Premium Essay

International and Mobility

In: Social Issues

Submitted By LadySaphira
Words 3396
Pages 14
Student Mobility & the International

Table of Content

1. Introduction……………………………………………………..…………….……….3

2. History and Development……………………………………………………...…...…4

2.1 The First Stage …………………………………………………..….…………….…..4
2.2 The Second Stage……………………………………………….…………….….........5
2.3 The Third Stage…………………………………………….………………….….…...5
2.4 The Fourth Stage………………………………………………………………………5

3. Signing of the Bologna Declaration……………………….………………………….6

3.1 Bologna Reform……………………………………………………………………….7

3.2 Credit Point System………………………………………………………...…………7

4. Statistics……..…………………………………………………………………………9

5. Funding…………………………………………………………………………...…..10

6. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………11

7. Literature and Sources………………………………………………………………13

1. Introduction

The Bologna process has made positive contributions to the higher education system in Europe by enabling better quality in education, opportunities for mobility, and by challenging national borders[1]. Teichler, the author of International Student Mobility in Europe in the Context of the Bologna Process, states in his article that ministers in various European countries have adopted similar study programs in hopes of increasing the attractiveness for students from other parts of the world to study in Europe and to promote intra-European mobility[2]. These study programs would offer the student a whole study program or one which is temporary.[3] In the last ten years progress has been made with positive results but there are still problems which need to be addressed[4]. The methods used to research and monitor the results of mobility still has a few problems, such as insufficient statistics when it comes to measuring temporary mobility for “foreign” and “mobile” students[5]. This is…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Falling and Mobility

...Falling and Mobility Grand Canyon University NRS 433V Falling and Mobility Individuals with stroke are at risk for falls. Patient safety and their general wellbeing in all areas of health care setting is worldwide concern. The major cause of medical hurdle following acute stroke are falls, and it constitutes a significant health concern throughout the post stroke lifetime. Age, chronic disease or sudden disability like stroke puts the elderly people at risk. However, stroke survivors are at greater risk of falling specifically while walking or with activities of daily living. The use of assistive devices such as walker, cane, and wheelchair to increase their function also puts them at risk when not used correctly (Nazarko, 2012). Stroke survivors and their caregivers have several ideas with regards to mobility and fall instances. The experiences of stroke survivors and their caregivers towards fall and mobility is critically analyzed using a qualitative study in this paper (Kelley, 2010). According the reviewed article falling and Mobility Experience of Stroke Survivors and Spousal caregivers’, the clinical problem leading to this study as identified by the authors is the stroke survivors’ high risk for fall while performing walking or performing activities of daily living. Complete or partial disability as a result stroke has been linked to high risk for fall. The authors noted that limited studies exist about stroke survivors and caregivers issues of falling or general...

Words: 957 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Applied mobility for the banking industry Tech trends 2011 In some industries, companies can pick and choose how they want to respond to new mobile opportunities. In banking, it is not a matter of choice. Not only do consumers expect a steady increase in the number of banking services they can access from mobile devices (not to mention a complementary rise in the quality of their mobile experiences), merchants are moving just as quickly to keep up. That means they’re looking for new ways for customers to buy and pay. With phones? Tablets? Using Debit? Credit? All of the above? As a result, financial institutions should “think outside the bank” when it comes to mobility. Regardless of industry, the march toward mobility is staggering in sheer scale (5 billion subscribers by December 20101) and in its breadth of adoption — crossing age groups, economic classes, and geographies. Consumer interest in smartphones, tablets, and untraditional connected devices such as set-top boxes, telematics, video games, and embedded appliances is growing faster than with any other product segment, with a projected growth of 36% in the coming year2. Connectivity is nearly ubiquitous with today’s mobile computing infrastructure and will only improve with the widespread rollout of 4G, LTE, and WiMAX in primary markets, and the launch of 3G in India3. Just as important, the mobile application (app) movement is fully underway, as traditional telephone service takes a back seat to messaging, e-mail...

Words: 3587 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Social Mobility

...SOCIAL MOBILITY Since the ancient times, humans have been living in a society were in a social stratification is observed. Moreover, in a social stratification an equal opportunity for social mobility is given in each individual. Social Mobility pertains to the movement of a person from a social status to another social status. This movement can be either upward or downward, depending on whether people rise to higher status or fall to lower ones. Intergenerational mobility is one of the focuses of the study of sociologist. Intergenerational mobility is the upward or downward movement of the hierarchy by the family members from one generation to another. The amount of this movement – which occurs, for example, when a janitor’s son becomes a doctor, or a doctor’s child becomes a janitor- tells how rigidly inequality is structured into society. In other words, social mobility refers to the relative movement of an individual, family, or group, up or down the stratification system of the society. There are two types of social mobility; vertical mobility and horizontal mobility. Types of Social Mobility I. Vertical Mobility refers to downward or upward movement in social rank, which occurs when there is a major change in wealth, prestige or power. When a person is said to move upward, this means that there is an increase in level of wealth through job promotion, small-scale businesses that have prospered. This change is symbolized by setting up residence in an affluent......

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mobility and Productivity

...36(1), 259-280. Sarker, S., Xiao, X., Sarker, S., & Ahuja, M. (2012). Managing Employees' Use of Mobile Technologies to Minimize Work-Life Balance Impacts. MIS Quarterly Executive, 11(4), 143-157. Yun, H., Kettinger, W., & Lee, C. (n.d). A New Open Door: The Smartphone's Impact on Work-to-Life Conflict, Stress, and Resistance. International Journal Of Electronic Commerce, 16(4), 121-151. Mobile technology for increased productivity and profitability. (2012). Management Services, 56(3), 15-17. Dhar, S., & Varshney, U. (2011). Challenges and Business Models for Mobile Location-based Services and Advertising. Communications Of The ACM, 54(5), 121-129. doi:10.1145/1941487.1941515 Rodriguez, M., Peterson, R. M., & Krishnan, V. (2012). Social Media's Influence on Business-To-Business Sales Performance. Journal Of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(3), 365-378. Pavel, P., & Ondrej, M. (2012). The influence of the expansion of the smart mobile phones on the insurance industry. Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, 6(3), 437-440. Loh, C. C., Stadlen, A. D., Basole, R. C., Moses, J. D., & Tuohy, C. (2008). Enterprise mobility and support outsourcing: A research model and initial findings. Information Knowledge Systems Management, 7(1/2), 183-210 Page 1 of 6...

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Mobility

...make in my entire life? No, he isn’t. I do not think well off people are more intelligent than people of lower social position just because of the fact that they have better opportunities than people in the lower class. What I mean by this is growing up; rich kids are thrown into private schools and are being tutored by the most expensive teacher around. Kids that are in the lower class are going to public school, with teachers that sometimes don’t even know what they’re talking about. In conclusion, I really think social scientists should look more deeply into this topic because we can’t just separate two different groups by being smart or not based on their economic level. It just doesn’t make sense to me. I’m glad to be seeing social mobility more and more every day in my community. It pushes me to work harder and harder to make myself go up in social class in the future....

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Urban Mobility

...innovation in mobility and automotive aspects The purpose of the following paper is to demonstrate the different possibilities of business model innovation in mobility and automotive aspects. More precisely, the written report focuses on business model innovation in respect of urban mobility. Since, urban mobility is getting more and more relevance of future management tasks. Moreover aspects of car sharing and renting cars are discussed in literature often. Therefore, the paper gives a detailed overview of the theoretical and practical background of business model innovations of urban mobility including automotive issues. The paper is structured in three main passages…. Mobility is a basic condition for participating in working life. Other relying aspects of mobility are engaging in social, cultural and political activities and availing educational opportunities. In the future, urban mobility will cost 829 billion euro by 2050. The amount of people and goods transported is expected to triple. On top of that, urban mobility will use 17.3 % of the planet´s bio – capacity (Lerner, 2011, pp. 1-15). The development of automotive issues and mobility reflects the economic, social and technical trends in the cities. The population of cities is constantly growing both for demographic reasons and migration into cities aspects. Cities are the central points of economic growth and thus of individual prosperity which lead to a growing differentiation in lifestyles and mobility......

Words: 4502 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Social Mobility

...The New World Encyclopedia defines social mobility as “the movement of the members of a particular society in terms of their social status, usually defined in terms of occupation and income (vertical mobility), or from one social group to another, not necessarily with concomitant change in social position(horizontal mobility)”. Generally social mobility looks at the level in which a person family or a group social status can change within the timeframe of a person life Social mobility can also relate the level to which an person family member move up and down the social group. A person or their family can move up or down the social groups based on their accomplishments and sometimes other reasons that may be out of their power. Some factors that may changes a person social mobility could a person educational background, a person income level, a person occupation or a person status within the society. An upward mobility indicates a person moving from one social class to a higher social class. A downward mobility indicates a person have lowered his or her living standards. As I begin to look over my family past, I can see a noticeable change that has occurred over the generations. I begin to realize my family’s journey overtime and how far we have come. My parents are now retired from their jobs that they have worked for many of years. My brother and I are still working; however we of us have realized that things have changed with time. The changes that we have......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Challenges of Mobility

...workspace design section or the change to use trust-based working time (job design section) could be two specific practices leading to resistance and skepticism because those practices could be a dramatic change for some employees. Besides, the view that turnover always has negative consequences has been common sense over the last decades and many employees (also those in responsible positions) grew up with this view. Telling them now that the new approach is to stay connected with former employees through an alumni system constitutes a major change for those employees who need to overcome the way they were handling turnover during their entire career. Secondly, the implementation of the described HR system to create value in the sight of mobility could be a huge investment for the firm. Compared to finance, marketing or production, though, it is not that straightforward to show the specific financial gains for certain HR practices like lounge areas because it is very difficult to calculate and predict real numbers in this respect. Numbers, though, are the “language of business” and executives deciding about the implementation of the program could be highly skeptical because the costs are high (e.g. getting a software and new employees for the alumni system) and the gains are unclear. In a similar direction leads the fact that the more sophisticated your HR system should be, i.e. the more specific practices you offer, the higher the costs for those. Hence, the......

Words: 1654 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


... Mobility Case Study NU 1326 Christopher Vang April 7 2015 Dealing with immobile patients is a big part of a registered nurse’s daily tasks. Mrs. Simmons a 78 year old patient who fell and broke her hip must be carefully monitored so that she does not develop further health problems. It is important to monitor and act accordingly with immobile patients, because failure to do so can result in health risks and complications. Not only do immobile patients require a different level of care, their rehabilitation is also different based on the reason as to why they are immobile. Besides keeping the patient safe and secure it is also important to keep the attending nurse safe by using the proper lifting and moving techniques, as well as the proper devices to assist in moving patients. Therefore to provide the best care for the patient, the nurse must be knowledgeable about the consequences on immobility and the steps to counter them. Being on bed rest has its benefits as well as its drawbacks for the patients. Prolonged bed rest can have negative impacts on the body, which if not taken care of can cause life-threatening situations. One of the biggest difficulties of prolonged bed rest is a pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers are sores that develop from extended pressure on a bony part of the body most commonly found on the backside. Nurses can help to prevent such sores by rotating the patient on a regulated schedule, making sure the patient is clean and dry, as well as changing......

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Social Mobility

...Social Mobility Paper Steven Simmons Sr. Sociology 100 May 3, 2010 Sally Wickers Social Mobility Changes from generation to generation are the norm in the evolution of life. Things in society are not the same between child and parent or between parent and grandparent. The laws change to make life better for the citizens. Jobs, education, fashion, technology and politics all change as times goes on. The commonalities shared between my grandparents, parents and myself are few and far in between. The music I listen to today is not the same type of music my parents listened to. The type of education I receive today is nowhere near the type of music my grandparents listened to. The world changes all the time and we as people have to adjust to change or we will be left behind to become extinct. My grandmother graduated from high school then graduated from Grambling State University with two degrees, a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree. My grandmother worked as a teacher for 30 plus years before retiring. My grandmother was born and raised in Arcadia, Louisiana. She moved to Sacramento, California for several years then decided to move back to Grambling Louisiana, where she currently resides. My grandmother is a church going women, who attends the Church of Christ. She had three boys and five girls. She is a loving grandmother and always has been. She did not and does not condone physical correction. She believed in talking to us and allowed our conscience to......

Words: 785 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Support for Mobility

...Unit 46: Provide Support for Mobility 1.1 Define mobility According to Oxford Dictionary, mobility is the ability to move or be moved freely and easily. It can be also described as the quality of moveing freely. 1.2 Explain how different health conditions may affect and be affected by mobility The mobility of a client depends on many factors. One of them is health condition. For example stroke can paralise and affect one side of the body (arm, leg) and make that side weak. People who had stroke very often have to learn how to walk again, very often they drag one leg because they lost control over it. Also dexterity is affected at the same time one arm is paralised so they can’t hold cutlery properly, do buttons or zip ups. On the other hand mobility and exercises contibute to recovering and person’s wellbeing. Another condition that can affect mobility is Urinary Tract Infection. Often people are unsteady on their feet or even stop walking at all. Also constipation can affect people’s mobility, experiencing pain can stop them from mobilising and make them reluctant to move or participate In social life. On the other hand decreased mobility affects constipation by making it worse. Also other conditions like loss of sight or hearing affect mobility quite profoundly and make people more vulnerable. 1.3 Outline the effects that reduced mobility may have on an individual’s wellbeing Physical effects like being prone to pressure sores or......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Social Mobility Is an Unrealistic Fantasy

...! The Unrealistic Fantasy The Disney movie Aladdin demonstrates that social mobility is just an unrealistic fantasy to be achieved, by the way the film shows Aladdin’s opportunities— street rat vs. prince, how the Genie acts as welfare for Aladdin, and through the lack of privileges that Aladdin experienced throughout the movie. There is no doubt that Aladdin portrays the poverty victims in Agrabah, the Genie represents as the Government, and Jasmine corresponds with the rich. All of these factors creates an impractical real life scenario of jumping the social classes the way Aladdin did. First of all, there is no surprise that Aladdin is treated very different from the beginning of the movie, to when he becomes a prince. One of the very first examples you can see this being displayed is during the song “One Jump Ahead”. In this scene Aladdin is chased around the city’s streets of Agrabah by guards because he can’t afford to pay for the food he stole. Based on the ragged clothes he wore, with patches in his pants, the town labels him as riffraff, a street rat, and a scoundrel, just like the lyrics in the song. However, when he is a prince, Aladdin gets a grand parade entering the city on the way to the palace. He was treated different by the 
 Norman,2 people because of the way he was dressed and how he was presented. He no longer had on old ragged cloths, and now wore an expensive wardrobe fit for a prince. The crowed did not mock him nor call him names...

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mobility of Factors

...Factor of production mobility refers to the ability to move factors of production—labor, capital, or land—out of one production process into another. Factor mobility may involve the movement of factors between firms within an industry, as when one steel plant closes but sells its production equipment to another steel firm. Mobility may involve the movement of factors across industries within a country, as when a worker leaves employment at a textile firm and begins work at an automobile factory. Finally, mobility may involve the movement of factors between countries either within industries or across industries, as when a farm worker migrates to another country or when a factory is moved abroad. The standard assumptions in the trade literature are that factors of production are freely (i.e., without obstruction) and costlessly mobile between firms within an industry and between industries within a country but are immobile between countries. The rationale for the first assumption—that factors are freely mobile within an industry—is perhaps closest to reality. The skills acquired by workers and the productivity of capital are likely to be very similar across firms producing identical or closely substitutable products. Although there would likely be some transition costs incurred, such as search, transportation, and transaction costs, it remains reasonable to assume for simplicity that the transfer is costless. As a result, this assumption is rarely relaxed. The assumption......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Effective Communication with Passengers with Reduced Mobility in Select Airlines at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3

...Reduced Mobility in Select Airlines at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3 A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of Institute of Liberal Arts and Sciences In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of the Bachelor of Arts Major in Aviation Communication Katrina Angelika T. Natividad 2015 Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Communication has always been an integral part in every industry. It binds people and helps build connection for greater understanding, safety and for better service. According to Aksoy and Dernadis, in an industry like aviation, grave accidents like aircraft crashes and mid-air collision could happen if there is a miscommunication between persons or lack of communication of important information. (2007) The research is aimed at looking into the effective communication between handicapped passengers and airport and airline personnel. “Persons with disabilities make up a significant and growing percentage of the world’s population and constitute the world’s largest minority. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that this number is increasing through population growth, medical advances and the ageing process.” (“UN International Civil Aviation”, 2013) The researcher wants to know the instruments and materials, procedures and guidelines that the airline and airport use in order to accommodate the handicapped passengers in the airport. 1.2 Related Literature From 2011 to 2013, Ninoy Aquino International......

Words: 1506 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Economic Mobility

...Yallander Ford Eng 101-113 Prof. Susan Horowitz April 4, 2012 This idea of economic mobility, which is defined, as one’s ability to move up the economic ladder by means of hard work and a good education, is an idea deeply entrenched in the Psyche of the American society. It is taken for granted that once you obtain a college education and have a good work ethic, you will move through the economic rank. However, this premise is being severely challenged and by all accounts, not holding up. This is a point reverberated by both Holly Sklar in her piece “The Growing Gulf Between the Rich and the Rest of Us” and the publication “The Economist through their piece “Inequality and the American dream.” Holly dismisses this idea by pointing out the fact that we have become a downward rather than an upward mobile society. This is quite evident when you examine the growing gap between the rich and the rest of us. She points out that median household income has fallen for the fifth year running, while at the other end of the spectrum the opposite holds true. She argues that to make it in the Forbes 400, one would have to amass $900 million, an increase of $150 million from four years ago. Sklar states they are bringing windfall profits to companies like Bechtel while they suspend regulations that shore up wages for workers. This is based on the no-bid contract given to father and son team Bechtel, although they had budget overruns and performed a shoddy job on a prior government......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

WiFi Ralph - Quebrando a Internet Legendado Torrent (2018) Download DVDsrc | Japan, USA | Tokyo Ghoul √A