Free Essay

Inca and Maya Cultural Systems

In: Historical Events

Submitted By oliviad
Words 1816
Pages 8
ANTH265
Final Exam
12/12/11

PART I: Inca and Maya Cultural Systems To one who is not familiar with the ancient peoples of the Americas, the Maya and the Inca could be misjudged as two similar civilizations. Although links do exist between all the civilizations, the Maya and the Inca are not as parallel as say the Maya and Aztec. The Maya civilization occupied what are now Guatemala, Belize, and the Mexican states of Tabasco, Chiapas and the entire Yucatan Peninsula. The earliest records of the Maya civilization show that they were already growing crops around 1,800 BC with the "golden era" of the Maya civilization occurring between 250 and 900 AD. More than 40 cities, some of which had populations of more than 50,000 existed in this time. The Incas reigned along the west coast of South America with the empire’s center in present day Peru from approximately 1476 to 1534 AD. According to M. Moseley’s book, The Incas and their Ancestors, The Inca’s population is estimated to be over 10 million at the height of the empire; however, these people were not technically Incas, but Inca subjects. Interestingly, the term ‘Inca’ only encompasses a small group of kindred, less than 40,000 individuals who built their great Andean empire by force. The ‘subjects’ were not Incas because the Incas were a closed ethnic body. Nonetheless, the differences between the Inca and Maya go much further than just regional and time differences. Each society’s religion, ideological, and cosmological beliefs played a major role in shaping their culture and all three aspects are interconnected within each culture. These beliefs are the most scared traits in the two civilizations. The Incas worshiped many gods, but held the sun, Inti, to be the highest deity and considered themselves to be the sun's representative on earth. The Temple of the Sun in Cuzco was the center of the state religion, and held the Mummies of the past Incas. Cuzco was the center of the Inca and the rest of the empire spanned out from it, forming the “radial world”. The worship of the sun was spread throughout the empire, but the Inca did not prohibit the worship of local gods or deities, such as the famers worshiping Pacha Mama (mother earth). The Inca also revered sacred phenomena, called huacas, which were mostly works of nature. To the Inca, nature was believed to be highly animate with interactive forces. For the Inca, the cosmos consisted of layer with outer celestial and inner terrestrial spheres overlaying and underlying the earth’s surface, which provides deep identification with the environment. Lastly, the role of divination was important to the Inca. They used it to inform people in the city of social events, predict battle outcomes, and ask for metaphysical interventions. The Maya also believed in many gods and considered nature highly animate. Their cosmos had three major planes, the earth, the underworld beneath and the heavens above. The Maya underworld is reached through caves and deep tunnels and the heavens through mountains. Both civilizations believed the high temples were becoming closer to the gods. Furthermore, both believed water to be the blood of the earth and used astrological findings to plan architecture, ceremonies, and their calendars that ran on cyclical time. However, where the cyclical times resulted in creation and destruction of the world in Maya culture, it was not as prominent in the Inca. In terms of religious practices both civilizations practiced sacrificing of animals and at times of humans as well. Socially and politically, the Maya and Inca were similar and different. The Inca was structured as an empire, with a central political system, lead by an emperor, called the Sapa Inca. He and his family resided in Cuzco and was top of Inca hierarchy. For the first time in the ancient civilizations, modern government organization was established. They had four quarters of area headed by four leaders, who were just below the Emperor. Every quarter was made up of several provinces run by officials. The system was hierarchical and administered by a well-developed bureaucracy that collected tribute and distributed it. An established, organized military was also in place. On the other hand, each Maya city had its own noble family that ruled. When the ruler died, the throne was passed down to his son. There was no organized army to the extent of the Incas; however, priests played an important role in each government by conducting ceremonies.
Maya society was strictly ranked and it was important for one to be able to trace his or her linage. At the top were the nobles, who had private lands and held the more important political offices. Then there were the commoners, who were the free workers of the population and they were also classified into rich and poor. The Inca were also similarly structured with nobles on the top followed by a middle and lower class. One main difference between the Maya and Inca is that the Inca have collectives of households and kindred called ayllu. Each ayllu exchange labor and jointly own land and other resources. Furthermore, unlike the Maya, the Inca had no writing system. While the Maya had codices to keep records, the Inca used a series of knotted rope known as quipu to keep all of their records. The Maya used swidden methods for food production, also know as the slash and burn method, along with chinampas (raised fields). Chinampas were much more productive because the soil was more fertile and it was used in poorly drained areas. Some terracing was also used in the lowlands. The Inca’s farming was extremely sophisticated with complex terracing and irrigation methods. Because of the climate of the Andes, the terraces allowed many of the same crops as the Maya to grow in a cooler climate. Both civilizations produced corn, chili peppers, and potatoes. The Inca also grew quinoa. The Maya and Inca economies were based off of agriculture and trading of goods and labor. The Inca had an advantage in its economy with its extensive terracing, which produced ample crops, and their intricate roads, which allowed the spreading of goods. For taxation and tribute, Maya commoners were required to pay tribute to the ruler, their local elite lords, and to the gods in the form of labor, goods, offerings, and a portion of their harvests from their communal and private lands. As for Inca, mit'a was mandatory labor tribute in the society of the Inca Empire along with clothes, crops, and other goods. In return the Inca government then redistributed some of the tribute back into the society. The Inca had an agricultural tax where their fields were divided into three equal areas. One area was dedicated to the gods, one to the emperor, and one to the local community for its support. The local community’s was redistributed among the community annually by the kuraka. Around 2000 BC, farming villages begin to be established in the Maya region and continue to grow into a more developed society. A milestone occurs in 700 BC when writing is first introduced to Mesoamerica. Maya continue to become more advanced with recorded calendars appearing around approximately 400 BC and 300 BC brings the Maya adopting the idea of a hierarchical society ruled by nobles and kings. Teotihuacan is formed and the Maya begin to take part in a one-way trade, obtaining goods, traits, and cultural aspects from Teotihuacan. Teotihuacan is said to have been a boost for the Maya to become a more complex civilization. In 500 AD, Tikal is established as the first great Maya city and Teotihuacan people bring even more culture there. In 900 AD, fragmentation occurs and the major Maya sites, such as Tikal, begin to shrink while former smaller cities, such as Tula, begin to grow into major sites as the Maya enter the Post-Classic era by a population shift. The focus shifts to the Itza as they begin building the city of Mayapan, which becomes the capital of Yucatan. Shortly after, fights break out and political union is lost. The Spanish arrive at approximately 1517 to the Yucatan. South American civilizations begin in the Early Horizon period (900-200 BC) with the Chavin, who settled in the northern Andes and laid the foundation for upcoming civilization. The Moche and Nazca who bring about the beginnings of intra-annual storage and paired regional polity follow them. Going into the Middle Horizon period (600-1000 AD), one finds supra-local polity and paired regional polity and intra-annual storage. The Chimu follow and all are still located in the present day Peru. There is no more regional polity and they are the first single Andean polity to arise and have intra-regional roads. The Inca develop around 1476 AD and brought about intricate inter-regional roads and a sophisticated government. The Inca expanded along the coast of South America and become a dominating empire that the Spanish find in 1532.

Part II. Environmental Settings of Maya and Inca The Maya settled in two areas, the area of the Valley of Mexico and the Yucatan. The Valley of Mexico, because of the combination of the latitude and local air mass patterns, has distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season stretched from May to October while the dry season went from November to April and because of this, water management was extremely important. In this region, the most common form of agriculture was the swidden method, also known as slash and burn. This farming involved a cycling of plots where the burning provides organic ash to fertilize crops and the other plots are left to fallow. Both areas of tropical forest and the more scarce land do not have fertile soil and the slash and burn method helps fertilize. In the poorly drained areas, they used raised fields or “floating gardens”. Although they are very labor intensive, the soil is extremely fertile and allows the crops to be grown in normally inaccessible areas. The Maya agricultural systems were stable and capable of supporting large populations. The Inca were located in the Andes and their agricultural methods had to be compatible with the rugged landscape of the mountains along with the harsher climate. Therefore, the Incas developed intricate terrace farming. They carved into the landscape and reinforced the terraces with stone to create flat land for farming. The terraces also helped to keep rainwater from running off and causing erosion. To control and manage the water supply, they built raised aqueducts to carry water to farmlands for irrigation. By terracing down into the mountains, the Inca were able to grow more tropical-like crops because the frost would be delayed. For the Incas living around Lake Titicaca, raised fields were also used for growing crops and had the same benefits as it did for the Maya.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mayas

...Los mayas adoraban a varios dioses así es una religíon politeísta. Los principales Dioses Mayas : • Hunab Kú: (Su nombre significa « un solo dios « ) Dios Creador. Era el principal dios maya, creador del mundo y de la humanidad a partir del maíz. Hunab Ku es el padre y el señor de todos los dioses. • Itzamná: señor de los cielos, la noche y el día e hijo de Hunabkú. Ha inventado la escritura y el calendario maya • Kukulkán: representaba al dios viento llamado también serpiente emplumada• Kinich Ahau: dios Sol, hijo de Itzamná • Ixchel: diosa de la Luna, las inundaciones, el embarazo, el tejido y esposa de Itzamná• Chac: dios de la lluvia que se divide en los 4 rumbos cardinales, este (rojo), norte (blanco), oeste (negro) y sur (amarillo)• Wakax Yol K’awil o Nal: dios del maíz o de la agricultura• Ah Puch,Kisin, Kimil, Yun cax o Hun Ahaw: dios de la muerte•Ixtab: diosa del suicidio• Ik: dios del viento• Kakupakat: dios de la guerra Las pirámides son sus templos y los fieles asistían a las ceremonias al aire libre, abajo y al frente, de la pirámide-templo. Vestimenta: Debido a que una gran mayoría estaba dedicada a los trabajos de la tierra, el vestuario era sencillo y de carácter funcional: las mujeres usaban una falda denominada Huipil que llevaban con un manto en el torso. Asimismo, caben mencionar ciertas diferencias según la ubicación geográficas. Las mayas guatemaltecas usaban faldas largas y blusas con bordados brillantes y coloridos. Para las zonas cálidas, los......

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Aztecas E Incas

...and the conquest of populations. The Aztecs and Incas differ in many respects, both cultural and social as religious and economic. “The Aztecs were a people Nahuatl origin that happened and beat other people of the same origin; they dominated almost the entire territory of Mexico ”. One of the important features that should be mentioned is the religion; “The Aztecs were polytheistic, rendered cult the sun and the other stars the sun being the most important. The sacrifices, human and animal, were an integral part of Aztec religion. For warriors the highest honor was to fall in battle or to volunteer for sacrifice in important ceremonies. They were convinced that they should feed their gods with human blood so they performed human sacrifices ”. In the economic side, agriculture was the basis of life of the Aztecs, “the number of cultivated species was abundant. In the other hand, Livestock was very poor, since the number of domesticated animals was very low: the most important were the turkey and several species of dogs, one of which was to consume meat” . One of the techniques developed by the Aztecs were the “chinampas. This was a way Aztec’s demonstrate their ability to organize large amount of labor ”. Unlike the Aztecs, the Incas founded a “massive empire in the Andes in the 15th century, before the conquest of the New World by the Spanish. The economy of the Incas was totally different from the Aztecs. The Incas were notable for the grandeur and majesty......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Inca

...The Inca Empire founded around 1200 A.D. was an imperial society with a complex development of cosmologies. This Dynasty allowed for growth of population, resources and power through a newly founded concept of political economies. Prior to this new idealism of exploitation and control Tribal societies were solely based on subsistence living. Where the Inca population was divided into a ranking system by ascribed status; individuals in tribal societies gained small amounts of symbolic power threw achieved status. Another substantial difference between the two types of societies is the taxation system of the Inca empire verses the egalitarian foundations on which tribal societies are built. Control was obtained by the Inca Dynasty through manipulation of the societies cosmology. Therefore, by comparing the cosmologies of Imperial societies with those of tribal societies we are able to analise the extent to which social structure influences cultural transformation. Incas Political economy differed from the earlier tribal economy of subsistence, this allowed for power gain. Political economy refers to ‘a cultural pattern in which a central authority intervines in the production and distribution of goods.’ The central authority in any Imperial society is an elite minority believed to be within the lineal dissenience of the Gods. This is the concept of the divine kingship which can be seen in the Inca Empire. Unlike the subsistence economy of a tribal society, where production...

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

U.S. Cultural Systems

...government’s social, economic, political, and educational systems. What is the norm for us may not necessarily be the norm from someone in, say, South Africa. By acknowledging these differences we can more readily hold a better understanding of another country’s way of life. “In the United States, people like to believe they can rise above cultural bias and change their status,” States the authors of Intercultural Business Communication, “yet at the same time, many find security in the social hierarchy and social interaction patterns into which they were born.” (Chaney and Martin 44). Perhaps because of this mindset Americans also tend to be abrupt and opinionated, willing to discuss almost any subject without propriety. U.S. citizens must remember when travelling overseas, however, this social norm does not radiate globally. In China for example, changing one’s social class is next to impossible. In some situations a person’s family name will get them the job before their educational or past work history. Socially the Chinese are more reserved and verbally unobtrusive. Confucianism, an ancient Chinese philosophy, plays a pivotal role within Chinese social interactions. Through Confucianism, many Chinese are able to solve complications more amicably, and are very loyal friends. America is traditionally known as a Capitalistic Economy, although we have Socialistic undertones. To be Capitalistic means to have an, “economic system in which industry is privately owned.”......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Inca Essay

...environment of the Inca Empire; high elevation, low temperature, low precipitation, steep mountains and poor vegetation. All of these characteristics influenced how the Incas lived in every way: what they ate, how they managed food and living conditions, and ways of surviving. The Incas developed methods and systems like the Chaquis system, which helped with communication, and system of warehouses and granaries to evenly distribute food throughout the empire. The Inca Empire was located at very high altitude on the Andes Mountains. As a result of this high altitude, the level of oxygen and the temperature was very low. Vegetation was scarce and the trees very short because of the cold and the low level of oxygen. At the level of Tierra Templada, which included many small trees and shrubs, the temperature was cold. There was also very little rain in the Inca Empire; less than 2 inches of rain a year; the land was as almost as dry as any desert. The mountains were very steep and hard to climb up and down. The only crop they could plant on these conditions was the potato. The potato was a very important staple food for the Incas. Along with the potatoes, the Incas ate cuy, which was guinea pig meat. Since the mountains were very steep, there wasn’t much flat land to grow potatoes. So, the Incas created a method of terrace farming where they would make large steps to grow food on. The Incas also built roads out of stone to be able to walk down the mountains with ease. The Incas......

Words: 906 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Mayas

...era la religión mayas? Se caracterizaban por dioses de la naturaleza, tales como la adoración al dios de la lluvia, el sol y el maíz. Parte de sus creencias practican el ritual de la muerte maya. Los antiguos mayas creían que la vida y la muerte son cíclicos, como las estaciones y los ciclos astronómicos. Estos ciclos en espiral a través del tiempo sin principio ni fin, y cuando uno se acabaría otro comenzaría. La muerte se entrelazan estrechamente con la vida, para que ellos creían era un primer muerto, antes de que uno nació (es decir, tenía la vida). La muerte era una puerta a la vida, y la vida era una puerta a La muerte, por lo tanto rituales de la muerte y la muerte misma eran bastante importante en esta sociedad. Una parte de las creencias de los mayas era que las personas que murieron por suicidio, el sacrificio, las complicaciones del parto y en la batalla fueron pensados ​​para ser llevados directamente al cielo. La culpa y el mal sufrido eternamente en Xibalbá, el inframundo maya. El nombre de Xibalba significa "Lugar del Miedo" o "Lugar de fantasmas". La entrada al Xibalbá se pensaba tradicionalmente como una cueva. Se describe como una ciudad o un reino que existía debajo de la superficie de la Tierra. Rituales mayas para el entierro fueron elaborados. A medida que los arqueólogos descubrieron, la persona muerta por lo general tenían una máscara mortuoria hecha de jade, que garantizaba el reconocimiento del difunto en la otra vida. Mayas también se......

Words: 9210 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Toronto's Metro System as a Cultural Landscape

...Toronto’s Growing Metro System as a Cultural Landscape Toronto’s Growing Metro System as a Cultural Landscape The metro system in Toronto can be seen as a very important cultural landscape; public transit is an integral part of the city’s culture, as it reflects the growth in the city’s economy, population, and urbanization. The metro system is a public space that is temporarily occupied by different people, travelling to different places. It is a public space that is part of our daily routine, and is a part of the city’s cultural geography that contributes to its expansion and growth. The following six reports can be used as a learning basis for the topic of the public transit metro system in Toronto as a cultural landscape. “Reviewing and assessing the Toronto metro system” by Sybil Derrible and “Toronto: A historical leader in transportation innovations” by Ron Stewart and Joanna Musters are two research reports that analyze the facts of the Toronto metro system and can be used to see how rapidly the public transit in Toronto has grown, along with the city. The next report by Christopher A. Kennedy, “A comparison of sustainability of public and private transportation systems”, further analyzes the impact of the metro system on Toronto and proposes that it is an important cultural landscape in urban sustainability. The next report, “Characterizing metro networks: state, form, and structure”, is written by both Sybil Derrible and Christopher A. Kennedy and can be......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Maya

...I Know Why the Caged Bird Sing Maya Angelou was a great 21st century poet. She has a wide selection of poetry to choose from. One of my favorite is "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sing". This poem bring about many ideas and thoughts, there is not just one meaning. The poem is about the repression of African American race, segregation, and freedom. Maya Angelou wrote " I Know Why the Caged Bird Sing," at the end of the American Civil Rights movement. This poem is about two birds one is trapped in a cage and one is flying free. The one trapped in the cage is a metaphor for black people. The bird that is flying free is a metaphor for white people. Maya Angelou illustrates how the free bird, or a metaphor for the white race, is untroubled. It also shows how the white race has the audacity to own and govern society unjustly. She states ''(the free bird) dares to claim the sky." This shows how whites demonstrated discrimination and prejudice toward blacks. Unfortunately, this deplorable conduct was condoned in society. Maya Angelou describes the actions of the caged bird, or the black people. She states on lines 8. 9, 10 and 11," But a caged bird that stalks down his narrow cage can seldom see through his bars of rage." This shows the anger and frustration blacks were forced to endure. Black people were mistreated because they were different and thought of as not equals. She also states on lines 1 and 2 ," The free bird leaps on the back of the wind…,". She is saying that whites......

Words: 397 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Education System and Cultural Interaction in Relation to Technological Advancement

...Education System and Cultural Interaction In Relation to Technological Advancement Name: College: Purpose This proposal seeks to serve the purpose of providing a topic and basis for research for examination during the semester. Topic To explore Jamaica’s system of education, cultural interaction and the available natural resources in relation to the development of the country’s technological advancement. Introduction Every country has a culture that allows it to pass traditions and beliefs from one generation to another. Depending on one’s country, these cultures are different and may sometimes those of similar countries seem alike. Most the culture that one sees today is those passed down from ancestors. Therefore, this gives the implication that the cultures originated from the far past. This situation raises intrigue of where some countries got their cultures since they are newly formed and involves the settlements of many people of different backgrounds. Back ground One such country is Jamaica, which began as a place to re-settle freed slaves. The slaves came from different places where they practiced their different cultures yet they managed to integrate and be a nation that has a single national culture. Such integration without any supervision is marvelous and worth studying as this improves one's understanding. Ferraro implies that though cultures are diverse, they can still merge. However, in this case the merging should be relevant to advancement in......

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Inca Impire

...Molly Ammerman Cultural Anthropology 207 Dr. Carrico Essay #3 The Inca Empire Before and After The Spanish Conquest The Inca Empire developed in the 1400’s in the city of Cuzco, Peru. They thrived up through the 1500’s, until the Spanish conquered the land. Originally, the Spanish conquest was not harmful, but eventually the Incas lost more and more power until they finally collapsed. You could say the Spaniard’s got lucky, finding the civilization at a time when they were weak from various battles within their own people. The Inca’s political and social structure was, in fact, not that different from that of the Spaniards, however, they were able to manipulate and play the Inca’s trust in order to gain power and take over their land. The Incas were considered to be a class-stratified, state-based society with a tributary mode of production, that is, until the Spaniards arrived. The Inca Empire prior to the Spanish conquest was a thriving, organized, and productive civilization. They ran on a state-based society, which included hierarchal class-stratification. Along with that, they picked up a tributary mode of production, meaning that lower classes (commoners/peasants) are in charge of producing goods by farming and agriculture for the higher classes to eventually take from them. The state typically owns the plot of land that the commoners are staying and producing goods on, who do not have much or any power at all. The state uses this force of labor to gain......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Maya

...Name of Institution Analysis of Two Poems by Maya Angelou Name of Student Course Name and Number Name of Professor Paper Due Date In Maya Angelou’s poem “They Went Home”, the persona has her reference on married men whom think of her as a friend and nothing more. Not a woman to them but a girl (Zefferino). However, they have a high perception of her personality but don’t have feelings for her like she does for them. “I had an air of mystery”. The men referenced had the persona think that the relationship that they had could turn out to be more than it seemed to be. They think of her as kind, clean and humorous. Despite this they don’t want to be in a relationship with her. The men that the poet references in the poem liked the persona because of her physical attributes and wanted to get involved with her physically, sexually. They wanted a physical relationship (Zefferino). “They liked my smile, my wit, my hips”. The attributes in this line specify in order the number of men that the persona desired, three men. The imagery keys the picture of a woman that receives the kind of love that she thinks she ought to be given. The persona is insecure and has a low self-pride because of the rejection that she faces. Men want to lay with her but do not want to stay with her because they all return to their wives. The last sentence of the first two stanzas, shows that the persona is willing and expecting to be used sexually by men that......

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Maya

...daughter Maya Angelou. The world was in for a change that day. Marguerite Annie Johnson was her real name. It wasn’t till Maya Angelou's early twenties when she received her name that we would all know today. Maya Angelou was a master of all trades, Maya went on to become an acclaimed American Poet, autobiographer, storyteller, and activist. Maya Angelou was best known as a poet and an award-winning author. In 1931 Maya Angelou and her brother has been sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps in Arkansas. At this time Stamps was a racially divided and Maya had now experienced what being a black girl in this racist society. As one could imagine her grandmother did her best to instill values and morals among their home. When Maya Angelou was eight years old she was living with her mother in Saint Louis. Tragically Maya was raped which then lead Maya to become mute for close to five years. Maya Angelou was sent back to Stampa because no one could handle the state that Maya was in. While living back in Stamps Maya life was going to change for the better. Mrs. Flowers was a woman that rescued Maya from who she thought she was. Maya confidence was regained and she was once more thriving. Maya at this time lived behind the back of the Johnson Grocery store with her brother and Uncle Willie. At this time Johnson Grocery Store would sell to both whites and blacks. In the home Mrs Annie had taught the Christian principals, respect, love and courage. Mrs Annie had a hand in Maya......

Words: 1156 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Azteca, Inca, Y Maya

...Periodo 6 El maya, inca y azteca son algunas de las más grandes civilizaciones de la historia. Aunque los tres de ellos tienen muchas similitudes, tienen muchas diferencias también. A diferencia de las culturas europeas, se sabe poco sobre las antiguas culturas de las Américas. Sin embargo, lo que sí se sabe es fascinante. Estas culturas tenían ciudades complejas, pirámides grandes, cultivos cosechados, negociados con los vecinos, los ejércitos formados, y mucho más. A pesar de que estas culturas precolombinas eran brillantes y contribuyeron en gran medida a las culturas y civilizaciones modernas, eran muy diferentes. En primer lugar, los mayas se remonta a alrededor de 2600 aC, mientras que las civilizaciones inca y azteca son mucho más jóvenes, remonta a 1200 dC y 1325 dC. La civilización maya incluye hoy en día México, Guatemala, El Salvador, Belice y Honduras. La civilización inca se encuentra en las montañas de los Andes en lo que hoy es Perú. Los aztecas vivían en lo que hoy es la Ciudad de México. La Azteca, Maya e Inca todas cultivadas pero tenía diferentes técnicas. Los Aztecas construyeron jardines flotantes, mientras que los mayas quemaban bosques para plantar jardines y el Inca cultivó zonas en terrazas. Las culturas mayas y aztecas tenían un extenso sistema de escritura, pero los incas nunca hicieron uno. Los mayas influenciados matemáticas de hoy y los mayas y aztecas contribuido mucho a la escritura moderna y calendarios. Por otro lado, los incas contribuido......

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mayas

...Ensayo de época Entre los años 200 a.C y 500 d.C. se desarrollo la cultura maya, en ese mismo valle central de México, su ciudad principal fue Teotihuacán, centro religioso, comercial y cultural de Mesoamérica. En ella se conservan las pirámides escalonadas del sol y la luna y el célebre templo a Quetzalcóatl (la serpiente emplumada, llamado kukulkan o Gukumatz entre los mayas, un importante dios- héroe de las culturas mesoamericanas). Vivieron dos periodos de expansión: inicialmente, entre los siglos IV y IX se unieron a la cultura quiché y habitaron zonas de lo que hoy es Hondura y Guatemala. En su segunda era, entre los siglos IX y XIV, el epicentro maya estaba en la península de Yucatán, al sur de lo que hoy es México. Cuando los españoles llegaron a principios del siglo XVI, las ciudades mayas ya estaban abandonadas, y la mayoría de la población vivía en zonas rurales, había desaparecido el esplendor de su civilización, pero no su cultura. Los mayas construyeron ciudades-estado, ya que no fueron un imperio unificado como los Incas, sino una gran civilización basada en la agricultura y el comercio. Entre estas ciudades podemos señalar: Nakbé, El Mirador, San Bartolo, Cival, localizadas en la cuenca del Mirador, en el norte de Petén, Guatemala y Durante el periodo Clásico (200 al 900 d.C.), las conocidas ciudades de Tikal, Quiriguá, Palenque, Copán, Rio Azul, Calakmul, así como Ceibal, Cancuén, Machaquila, Dos pilas, Uaxactún, Altún Ha, Piedras Negras, y muchos otros......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Inca

...INCA 2nd Round Interview Slots Venue: LVH B-258 Aaquib Al Hossain Interview Panel 1 Phone - 9874557039 Vivek Jha Phone - 9163077428 Email - vivekj2013@email.iimcal.ac.in Date : 18/07/2012 Register Number Interview Time 0008/49 20:30 0010/49 20:40 0023/49 20:50 0039/49 21:00 0045/49 21:10 0100/49 21:20 0110/49 21:30 0112/49 21:40 0120/49 21:50 0129/49 22:00 0130/49 22:10 0135/49 22:20 0143/49 22:30 0153/49 22:40 0155/49 22:50 0158/49 23:00 0161/49 23:10 0164/49 23:20 0169/49 23:30 0184/49 23:40 Date : 19/07/2012 Register Number Interview Time 0192/49 20:30 0195/49 20:40 0197/49 20:50 0203/49 21:00 0208/49 21:10 0211/49 21:20 0234/49 21:30 0242/49 21:40 0254/49 21:50 0257/49 0266/49 0329/49 0346/49 0357/49 0364/49 0373/49 167/49 342/49 4016/19 4037/19 4044/19 4048/19 PGDCM/4030/19 PGDM/0137/49 PGDM/0291/49 PGP/PGDM/0049 PGP/PGDM/0136 PGP/PGDM/0159 /49 22:00 22:10 22:20 22:30 22:40 22:50 23:00 23:10 23:20 23:30 23:40 23:50 00:00 00:10 00:20 00:30 00:40 00:50 01:00 Venue: NH LAN Room Prashanth Dante (09163098614) Interview Panel 2 Komal Agarwal (08420235232) Harshith Asuri (9804414771) Email - harshitha2013@email.iimcal.ac.in Date : 16/07/2012 Register Number Interview Slot 0017/49 20:30 0018/49 20:40 0024/49 20:50 0035/49 21:00 0044/49 21:10 0086/49 21:20 0103/49 21:30 0131/49 21:40 0134/49 21:50 014/49 22:00 0149/49 22:10 0150/49 22:20 0228/49 22:30 0241/49 22:40 0251/49 22:50 0256/49 23:00 0280/49 23:10 0298/49 23:20 0308/49 23:30 0314/49 Date :......

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

الصفحة التالية | Wireless Pager Restaurant Calling Paging System 4pcs Watch Wrist Receiver+24pcs Call Transmitter Button Pager T117 | Katie Cassidy