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Investigating Attachment Types Across Different Cultures Plan

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Piajasmin
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Cultural Variation

Investigating attachment types across different cultures
AO1:
1. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988
Method: meta-analysis of 32 studies.
Findings: cultural similarity – secure attachment is most common in both collectivist and individualist societies. Cultural difference – more insecure resistant in collectivist (27% in Japan while 3% in UK). 1.5% greater variation within cultures. Shows there is variation both between and within cultures.
2. Ainsworth Uganda Project 1967
Method: observed different universals in attachment behaviour in SS.
Findings: cultural similarity - infants observed in Uganda used mother as a secure base for exploration which is similar to UK and US cultures. Suggests there isn’t cultural variation.
3. Grossman and Grossman 1991
Method: studied German children in SS.
Findings: cultural difference – German children found to be more insecure avoidant than securely attached due to individualistic culture and emphasis on independence, unlike collectivist cultures which emphasise dependence and cooperation. Suggests there are cultural differences.
AO2:
1. Weakness of Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg = small samples.
TIAPB only 1 study was in UK, Sweden and China and 2 in Israel, so to base judgement about attachment types of a whole nation on one study is biased not representative of that population.
Therefore reliability decreases because findings are hard to generalise as study is not representative or applicable to all children in that culture.
2. Weakness = biased sample.
TIAPB all 32 studies were carried out in westernised cultures with similar messages about childrearing in the media (18 in US…) so the studies all have an element of bias, especially to American culture which is different from others.
Therefore validity decreases as analysis is not testing cross cultural variation as many studies took place…...

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