Free Essay

Instructional Strategies

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kris10g43
Words 1278
Pages 6
Instructional Strategies Grand Canyon University: TCH 524
October 9, 2013

"The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery." ~Mark Van Doren

Assisting all the possible discoveries of students are the teachers, who, through the many means of instruction and instructional strategies, guide them in their curiosity, creativity and self-discovery. Students are learning through whole group lessons in the direct instruction strategy, encouraged to observe and problem solve through indirect instruction and are stimulated to engage themselves in the active learning experiences of experiential instruction. Teachers are challenged to incorporate the most beneficial means of instruction for each lesson so that the students in their classes become higher-order thinkers, able to apply all they have learned to each new experience in their life.
Direct Instruction:
Teacher-initiated and directed whole class learning (Orlich, D. C., Harder, R. J., Callahan, R. C., Trevisan, M. S., Brown, A. H., & Miller, D. E., 2013, 348). The direct instruction strategy is a common method of delivering content, usually fundamental knowledge, to the whole class at one time. The learning objectives are typically built upon sequentially, moving through a set path of steps in order to get to the final objective. This method of instruction is beneficial to the teacher because it requires less preparation time, the teacher maintains the attention of the class and the objectives are reached in a timelier manner than that of the indirect or experiential instruction, where students are encouraged to take their time discovering the different aspects of the lesson.

Indirect Instruction:
Students are drawn to learn, seeking information and knowledge for themselves through significant, functional, and thorough means such as group investigations, guided or unguided inquiry and problem solving, just to name a few (natashalcd, 2011). Through Indirect Instruction students are allowed more time to explore the various possibilities of the lesson, taking advantage of the student’s natural curiosities, because it is geared to a slower pace than that of direct instruction. The learning environment is student centered and flexible, taking into account the many types of learners, promoting participation through questioning, observation, and hands-on experiences. This is an active learning experience that supports creative development and reduces fear of wrong answers (natashalcd, 2011, 6) because students are involved in the discovery and are encouraged through questioning. In contrast to the direct instruction strategy, indirect instruction is mainly student-centered, although the two strategies can complement each other (Indirect Instruction, n.d.).
Experiential Instruction:
Students take an active role in learning, instead of being lectured to, like in direct instruction; they participate in the content being studied. Teaching approaches for experiential instruction include activities that incorporate problem solving skills, engage higher-order thinking, and encourage students to take risks (natashalcd, 2011, 45). The teacher is responsible for designing lessons that include active participation and concrete experiences in which the students can discover generalizations from experiences (natashalcd, 2011, 37) and apply their learning to new and different situations, thus creating the experiential learner.

Questioning:
Questioning plays a critical role in teaching (Orlich, et al., 2013, 212). When teachers use questions to stimulate student thinking (Orlich, et al., 2013, 212), creativity, curiosity, and reflectivity are encouraged. If a teacher asks low-level type questions, then he/she can expect to receive simple answers from their students. When teachers ask the higher- level questions, it invokes the thoughtful, problem solving type of thinking.
There are many different questioning strategies that teachers can use during instruction.
Convergent strategy: This strategy is used for students to answer fact based questions with short/one-word responses to the low-level inquiries of the teacher. The convergent strategy is great when used in the appropriate way such as: vocabulary review, spelling skills or for generating participation through verbal responses.
Divergent strategy: This strategy is the opposite of the previous strategy above. Various students respond to the teachers’ prompt, leading to longer, more elicit replies that encourage classroom discussions. Listening skills are modeled by the teacher and improved upon as student’s wait respectfully for their own turn to speak and add to the conversation.
Evaluative Strategy: This strategy comes straight from the divergent strategy; however, the additional factor is that of evaluation. The strategy incorporates “built-in” standards of evaluation, in which the teacher has developed through planning, that encourage the students to respond in a way that demonstrates a broad range of thought (Orlich, et al., 2013, 220) along with the logical development of their reply.
Reflective Strategy: The goal of the reflective strategy is to encourage students to actively cultivate higher-order thinking by stimulating their thought processes through reflective questioning, not through the “wh” questions that are used in the evaluative strategy. This strategy also requires additional planning time of the teacher.
According to the textbook, Teaching Strategies: A Guide to Effective Instruction, there are several reasons to include questioning within the learning environment of the classroom (Orlich, et al., 2013, 234). * Increases motivation to learn. * Improves comprehension and retention. * Encourages creativity and innovation. * Teaches how to think and learn. * Provides a basis for problem solving and decision making.
Advance Organizer Model:
Complex concepts that are hard to teach can be effectively introduced and structured through an advance organizer. Lessons are structured in a hierarchical order, so that the students gain the knowledge of each part and subsequently understand the relationship amongst each part, increasing their motivation to learn because of the understanding (Orlich, et al., 2013). With the understanding comes content differentiation, where the concept is divided further, into smaller bits, so that it may be learned and categorized by the students. Finally, the students will integrate the categories through their understanding of how they relate to the main concept and how the underlying facts may be different or similar (Orlich, et al., 157) amongst the ideas shared.
Concept Mapping: A concept map is a special form of a web diagram for exploring knowledge and gathering and sharing information (Concept Mapping, n.d.). Each concept, item or question is diagramed, using a bubble or cell to surround it, and are linked together with arrows that are labeled, explaining the relationship between each bubble or cell. The diagram, when completed correctly, should read like a sentence. The reader starts at a bubble and follows the arrows around, reading the concept and descriptors.
Technology:
Technology is a very important integration to any and all lessons, when possible. With the appropriate planning, even though the requirement of extra time and effort by the teacher are necessitated, technology can add a multitude of benefits to the learning environment. The computer itself has a way of motivating the learners, making it possible for them to create quality products and presentations for class. The students are encouraged to experiment with the various formatting concepts with text and imaging, collaborate on, present, and distribute classroom projects in a variety of forms and through multiple network venues using Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, Wikis, and social spaces (Orlich, et al., 2013, 102). The students also use the internet as a means of conducting specific research, giving them the ability to search longer, in a broader, more advanced way.

Resources
Concept mapping. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://public.callutheran.edu/~mccamb/ conceptmapping.htm
Indirect instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://public.callutheran.edu/~mccamb/ indirectinstruction.htm
Natashalcd. (January 18, 2011). The indirect & experiential instruction strategies. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/natashalcd/workshop-6617681.
Orlich, D. C., Harder, R. J., Callahan, R. C., Trevisan, M. S., Brown, A. H., & Miller, D. E., (2013). Teaching strategies: A guide to effective instruction (10th ed.). Belmont, CA. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Instructional Leadership

...Effective school leadership today must combine the traditional school leadership duties such as teacher evaluation, budgeting, scheduling, and facilities maintenance with a deep involvement with specific aspects of teaching and learning. Effective instructional leaders are intensely involved in curricular and instructional issues that directly affect student achievement (Cotton, 2003). The writer of this paper acknowledges that school principals should play the role of instructional leaders, not just a school manager. The reality is that are many demands on a principals time and management skills making it difficult for most of them to spend time in classrooms, when performing teacher evaluation. Principals often make sure that teachers have the opportunities for professional developments, since they themselves rarely have any time to directly affect their teacher’s growth. The approach of sharing instructional leadership with teachers can present some organization challenges. The writer understood from this course that Communication is critical in a principal’s job. A leader must be clear, consistent in communication with students, staff, parents and community which, is imperative to the role of a principal. Similar to the teaching and reinforcement of math and reading skills, policies, procedures, and expectations need to be taught, practiced, and reinforced to students and staff. The writer acknowledges that the reinforcement of policies and procedures with discussions...

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Instructional Presentation

...ETT4/5 - Effective Teaching Practices: Instructional Presentation and Follow-Up Course of Study Your competence for this course of study will be assessed as you complete the 10 tasks that make up the ETT4/5 performance assessment and the EIO4/5 objective assessment. Introduction Welcome to Effective Teaching Practices. Effective teaching depends on effective planning. Teachers need to devote systematic thought to what they want students to learn and to how students will best acquire knowledge and skills. You will learn how to select, develop, and evaluate instructional materials as well as strategies to use to accomplish specific learning goals. You will plan for effective instruction, and then implement those plans. Interactive teaching includes appropriately responding to all of the details that emerge during the presentation of lessons. Teaching is a process. Teachers plan lessons and then present them. They use information about the lesson presentation to make appropriate changes to improve both student achievement and lesson presentation. Outcomes and Evaluations There are 10 competencies covered by this course of study; they are listed in the "Competencies for Effective Teaching Practices: Instructional Presentation and Follow-Up (ETT4/5)" page. The list of competencies is a good overview of precisely what you will know and be able to do at the conclusion of this course of study and demonstrate through assessment. Teaching Dispositions Statement Please review......

Words: 6079 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Instructional Unit

...Instructional Unit Plan Crystal McClain MTE 539/Curriculum Constructs and Assessment Secondary Methods June 27, 2011 Rachel Wurmlinger, Facilitator Instructional Unit Plan 1. Overview of Unit A. Title – 20th Century Socialite: The Great Gatsby B. Focus – English/Language Arts; 11th grade (Honors): The focus of this unit is to introduce students to the characteristics and elements of contemporary American literature and to allow students to relate the themes of the novel, The Great Gatsby, in a meaningful way to increase understanding. C. Length – 1.25 instructional weeks (six 50-minute sessions) D. Goals – Students will understand that American literature contains unique and specific elements by reading F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Also, students will recognize themes in Fitzgerald’s work by examining modern pop cultural products (multimedia samples, newspaper articles, music videos, etc.). 2. Lesson Plans 1-5 Lesson Plan #1 Title: The American Novel Time: 50-minute session Standards: Georgia Performance Standards: ELA11LSV1 (indicators a-h)—Actively participates in whole group verbal interactions. ELA11LSV2 (b)—Analyzes techniques used in media messages for a particular audience and evaluates effectiveness. Objectives: 1. After watching an introductory presentation of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (TGG), students will be able to identify the characteristics of the American novel......

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Instructional Leader

...aspects of teaching and learning. Some key elements of Instructional leadership and what I believe to be most important and effective elements in the leadership role include the following: Prioritization: Instructional Leaders make adult learning a priority and set high expectations for performance (NAESP, 2001). While leaders cannot neglect other duties, teaching and learning is where the majority of a leader’s scheduled time needs to be allocated. Visible Presence: Placing the focus on learning objectives, modeling behaviors of learning, and designing programs and activities on instruction are essential for instructional leadership (Whitaker, 1997). Having leaders as teachers of instruction serves as a model for many teachers who may struggle with certain concepts and can help build trust and relationships. Curriculum: Principals need to know about the changing concepts of curriculum (Approaches to Leadership). The goal of any leader should be to increase student achievement; therefore, the curriculum, instruction, and assessments must all be aligned with the standards. Leaders need to be knowledgeable with curriculum and state standards and provide professional development and continuous learning for adults. Data: In their focus on improving achievement, effective leaders use multiple sources of information to assess performance (NAESP, 2001). Many leaders use data to help guide the instructional focus and professional development for teachers.......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Instructional Strategies for Ell Students

...Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms Regina Chandler-Pettit Grand Canyon University Edu 523N April 12, 2010 Abstract As the demographics of American schools continue to change and more English Language learner students enter the public school system, educators must find appropriate methods to teach the ELL population. Teaching this diversified population of students is challenging and it is the educators job to incorporate different instructional methods and concepts that “all” students can find beneficial. The skill and language acquisition level for the ELL student are often at various levels and it is up to the educator to utilize teaching methods that combine all techniques into a suitable learning environment. According to data submitted by state departments of education, between 1990 and 2000 the number of limited English proficient students attending American schools rose 76%, from 2.1 million to 1990 to 3.7 million in 2000 (Thompson,2004). The 2001 No Child Left Behind outlined stipulations that held schools accountable for helping “limited English proficient children meet the same challenging state academic and content and student academic achievement standards as all students are expected to meet” (NCLB, Part A, subpart 1).With the rapid shift of demographics in the American population educators face a whole host of challenges when it comes to educating the English Language Learner (ELL) population. ELL students require detailed instruction...

Words: 1497 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Instructional Strategies for Ell Students

...Running Head: INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ELL CLASSROOMS Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms Jacqueline Freeland Professor: Grand Canyon University ESL 423 N 8/8/10 Abstract There is an art of teaching English Language Learning (ELL) students which requires teachers to be comfortable and using diversified instructions. There was a time when schools used the method of one size fits all, but in today’s learning world this method will not be fair to all students. Therefore every teacher has to incorporate a different learning instruction and concepts to fit his/her classroom. From communications to understanding skills of different students it has placed educators in a position where they must exhibit different types of teaching methods. Even though, these methods should keep students on target in their learning environment so that they can hit the benchmark. America is considered the melting pot and when we look around we can see that there are many rich cultures. Although this has always been the case in America it just seems that it is more evident now than it was in the past. Instructional Strategies for ELL Classrooms English Language Learners need certain instructions while in class. Within the United States there are multiple strategies that are used during instructional teaching. Within this paper we will review a range of components for instructional strategies for ELL classrooms. We will take a look at comprehensible input.......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Instructional Goals

...mathematics (NJ Curriculum Standards, 2013). Instructional Goal #1: Organization and Development: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions (NJ Curriculum Standards, 2013). Learning Objective #1: On an in-class worksheet, students will develop and use evidence-based criteria to determine if an unfamiliar object is living or nonliving. Students must answer 80% of the examples correctly. This will demonstrate that students know what characteristics are needed to support a living organism. Learning Objective #2: Through a unit test, students will be able to compare and contrast structures that have similar functions in various organisms, and explain how those functions may be carried out by structures that have different physical appearances with 75% accuracy. This will demonstrate that students understand the purpose of specific functions in organisms, as well as how to identify similar organisms that may not look alike. Learning Objective #3: Given a diagram, students will be able to describe the interactions of systems involved in carrying out everyday life activities. They should be able to explain 8 out of 10 interactions for 80% of the systems given. This will demonstrate that they have a firm understanding of how these processes interact to keep organisms alive. Instructional Goal #2: Interdependence: All animals......

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Instructional Design

...Instructional Design Case Study For State Medical University Team Leader: XXX, Team: John Barnett, Shalanda Campbell, Donna Harmon, Tara McEvoy AET 515 March 24, 2014 Professor Joan Beckner Abstract Insert an abstract of the paper, its key points, team recommendations, and generalized conclusions. Instructional Design Case Study For State Medical University State the general situation of the case study here, summarize the team’s assessment of the situation and give an overview of the analysis process, the instructional design recommendations for the pediatric clerkship, the development of clerkship improvement project, and recommendations for current program modifications. Defining Our ID Process Outlines our process for this assignment/case study problem … Proposed Pediatric Clerkship Instructional Design Insert the team’s proposed design concept … in this section we should answer the first assignment question about helping faculty members overcoming their resistance to changing teaching methods. Pediatric Clerkship Education Development Team A will assist Dr. Kelsoe in reassuring reluctant faculty members at State Medical University of the benefits of integrating technology for computer-based training (CBT) will provide for the program. To ensure the faculty will capture the significance of a CBT program within their facility, the team presents an example of a successful medical facility that incorporates CBTs to support teaching their students and......

Words: 746 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Instructional Strategies Effective Use of Time

...“Instructional Strategies Including Effective use of Time” Chelah Clory 4/20/2014 ECEL/ Fraser I construct lessons to fit the needs of each child individually by first assessing what the child knows and what level the child is on. This is implemented in the beginning of the year when children are assessed using a test called the ESI-R. The test consist of the basics a child who is between the age of three and four years of age. One part of the test consists of children repeating what the teacher says. For example, the teacher will say 123 and the child has to repeat 123. Another part of the test is the use of basic fine motor. The child has to stack six blocks like a tower without them falling. There is about four parts to the test. If a child isn’t ready they receive a second chance a little later during the school year. If they fail twice, then the teacher has to fill out a form and is then sent to the board of education to determine if the child needs to be referred. After a couple of months of school as the children play in their centers I go around asking them basic questions in reference to what their doing. For example if a child is already counting from one to ten, then if the child is playing with blocks I’ll say “wow how many blocks do you have and the child will be encouraged to count and I may add more to see if the child can count pass ten and eventually to twenty. If there’s a specific child who’s not yet counting then I find creative ways to......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Adjusted and Implemented Instructional Plan

...Adjusted and Implemented Instructional Plan Introduction During the course of this instructional unit there were many factors that developed that shaped the instructional design and strategies used. The first challenge was that I became very ill during the course of teaching this unit. It was necessary that I took a day off to rest and recover; however, that extended my work sample and instruction time the students needed. I did have substitute plans and a lesson prepared for this however the substitute did not know how to teach it and my students did not grasp the knowledge they needed to gain. Another, factor that changed the course of this unit was the continuously assessing and re-assessing my students. I learned that homework for the population I am working with is not an accurate post-assessment as many of my students did not complete their homework. This changed how I continually was assessing my students and more emphasis was given to the exit tickets and do now’s as pre and post lesson assessments. Lastly, based upon the exit tickets and do now’s as pre and post assessments more time was given to work on certain concepts such as simplification. The Adjusted and Implemented Plan In giving the pre-assessment I noticed that most of my students were lacking a basic understanding of fractions such as plotting a fraction on a number line or shading 2 and 1/3. With this information I knew that I needed to spend more time going......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Standard Based Instructional Practices

...Instructional practices for standards-based curriculum is more than knowing and understanding state and district standards; posting objectives, standards, or learning goals in the classroom; referencing standards in lesson plans; covering concepts or following a teacher’s manual claimed to follow state standards. Instead, it is about consistently and effectively developing lessons with activities designed to meet the needs of all students. Standards Based Curriculum The foundational reason supporting national and state standards efforts is the quality of students that schools are producing as graduates. This could potentially be an effect of content and expectancies for students in identical classes and grade levels differ immensely within and across schools, districts, and states. A standards based curriculum is curriculum that is developed using district, state, and/or national standards; pinpointing the skills, knowledge, and understandings that students show exhibit to meet these standards and identifying activities that will enable students to reach standard mastery. Curriculum design starts with the standards and once they are unpacked, the activities to meet them are developed. With the standards-based curriculum movement, curriculum is now much simpler and condensed in which the content is significantly effected by high-stakes tests (GCU, 2010). Instructional Practices Teachers are mandated to teach standards and to make connections between standards-based......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Instructional Objectives

...INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES An instructional objective describes an observable event that will indicate that a student has learned the targeted knowledge. A teacher cannot assess a student’s learning unless there is observable evidence of that learning. Since most of a person’s knowledge and mental actions are invisible to others, we depend on indicators that suggest the nature of his or her knowledge. To illustrate, consider the following: How would students indicate that they know the universe is very large and that it contains a very large number of objects? How would students indicate that they know the concept of multiplication? In both cases, students may provide evidence of their knowledge as follows: On the magnitude of the universe, students might say the universe is large because it contains Earth, other planets, and our Sun. The Sun is one of billions of stars in our galaxy, and individual stars are light-years away from each other. Our galaxy, although very large, is but one of millions of galaxies in the universe. On the concept of multiplication, they might use several illustrations to show that multiplication is repeated additions. For example, 4 x 3 = 3 +3 + 3 +3 To provide evidence of knowledge, one must do things that others can observe. Likewise, to assess a student’s knowledge, a teacher must ask student to do something observable/visible that indicates presence of that knowledge. In fact, instructional objectives represent the teacher’s......

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Instructional Strategies for Ells

...Instructional Strategies for ELLs Pre-Emergent Instructional Strategies Content Area | Strategy and Description | Justification | Speaking & Listening | Learn Survival VocabularyThe teacher provides real objects as visuals and verbalizes the object name (ie. Pencil). Students repeat the name of the object and write the word on a flashcard. Students are provided with pictures or may draw their own picture on the other side of the flashcard. Scaffolding of this strategy can be done to suit the proficiency of the learner. | Educational success is strongly linked to a student’s vocabulary development. While many students have background knowledge of the items presented, it is often in their native language and they do not know the English term which makes it difficult to make connections with the content of the lesson (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2013). This activity assists students in learning vocabulary to improve their success in making those connections. | Reading | Shared ReadingThe teacher reads from a text that has visuals (maps, pictures, etc.). The teacher reads slowly and clearly and points out key vocabulary during the reading. The teacher asks for one to two word responses or short phrases from students to describe what they learned from the reading. | The use of realia such as pictures, maps, graphs and concrete items assist students with making connections to the content being presented. “When teachers explanations are made more concrete with......

Words: 1025 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Instructional Technology

...Instructional Technology Joey Millis, RN CEN HSN/548: Role of the Health Care / Nursing Educator March 12, 2012 Rebecca Gesler Instructional Technology Instructional technology is often considered as computers and computer software, but there are a vast variety of instructional technology tools that are being used in today's classroom. These tools along with the aid of computers and software are used in the instructional methods of today's institutional learning centers. The Oregon Department of Education states that, "Instructional technology is used to support teaching and learning, but they are only tools to enhance the individuals or groups capability to learn"(2002, p.2, para.4). When exploring the world of instructional technology, its uses span across a multitude of resources, from research, data collection, analyzing information, and communication. This paper will cover a brief overview of the types of instructional technology used in the educational field. A concise form of instructional hardware, support, and software used to in the educational field. Along with the competency skills needed by the instructors to provide guidance and educational opportunities for the learners of today. Identification of Technology Forms When most people imagine technology they see a computer as the first form of technology available for use in the learning centered world. Computers along with other programs are designed with......

Words: 932 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Instructional Planning

...Misty Lindsey 000058743 Objective Instructional Planning It will always be the main responsibility of the Teacher to choose curriculum, materials and resources that align with the standards and goals that are set forth by their state and district. An instructional materials evaluation checklist allows the Educator to identify and select materials and resources that are appropriate for the support and learning of each and every student. An instructional checklist contains the four areas of design, procedures, clarity and efficiency. The checklist outlines certain criteria that each area must meet. In the following paragraphs, I will describe why each area of an evaluation checklist is important as well as discuss why culturally appropriate and linguistically sensitive materials criteria may influence the selection process. In addition, I will identify a grade level, subject area and learning objective for a lesson I would want to teach that would contain curriculum materials that I would need to evaluate. Lastly, I will evaluate the curriculum materials and then decide whether or not to use them in my lesson. I will defend my decisions by providing a rationale for each resource. I will begin by discussing how important it is to choose materials that are culturally appropriate and linguistically sensitive. Before evaluating any resources by the checklist, one must choose materials to use within the lesson to be taught. And the selection process of......

Words: 2153 - Pages: 9

Maneerat Wongsjirasakdi | Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung vom Montag 27 Februar 2012 | Скачать