reading of these instruments will show that the problems of migrant workers in terms of process, such problems happen right at the recruitment stage in the sending country and the problem intensifies as the migrant worker reaches the workplace and begins to live in the receiving country. For him, It is an error to think that these laws and instruments will be implemented or complied with in accordance with their letter or express provisions that it will be worse if we are to rely on the legal provisions or in the legal forum alone to effectively protect or promote the rights of migrant workers. He thinks that the legal advocate and the organizer must work together and use their skills, commitment and dedication to raise social awareness, develop unity and militancy and eventually rely on mass and protest actions to achieve their goals, in short one must also work together with legal instruments and spread awareness to people in order to help solve the issues migrants are experiencing. Attorney Romeo T. Capulong showed his point in stating that international instruments are not as effective as expected, I corroborate his view in the policies and laws enshrined in organizations are not as effective as their policies claim, there are still migrants exploited by their employers, many still suffer these common issues that the organizations are supposed to solve and that most of the time problems occur even before leaving the country. Illegal recruiters and human traffickers are one of the main problems that are encountered, it is very hard to solve such problem when people get fooled by them thinking that they offer simpler steps to going abroad and thus suffer irreversible effects. I think that people should work together with the international organizations to promote social awareness for people to go through the correct legal process even though there are many steps and requirements one should undergo. It is always better safe than sorry. These legal institutions could be more effective if people are aware.
III.b. Statistics
b.1.Number of Migrants with contracts The table shows that there are more and more Filipinos going abroad every year, from 2008 to 2012 there is a constant increase of people going abroad as Overseas Filipino Workers. As stated by the UN High Commission on Refugees, there are approximately 191 million persons living outside their countries of origin in 2005, and by 2010 this number had increased to an estimated 214 million (IOM 2010). As shown in the table, one could predict that it would continue to increase in the upcoming years, which would gradually result to mass migration if the government does not take action in trying to limit migration in order to minimize the negative effects migration brings.
b.2.Main destination This table shows that Middle East Countries are still the top destination of Filipinos because of the improved financial package being offered by most companies in the Middle East that attracts professionals or highly skilled workers.
b.3.Occupationsb.4.Sex
b.5.Remittance

III.c. Case Study
c.1. Flor Contemplacion In order to earn more money to support her family as well as to escape poverty in the Philippines, Flor Contemplacion left Philippines and went to Singapore to work as an Overseas Filipino Worker. She was well treated by her employer however a tragic incident happened and she was charged with murdering a fellow Filipina domestic worker Delia Maga and the 3-year old son of Maga’s employer Nicholas Huang. Flor admitted to committing the murders but later she took back her previous statement in saying that she made the confession under pressure. Before her execution, Moreover, a Filipina testified that Huang, an epileptic, died in accidental drowning inside the bathroom and Maga was allegedly murdered by the boy's father, in which gave another angle to the murder of Delia Maga as the statements have pointed to Huang’s father as the one who killed Maga. Virgia Parumog who had shared a cell with Flor and stated that she had evidence of her innocence. It quoted Parumog’s affidavit as saying Flor told her that Delia immediately phoned her employer about the incident. Her male employer immediately rushed home, the employer strangled Delia’s neck due to anger and then proceeded to call the police and implicated Flor in the double murder however her statement was denied by the Singaporean government stating that it was “pure fabrication” therefore after a hasty trial, the Singapore government finds Flor guilty and sentences her to death by hanging. A doctor who saw the victims' bodies claimed the crime could only have been done by a strong man and not by the then 38-year-old woman like Flor. Some of her inmates stated that she was made to admit the crime after the police drugged, beat, electrocuted, and tied her to a chair and did not give her food. Pleas for justice was unheard, the Singaporean government also known as the police state, did not allow the substantial evidence to enter into the trial, even the appeals of President Fidel Ramos was not heard. Filipinos feel sympathy for her and refused to believe that she was guilty. A national movement appeals to the Singapore government for mercy and justice by requesting for further investigation that would allow time to prove her innocence, her execution sparked protests among many Filipinos who staged rallies outside the Singapore Embassy in Makati City. They believed Flor was framed however the Singaporean government remained resolute in their belief that Flor is guilty as charged. Flor was executed in March 17, 1995. Following the death of Flor Contemplacion, Republic Act 8042 or Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 was enacted by the Ramos Administration, these laws aims to protect and help Overseas Filipino Worker’s. The problems of working overseas however did not stop, 16 years after Contemplacion's demise approximately 121 Filipinos leave the Philippines every hour to work abroad and many of them also suffer Contemplacion's fate amid the Philippine government's aggressive labor export policy. The Case of Flor Contemplacion had a great impact to Philippines as a labor exporting country, in a way that it influenced every succeeding administration to be sensitive to the matters of OFWs, Philippines declared state policy wherein it would do everything humanly possible wherever and whenever the lives of OFWs are in danger, however with this attention given to the OFWs one should not only be acting to crisis but should be active in re-structuring the economy and re-orienting the culture so that people would no longer need to go abroad in order to just earn a living. it also impacted Singapore in a way that this helped the media to be more sensitive in reporting cases involving foreigners; As Assistant Professor Alan Chong stated, Singapore media became more sensitive, the way the government handles cases now is different, that it is not only in court but also in public and judicial processes in Singapore was made to be more transparent nowadays.
c.2. Angelo Dela Cruz The same with all other Filipinos who just wanted to earn a living due to poverty in the Philippines, Angelo Dela Cruz who is a father of eight children went to work overseas to provide schooling for his children and the basic needs of his family in 1996. After years of work abroad, his family in the Philippines still lives under very simple conditions. During 2004, Iraqi Islamic Army Al-Walid Corps took him as hostage on July 8, 2004 and threatened the Philippine Government with beheading Angelo if the Philippines did not withdraw their troops from Iraq. The president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was pressured to send the 51- person contingent back home and Angelo Dela Cruz who was a truck driver at that time based in Saudi Arabia was released but this decision was strongly criticized by Washington and other coalition allies. Philippines then banned its citizens from working in Iraq in July 2004 after the abduction of Filipino truck driver Angelo dela Cruz. Even with the risk of suffering the same faith of Angelo Dela Cruz, many still wanted to work in Iraq even with their life in line just to alleviate the suffering of their families. Due to the country’s debt crisis in the mid-1970s, sending workers overseas became official government policy in the Philippines. Approximately eight billion dollars were remitted by Filipino Diaspora making OFWs a significant source of dollars for the debt-ridden government. Almost 2,500 Filipinos leave the Philippines every day as registered OFWs, making the Philippines the largest "exporter" of labor in the world. The Philippine government however offers little support and protection to its overseas workers. Is migration a solution to the problem of unemployment? Can migration serve the long-term interests of the people or there is a looming threat that poses permanent effects?
c.3. Rodelio “Dondon” Lanuza Dondon Lanuza who is an OFW working as an architectural draftsman in Dammam, Saudi Arabia had been convicted with the case of Murder in August 2000 and was sentenced to death by beheading on June 10, 2002 for killing a Saudi Arabian national. He was detained for 12 years in Damman Reformatory Jail and is now waiting for the final verdict. The incident happened on August 10, 2000. Lanuza had gone out partying with friends. An apparent extension of the “for-the-road” practice of young boys had led him to the house of their Arab host. Before the night was over, there was a brawl that happened, Lanuza escaped but the Arab man died. “I was defending my dignity,” he argued, He stated that it was an act of self-defense as the victim was allegedly trying to rape him but he was convicted and sentenced to death. In the last February 2011 the aggrieved family finally forgave him but he has so far been unable to raise the “blood money” required for his freedom, P35 million (3 million rials or over $800,000), with his tireless Internet campaign for justice and assistance, it caught the attention of a Filipino-American businesswoman and philanthropist, Loida Nicolas Lewis as well as a Saudi prince. After 13 long years, Rodelio "Dondon" Lanuza, on September 19, 2013 the overseas Filipino worker who was saved from death row in Saudi Arabia, arrived came back home to Philippines. There are many OFWs that are suffering the same faith as Lanuza, Flor and Dela Cruz but some might not be as lucky as Lanuza was, poverty in the Philippines push some people to work abroad to earn a living to survive however should this continue on in the future? Should people look to other countries for employment? Philippines should cater to the needs of its citizens, relying in remittances for economic development definitely is not the right way to go, even though it helps generate employment in the home country, Philippines should still find another route to improve, further it should improve its policies, strengthen it so that it could protect these modern heroes from suffering in foreign land.
IV. Impact of Saudization to Filipino OFWs Saudization which is Also known as the Nitaqat program is the nationalization initiatives of Saudi Arabia to encourage employment of Saudi nationals it is a short-term response to increasing rate of unemployment in Saudi Arabia, this was pursued in mid 1990s and implemented in June 2011. Nitaqat program literally means “categories” wherein Companies are classified into four color schemes, Premium or Excellent, Green, yellow and red, each color corresponds to how much companies abide to Saudization Law including the benefits and sanctions. The two principal source of law in relations to Saudization are first the Article 26 of the Saudi Labor Law, enacted by Royal Decree M/51 dated 23/81425H that came into force on 23 April 2008 and Resolution No. 50 of the Council of Ministers dated 21/4/1415H on 27 September 1994, there are still number of laws and resolutions that were passed in regards with Saudization. Consultations and workshops are undergoing between the different Ministries of the government in order to improve the program. Companies that adhere to Premium or simply companies that exceed the prescribed Saudization requirements will be able to receive the entitlements and benefits provided by the law these are: Ability to renew employment permits for employees; Ability to apply for visas for expatriates workers once every two months; Ability to obtain new visas for any profession; Ability to change the registered profession of the expatriate workers including jobs exclusively reserved for Saudi nationals however, jobs listed in Resolution No. 50, which are restricted for Saudi nationals, only (HR managers, government liaison officers, receptionists, security guards, cashiers, and recruitment agents), remain so restricted; Ability to recruit expatriates and change their registered professions; Ability to recruit expatriates without requiring them to have completed a two year term with their current sponsor; In circumstances where certain of the company’s government certificate expired, the MOL will continue to provide services to companies for up to one year; and the Ability to recruit expatriates from companies classified as red without requiring a non-objection letter from their current employer. Companies that adhere to Green in compliance with Saudization requirements will be able to take advantage of the following, Ability to renew employment permits for employees, provided that the existing permit is valid for three months; Ability to apply for visas for expatriates workers once every two months; Companies will be granted one working visa following the permanent departure of two expatriates employees; Ability to change the registered profession of the expatriate workers, but not to jobs exclusively reserved for Saudi nationals; In circumstances where certain of the company’s government certificate expired, the MOL will continue to provide services to companies for up to six months; Ability to recruit expatriates from companies classified as red without requiring a non-objection letter from their current employer. Companies classified as yellow are not in compliance with Saudization requirements and will be subject to the following: Ability to renew employment permits for employees; Rejection of the company’s application for new work visas; Companies will be granted one work visa following the permanent departure of two expatriates employees; Inability to change the registered professions of expatriates; Inability to recruit expatriates or transfer their sponsorship; Ability to renew employment permits for employees, provided an employee’s total residency period in KSA is less than six years; Expatriate employees will be able to leave without objection to work for green or premium companies. Lastly companies classified as red are substantially non-compliant with Saudization requirements and will subject to the following: Ability to renew employment permits for employees; Inability to apply for new work visas; Inability to change the registered professions of expatriates; Inability to recruit expatriates or transfer their sponsorship; Inability to renew employment permits; Expatriate employees will be able to leave without objection to work for green or premium companies. What Kind of OFWs will be greatly affected by the Nitaqat Program? Those that are affected are in the Private sector, like Management, customer service, information technology, Engineering, Accounting, Administration, sales human resources, construction, education or trainings and Public nurses. Those that are not affected are Domestic Jobs, like Housekeeping, private nurses, domestic or personal property guard, domestic cook, Concierge, domestic gardener, personal driver, and any of the professions related to personal or household work. The implementation of the program alarmed OFWs in Saudi Arabia and their families in the country, OFWs that fall under the Red Category and don’t manage to find another jobs in the premium and green categories are dismissed and had no choice but to go back in the Philippines. Philippines advised them to mobilize and look for jobs in Premium and Green category and have alternative destinations in mind, Balik Pinay! Balik Hanapbuhay, Sagip Migrante. “The need for labor force of industrialized and developed countries is inevitable. However, the fact that countries are starting to nationalize their employment should be the wake-up call for the Philippines that the country must create jobs inside it. The government should not rely on the developments brought by OFWs in foreign countries and must have the ability and capacity to bring developments that will start inside. The Philippines should have the time in pursuing to develop internally rather than always depend on outside help. It will be good to feel when the development for your own country comes from inside and of course, with the help of foreign factors.” Despite the Saudization or the Nitaqat Program being implemented, the number of Filipinos going to Saudi Arabia is increasing. The dilemma that companies will handle is that they may have a difficult time reaching for employees of accounting firms, banks and other sector that requires skills and abilities. Saudi Arabia will have the difficulty in employing Saudis because they will be hesitant to work under a dangerous and minimum wage conditions. Aside from the program of DOLE “Balik-Pinay! Balik Hanap buhay”, the government must increase the amount of money the OFWs will receive upon returning in the country also, they should offer more varieties of livelihood projects that will showcase talents and nationalism of Filipinos that can create more jobs for the countrymen. These programs being implemented by the government must be monitored for at least twice a year in order to see if the returned OFW succeeded in staying in their home country.
V. Impact of Migration In examining the impacts of migration, one must understand that the decision of a person to migrate involves cost and benefit, sometimes what is good for the migrant may not be good for his country of origin. Therefore a question arises, is migration good for the migrant’s country of origin? The answer lies in whether where the migrant goes and what he does there.
V.a. Impact of Migration to the Sending State
a.1 Positive effects Developing countries obviously benefit from remittances OFWs send home, the unemployment rate is reduced, the Returning migrants bring savings, skills and international contacts back home after their term of contract, the following that was stated can be viewed as the more apparent effects of migration. Migration can help relieve a country from being densely populated, the country can be unburdened with regards to limited resources, and also it could help impoverished regions. Pressure on labor markets can be relieved by migration of certain demographic groups in society, migration could also ease intergenerational tensions. If labor supply significantly exceeds demand, countries with large youth or working age populations experience downward pressure on wages, especially among unskilled laborers. The benefits can include investment, aid, preferential trade policies and even political pressure for reform in the home country, when migration is temporary or circular, or when migrants maintain close ties to their home countries, valuable exchanges of ideas are made possible and the country of origin benefits from the experiences of its migrant in a more modernized society.

a.2 Negative effects There are also disadvantages that the sending state experiences, it gains economic disadvantage through the loss of young workers also it loses highly trained people or professionals, and social problems for children left behind grows up without a wider family circle. The most common cost of migration for the sending state is brain drain or the loss of its highly experienced workers, when migrants are skilled and or highly educated, the sending country the loss and the possible contribution to society of that worker, also the investment made in his education or training, and the potential for him to mentor and teach others. Even unskilled workers who migrate are a loss to their country of origin when one considers the making of an international move requires some financial solvency and entrepreneurship from anyone, the effect of “brain drain” however is severe in many developing states where doctors and nurses are in short supply locally because they have been sent to other states to make up for deficits in developed countries. Potentially valuable political assets are also lost to the receiving country since Most migrants are from poor countries that have poor governance, when the best and brightest leave, they take potential reformist energy and expertise with them. Immigrants in the host countries can act in ways that benefit their countries of origin, they can also act in ways that are destabilizing, for instance when foreign nationals participate in terrorist acts in their host countries can strain relations between those nations and their countries of origin, and it can discredit their home countries.
V.b. Impact of Migration to the Receiving State
b.1. Positive effects George Borjas who is a vanguard of the debate over whether immigration is economically beneficial for the receiving nation, his studies, indicated that overall, immigration has a net positive economic effect, but that such effect is marginal. His study shows that the benefits and the costs of immigration are distributed throughout the economy; Borjas stated that the crux of the argument is not “whether the entire country is made better off by immigration, but about how the economic pie is sliced up.” The receiving state benefits from a flexible workforce, these migrants increase the labor force, particularly for unskilled jobs, which tends to be more seasonal and or sensitive to business cycle fluctuations. A larger workforce means that businesses can increase and decrease employment as needed, gaining and removing workers as labor demands which leads to a more efficient, profitable and more productive economy. A larger workforce drives down wages business owners have to pay to attract workers, moreover when a large potential labor pool exists, companies do not need to make jobs attractive in terms of employment benefits and perks, as well as working conditions. In short business owners save more money on labor costs, immigrants will often work for less money, and their willingness to accept a lower salary impacts the wages of native laborers, with lower labor costs, business owners help drive down the prices of the goods they produce or consumer benefit, lower priced consumer goods benefit migrant and native consumers alike, enabling them to buy goods that might not otherwise be affordable. Since many are in danger of developing dependency ratios in the future meaning the number of people in the workforce to the number of people too young or too old to work, Immigrants are the answer to this problem, as they are usually of working and childbearing age, they keep the population growing, boosting the dependency ratio in a favorable direction. Immigrants add a cultural richness to a society, they bring unique customs and traditions that become part of the multilayered fabric of a nation, a multicultural diverse society is more culturally and intellectually stimulating and more innovative than having a mono-cultural society. Efficiency thus arises by pooling of diverse talent in a geographical center. The growth of cities brings together talent that is highly conducive to innovation thus it increases the economic and social vibrancy of a nation in other words Urbanization tends to accompany internal and international immigration. In analyzing the benefits one could come to the conclusion that the receiving country benefits from the loss of the sending state. Skilled immigrants as well as many unskilled immigrants tend to be entrepreneurial. Immigrants often create jobs and have been shown to be on the forefront of technological innovation, even unskilled immigrants often start family businesses and ventures. Everyone benefits when immigrants fill jobs that are difficult to fill or jobs known as 3D (dirty, dangerous and difficult) since difficult jobs are often disagreeable for native workers even though the economies of developed countries are dependent on these manual labor and service sector jobs, having immigrant labor fill these lower end jobs frees native workers in taking these jobs.
b.2. Negative effects Although It is true that business owners experience gains in profitability from a flexible labor supply they may actually lose in the long run, the reasons is because companies that do not modernize or invest in the productivity of their workers lose their long-term competitiveness in a globalized marketplace. When companies do not improve working conditions, both the native and immigrant laborers suffer, trade unions and worker advocates lose leverage when there is a line of people outside the factory ready to take the job of a dissatisfied or striking worker therefore the even if the workers suffer unfair treatment they could do nothing about it knowing that they could be replaced anytime this then leads to exploitation the migrants encounter. Some of the citizens of the receiving state fears that immigrant populations will alter the religious and socio-cultural foundations of their nation for instance, immigrants are increasingly bringing non-Judeo-Christian religions to Western countries, or Hispanic populations are boosting the membership of the Catholic Church. Some people fear that family practices such as preference for male children in Asian societies may be aided by modern reproductive technologies and alter the gender balance in countries of destination for this population. There are those who raise the issue of immigrants changing national identity and coherence also security concerns are associated with immigration. The presence of large ethnic immigrant interest groups impacts the foreign policy of the host country toward their countries of origin or when host nations are adversely affected when internal conflicts within the home countries follow immigrants to their new homes lastly, urbanization that is associated with migration. Even though host countries gain from immigration, they also experience the costs thus they attempted to limit these negative effects through implementing policies that restrict immigration to those who are most economically productive, despite the host country not being able to seal its borders to the outside world, it can still instigate policies aimed at maximizing the contributions of immigrants while minimizing their undesirable effects.

VI. Implication of the Effects to the Philippines Some scholars because of the reason that remittances or skills transfer have not improved the economy have viewed International Migration as disadvantageous to the Philippines that migration alone cannot provide development in the country. Migration goes both ways, most countries experience benefits as well as costs. A good example that successfully integrated labor export with contracts for overseas construction and engineering projects is South Korea. The overseas employment program of South Korea is also strongly linked with the government’s comprehensive industrialization program that use remittances to finance importation of capital goods in other words it makes good use the remittances brought in by their overseas workers, some countries however are experiencing costs like Jordan for instance, they experienced labor shortage due to excess labor export resulting to importation of workers from a neighboring labor surplus country, while Philippines has not experienced labor shortage, there are certain occupations that are deemed critical. The government provided precaution by prescribing a longer notice of contract termination to allow the airline industry enough time to retrain replacements to prevent brain drain. Philippine labor authorities still face challenges like workplace abuses such as contract substitution, unfair working conditions and exploitation of overseas workers. Labor protection is available in the Philippines, those that ensure minimum standards in salaries and working conditions, however these are inadequate in some of the receiving countries. The government since 1995 created a system to extend legal assistance to migrants and to recognize between the local recruitment agency and the foreign principal its responsibility due to the arising problems they see with regards to migration, this enables abused employees to have access to judicial and quasi-judicial bodies for legal sanctions.
VII. Implications of Migration to the Youth - Youth Migration There are certain risks associated with the opportunities on working conditions and living conditions of a young migrant due to the lack of awareness, youth migration can bring opportunities but there is a risk that leads to situations like labor exploitation and discrimination, thus in order to protect them and ensure human development as well as for them to contribute to the development of both their home and host countries, national policies and programs on youth employment and migration are implemented, it undeniably plays a vital role in minimizing the risks young migrants may encounter and also in gaining benefits they could acquire from migration. These policies and programs thus protect the motivation and contribution of young migrants to economic and social development of both sending and receiving states. According to Secretary Rosalinda Baldoz of Department of Labor and Employment, National Statistics Office data stated that there are at least 18.22 million young Filipinos aged 15-24 as of 2010, where 6.82 million are employed, while 1.46 million are unemployed, thus there are at least 35 percent of young migrants abroad. Due to the increasing rate of youth migration and the reason that many young people tend to join their migrant parents overseas thus exposes them to risks associated to migration, The Department of Labor and Employment responded to this and implemented a program for youth employment and migration, the “Alternatives to Migration: Decent Jobs for Filipino Youth," which aims to improve youth employment and migration policies while increasing access of poor youths to decent work.

To be able to find a decent job a young migrant must be equipped with good education the case however is that young people lacks educational attainment and experience because of poverty in the country. There is thus the need to help the Filipino youth to finish school and pursue either a technical vocational course or enter a university. Quoting Secretary Rosalinda Baldoz, “I call on the private sector to engage pro-actively in strengthening employment opportunities for young people by promoting entrepreneurship, supporting technical vocational training, adopting apprenticeships and on-the-job training programs to address the issues of youth employment and migration." Speaking of lack of education, Unemployment is another age-old problem that Philippines still experiences until the present, many young professionals who have ambitious career aspirations find that they could not find employment and then realize that they cannot attain success in their home countries thus they result to finding their career abroad where they believe they could get their ambitions being fulfilled, this is a very serious complex problem what then is a possible solution to slightly alleviate this problem and if youth migration is inevitable then what can the government do to protect them from being exploited? I think the process of immigration, from the pre-deployment stage should brief young migrant workers for them to be aware of what they may encounter, encourage them to help contribute to their home country, that their workplace is for experience purposes to gain and bring it back to their home country that the skills they learn from abroad would serve as help to their fellow countrymen at home. Host governments with worker-training schemes must ensure a good monitoring system so that host employer-trainers do not commit abuses, in short the government should introduce awareness-building modules that migrant employment is a technology and skills learning opportunity; a mechanism to certify the work experience of irregular workers can be offered to alleviate their situation, also encourage migrants to follow the proper process to prevent illegal recruits and human trafficking from happening so that there could be effective monitoring to prevent abuses, this proposed solution however is not enough to solve this complex problem but it is an initiative to start solving this problem since this problem is formed by interconnected small problems that led to this major problem, thus these small problems must first be solved in order for progress to be made.
VIII. Migration and Filipino Family Life, Society and Culture Family is regarded as the basic institution of the society where an individual starts honing values and begins ones social activities as a human. Family is in short a universal and a significant element in an individual’s life. Family exists because there is no other social unit that can fulfill the vital functions that the family plays in the society. The reason for migrants working overseas is to “keep the family” and improve their lives. One of the primary reasons why parents choose working abroad is the differentials in living standard of Philippines from the rest of the world, there will be a vacuum in terms of who will substitute for what has been departed by a migrant, the creation of a cold relation, between husbands and wives, could lead to misunderstanding and escalate to marital separation due to prolonged separation and lack of communication, while the migrant in the family helps to improve the family’s life still the additional burden is left to the remaining members of the family, the separation of families, prolonged and reunification is uncertain, has been one of the factors that results to degrade in marital relations and the thing that a lot of them do not want to happen is the disintegration of the family.
VIII.a. Effects on the family of an OFW Migration affects the family that is left behind. Children wanted their father to work overseas letting their mother stay by their side since mothers assume both productive and reproductive roles because when their father is in Philippines, they will always be invited to have drinking sessions with bystanders and other friends. Some migrant children said their fathers are like stranger to their houses because they are not staying in the house longer enough rather than going outside and spending quality time with friends, their father’s appearance is like a belt - tightening for the family for they will always make drastic cuts in allowances that could make them stop going to school. When mothers are the migrants, their flight automatically leaves the reproductive role of taking care of their children to their husbands or might as well transfer it to other female relatives or hired caretakers. They maintain their dual household meaning their own family and the family, which they work for. Children tend to be more affected by the absence of their mother, they tend to obtain lower academic ratings and are predisposed to common illness like colds, cough, headache, stomachache, and loss of appetite also children who’s mothers are abroad are more likely to have fewer sleeping hours. The mother’s absence cause pre-school children to feign indifference and to withdraw their affection from the biological to the surrogate mother. The ones who are the most affected by the mother‘s absence were children aged 6-16 years because of their emotional attachment to their mother, in addition, this age group tends to become indecisive and to display deviant behavior, borne out of their resentment towards their mother. Some children are enrolled in private schools as to assure the quality of education that migrant’s child would have many positive traits for those who replace their parents’ hardships, those that would think of how hard their parents work would try to repay back their parents through studying hard while some might result to children turning to drugs, teenage pregnancies, loss of self esteem or may experience having low decision making skills, undesirable personality traits of children as they grow up, including the traits of being spoiled and having materialistic values, they may have lack of collective identity, focus, rootedness, and patience while they are longing for acceptance, affirmation, attention, and clear set of values, a great feeling of loneliness because of their parents absence and because they may not be harnessed enough they may also become less socially adjusted.
VIII.b. Migration and Filipino Society The children of migrants remain good as to establishing good relations with other families and the friendly atmosphere boost as their family to other families remains intact, friends of these interviewees tend to become the best companion in times of sadness and difficulties. Children would point out their families as the common source of happiness, in terms of their access to social support, all of the children interviewed had access, namely, their friends, teachers, siblings, mother or father, to social support when it tackles problems relating to school requirements, concerns with teacher, and classmates. A family that has a migrant are viewed as well off families and, in turn, relatives seeks financial needs to them, regarding hospitalization of a relative, graduation of a cousin, wedding or even birthday of a neighbor, conflicts arise in community as a result of jealousy and this is true in Philippine context. Boys, regardless of who is abroad, are the most abused and are experiencing violence rather than the girls, they become vulnerable in number of violence, may it be in forms of verbal, hurt, intimidation, or other kinds of abuses. The transmission of values, which is done by the family members, is also in the dangerous side, the bond that keeps the family alive is also at stake since some members are not present in the family. The family of the migrant tends to be more optimistic and have an established good relation with God, they pray for the guidance and care of their loved once abroad and little bit of prayer for themselves. Most children accept migration of their parents as an opportunity to live a better life. They only see the “money equivalent” of migration. They mostly invest in durable goods and they see education is their first priority, In a radio program From Saudi with Love, almost 80% of the contents of conducted free calls between couples and relatives deals principally on the discussion of issues pertaining to money, some children have started to become “the Richie rich kid” of the town, they no longer think about managing their money and allocating it on special and important matters. One of the unique characteristics of a family is that it is the setting of the most intense emotional experiences during the lifetime of an individual such as birth, puberty, marriage and death. Migration is seen as the only thing that would survive family from poverty; the remaining relatives or their neighbors tend to become the second guardians of these children of migrant worker. The role played by the friends of these children is also vital, children of migrant workers have acquired set of values that may vary according to the importance gave by these children to the hardships of their parents. In conclusion, Proper and strict implementation of programs migration-related agencies of our government should be improved, the government should promote why our migrant needs to work abroad and the benefits we can derived from it, it should also unite and become active not only in caring for the families that are left behind but also in protecting the rights of migrant workers abroad.
IX. Solving Migration Problems Governments and citizens of industrialized countries face one of the most pressing problems which is irregular migration that brings about problems such as illegal entry, fake marriages, overstaying temporary admissions, abuse of asylum systems and the difficulty of removing unsuccessful applicants. At the present, migration has both been a benefit as well as a cost for both the sending and receiving countries, this is highlighted in poor sending countries and the richer receiving countries, today the world is more interconnected than ever, due to globalization, commodities, money and information flow freely through national boundaries, although industrial countries promote easier flow of capital, goods and services which they supply, at the same time they restrict the movement of labor, which comes mainly from developing countries, in which the developing countries view as a double standard since labor is an important factor in the production of goods and services. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that Migration brings with it “many complex challenges,” The issues include human rights, economic opportunity, labor shortages and unemployment, brain drain, multiculturalism and integration, and flows of refugees and asylum seekers. Policy makers also struggle with issues of law enforcement. “We cannot ignore the real policy difficulties posed by migration, but neither should we lose sight of its immense potential to benefit migrants, the countries they leave and those to which they migrate.” Says Mr. Kofi Annan. Due to the labor shortages, expanding global economy and long-term trend of ageing populations, many industrial countries is in need of migrants, these countries face shortages in highly skilled areas such as information technology and health services, as well as in manual jobs in agriculture, manufacturing and construction, as a result many ignore irregular migration since it fills in the jobs locals do not want to take on. Since there is rising national unemployment, there are limits to the number of migrants they can take, countries of the European Union, for example, have a growing number of “underutilized” workers, who are either unemployed or forced to work part-time. In France and Italy, the rate of underutilized labor that reached 21 per cent in 2004 thus receiving countries are becoming more selective about the migrants they are willing to take in, opting mainly for those with skills or capital to invest, on the other hand, developing countries are demanding more open policies, they view migration as offering an opportunity to reduce unemployment, earn revenue through the remittance of workers’ earnings, and import skills, knowledge and technology through the returning residents, however they are also concerned about losing skilled workers to the receiving countries, a process referred to as the brain drain. Referring to the above mentioned, most people who seek to migrate are pushed by circumstances in their home countries such as War, poverty and persecution, which prompts people to become refugees, asylum seekers and labor migrants. In most emigrant-producing countries, jobs are scarce or salaries are too low, forcing people to seek opportunities elsewhere, therefore in times of peace, governments can stem the flow of citizens seeking to leave by creating jobs. Although there are many solutions to the negative effects of migration, there is no “one-size-fit-all solution” that could solve all these problems. Many developing countries maintain freer migration since they think that this is a quick way of increasing their benefits from globalization but the real challenge is to develop policies that are acceptable to both industrial and developing nations and that will encourage global economic growth. In the Philippines, with a fast-growing population, is not able to provide sufficient jobs to reduce poverty despite high economic growth, and its education system cannot meet the skills requirements of growing industries. Some 1.46 million young people were unemployed in 2010, half of them with secondary school educations and 40 % with college degrees. 2.3 million more are in vulnerable employment, with inadequate earnings and lack of social protection. In the search of decent work, many young Filipinos move from rural to urban areas, with some opting to go overseas. In order to tackle this problem, the “Alternatives to Migration: Decent Jobs for Filipino Youth" also knows as Joint Program on Youth Employment and Migration (JP-YEM), initiated a three year program developed by United Nations Country Team Agencies (International Labor Organization, International Organization for Migration, UN Children’s Fund, UN Population Fund). This program supports Philippines’s vision of a productive and competitive youth. The program aims to improve youth employment and migration policies and implementation of these policies through the full participation of our stakeholders, and increase the access of poor young women and men to decent work. According to Baldoz, the joint program will initially provide direct services to four provinces, namely Masbate, Antique, Maguindanao, and Agusan del Sur since these provinces have high incidences of poor out-of-school youth, low enrollment rates, and where Millennium Development Goals are least likely to be achieved. Among other initiatives, the program has provided training and materials on entrepreneurship, life skills and safe migration to teachers, out of school youth, local partner organizations and thousands of secondary schools. Hundreds of at-risk high school students have been given educational subsidies to reduce dropout rates in public schools. Four pilot Model Mechanisms to channel remittances for local enterprises were developed among former Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) and families left behind. Capacity building and linkage activities were provided to returning migrants and families, including training and support for enterprise development initiatives to nearly 150 OFWs, the program has increased access to decent work for poor young men and women. Four Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Fora were conducted which resulted in 115 partnership agreements and 115 commitments made by public and private sectors to provide on-the-job training and post training services for 2,000 youth.
X. Conclusion In order to solve migration problems, the country must focus on the complex factors of migration that contribute to the negative effects: uneducated citizens, unemployment that force citizens out of the country, poverty, brain drain, mindset of the youth, national development, economic development without sacrificing its citizens, procedures in immigration, illegal recruits, abused migrant workers and many more. In short, nitty-gritty factors must first be dealt with in order to solve this larger problem, there is no comprehensive solution in solving a complex problem like migration, one should look at the factors affecting it first before looking at the larger picture, the joint program can slightly alleviate this problem however it would take more than this to tackle the problem of mass migration. There is no “one size fits all solution” in any of the problems, thus a country must find its own solution, a solution that is compatible to its national, political, and economic policies. As stated in the Country Migration Report of the Philippines 2013 by IOM (International Organization for Migration) and SMC (Scalabrini Migration Center), “In improving the conditions for national development, the most important policy decisions to benefit overseas labor are not directed to the migrants themselves but to the country in general.” There should be better coordination among government agencies and better training of migration officers. Systematic and periodic consultation among all stakeholders, in the line of the recently started Overseas Land based Tripartite Consultative Council, should be ensured. Migrants are a resource, not a problem. Efforts should be made to provide them and their organizations adequate capacities. To give migration a better chance to contribute to development, its potential at the local level should be maximized. The connections with the Filipino diaspora should be strengthened, facilitating the formation of business communities among permanent migrants. The diaspora should be informed about development projects in the Philippines and development opportunities should be inserted in the bilateral agreements. Finally, for the management and study of migration improvements should be fostered concerning migration data, beginning with homogenization of definitions, classifications and procedures, to continue with better equipment and training, and common policies and procedures for sharing data among government agencies. It is also desirable to undertake a national survey on migration.

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...http://www.pakjas.com.pk IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION ON SOCIAL PROTECTION OF MIGRANTS FAMILIES LEFT BEHIND IN AGRARIAN COMMUNITIES OF DISTRICT TOBA TEK SIGNH, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN Izhar Ahmed Khan1,*, Sadaf Mahmood1, Ghulam Yasin2, Babar Shahbaz3 1 Department of Rural Sociology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Sociology, B. Z. University, Multan, Pakistan; 3Department of Agri. Extension, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. * corresponding author’s e.mail: izhark99@yahoo.com The people living in one part of the world basically moved to other parts for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi-permanent residence, usually across a political boundary. People migrate with the hope of improvement of living conditions of their families left behind. This study aims to explore the impact of international migration on the families left behind in the agrarian communities of district Toba Tek Singh of the Punjab province. Multistage sampling technique was used for the purpose of data collection. One tehsil from Toba Tek Singh district was selected through simple random sampling technique. Four union councils from out of 32 union councils and 30 respondents from each union council were selected. Convenient sampling technique and Snowball sampling technique was used in the selection of a sample of 120 respondents (wives of migrants). A strong positive relationship was found between migration and socio-economic......

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A Literature Review on Migration

...of Contents Table of Contents Migration Research Objective Introduction: ..................................... Part I Internal and International Migration 1. Linkages between Internal and international Migration 2. Characteristics of Migrants 3. Causes of Migration 4. Phases of migration Part II Temporary and Permanent Migration 1. Distribution of Egyptian migrants according to skill level 2. Distribution of Egyptian migrants according to Destination 3. Economic Effect of Migration 4. Impact of Migration 4.a. on the Labor Supply of Adults Left Behind 4.b. and remittances on household poverty 5. Remittances at micro-level 6. Remittances at macro-level 7. Remittances and Development 8. Volume of Remittances 9. Impact of remittances on poverty alleviation 10. Brain Drain/Gain (causes, effects and solutions) 11. Egyptian Migration To Arab Countries Part III Legal and Illegal Migration 1. Definition 2. Dimensions 3. Causes 4. Dangers 5. Methods 6. Legal and political status 7. Migration Stages 8. The gangs of illegal migration contrive new behaviors….. 9. Egypt youth migration ……….. Ideal cases Objective The whole theme of this paper is to vivid the magnitude of migration, to profile the workers who migrate, to identify the types of migration and to determine the extent to which migration affects the rate of poverty......

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