Free Essay

Ipv6

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By brookielynn
Words 2131
Pages 9
IPv6

Abstract

Due to the overwhelming global response to the release of the internet there has been a diminished capacity of available network addresses. Although the internet community was aware of this as early as the late 1980s it was not until the mid 1990s that they developed a solution known as IPv6 or Internet Protocol version 6. This updated version boasts many advantages but the transition process has been slow and there are many obstacles to full deployment. However, IPv6 must be deployed soon since there will be no address space left within IPv4. As access to the internet increases and a greater number of networks are created there is a need to create more address space on the web. Forecasters have predicted there will be a total depletion of IPv4 addresses sometime between 2010 and 2012 (Bradner, n.d.). However, there is relief in sight for the address exhausted IPv4 system, Internet Protocol version 6. This newer version has vastly expanded address space and new features to simplify the address assignment process. Although it was designed in the 1990s this system is still considered “new” and in 2008 was used less than 1% in internet enabled hosts in any country (IETF Tools, n.d.). In the late 1980s it became evident that there was a crunch on the number of addresses the IPv4 could assign. No one could have predicted that the internet would have gained the widespread popularity and accessibility that it has over the past three decades. However, in the 1990s IPv6 was introduced and in 1994 adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force. At this time it was referred to as the IPng or Internet Protocol Next Generation. It was hoped that IPv6 would catch on quickly and spread across the globe but progress has been slow; especially with the introduction of network address translation (Grossetete, 2006, 18). NAT has partially alleviated the problem of address exhaustion but also makes it difficult to use some peer-to-peer applications such as Voice over Internet Protocol and multi-user games. With the full adoption and implementation of IPv6 internet users will find many improved internet services. The IPv6 packet is composed of three main parts: the fixed header, optional extension headers, and the payload. The fixed header makes up the first 320 bits of an IPv6 data packet and contains the source and destination address as well as the traffic classification options, a hop counter, and an indication of the next header. The next header field can either lead to a chain of zero or more extension headers. Extension headers carry the directions for a packet along the way or at its destination, including special instruction for routing, fragmenting, and security. The last next header field points to the upper-layer protocol that is carried in the packet’s payload. A payload can have a size of up to 64 KB or larger with a jumbo payload option is chosen in the Hop-by-Hop extension header. Internet service around the globe will improve from the implementation of the IPv6 system. Most notably, cell phones and mobile devices will each receive a unique and permanent address. Currently, the IPv4 system has the capability to support just over 4 billion addresses. Unfortunately, even with a number this large, it is not enough to assign every person in the world with an address, much less support all of the phones, PDAs, cars, etc. that request internet access. Luckily, the IPv6 will support 340 undecillion addresses (History of the IPng Effort, n.d.). However, it was not the intent to provide everyone with an address its just one of the many advantages of the IPv6 system. The most important feature of the Ipv6 is the capability to have an address 128 bits long. While this does support an increase in the number of addresses that can be assigned it also changes the length of the address. A longer address will allow for a better, systematic, hierarchical allocation of addresses and efficient route aggregation. IPv4 renumbering an existing network was a major effort but with IPv6 the process is simplified. By changing the prefix announced by a few routers an entire network can be renumbered. This is due to the fact that the host identifiers can be independently self-configured by a host. When an IPv6 host is connected to a routed IPv6 network it will automatically configure itself using the Internet Control Message Protocol. The ICMP is an integral part of IPv6 that performs error reporting, neighbor discovery, and diagnostic functions. Using the ICMP a host, when first connected to a network, will send a link-local multi-cast router solicitation request for its configuration (Davies, 2008, 58). If the configuration is appropriate router will respond with a router advertisement packet. This packet will contain network-layer configuration parameters. If the configuration is unsuitable hosts can be configured in one of two ways, through stateful configuration with the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol or statically. Another advantage in IPv6 is the ability to send a single packet to multiple destinations, or multicast. This is in contrast to IPv4 which uses a broadcast system to send a packet to all hosts on the attached link. Instead, the IPv6 sends a packet to the link-local all hosts multicast group. This revision is because the broadcast address for a specific subnet in Ipv4 is considered a normal address in IPv6. Unfortunately, at this time most environments do not have their network infrastructures configured to route multicast packets. However, you can still multicast on a single subnet but multicasting globally will not work. Another advantage to the IPv6 multicast is that even the smallest IPv6 global routing prefix assigned to an organization also allows the organization the use of globally routable source specific IPv6 multicast groups to assign for inner-domain or cross-domain multicast applications. IPv6 also includes Embedded Rendezvous Point which simplifies the deployment of cross domain solutions. Simplicity is one of the main advantages to using IPv6. The packet headers and process of packet forwarding has been made more efficient by simplifying the packet processing by routers. First, many of the rarely used IPv4 fields have been moved to separate options creating IPv6 addresses that are four times larger but only have a header that is twice the size of the IPv4. Also, the IPv6 header is not protected by a checksum. This is due to the fact that a double check is assumed to be performed at the link layer and a higher layer. Therefore, routers do not need to recompute a checksum when header fields change. Finally, routers are no longer required to compute the time that a packet has spent in a queue or perform fragmentation. Lastly, another advantage of the IPv6 network is its mobility. Mobile IPv4 uses triangular routing but Mobile IPv6 avoids this and therefore is just as efficient as the normal IPv6. If an IPv6 router supports Network Mobility or NEMO then entire subnets will be allowed to move to a new router connection point without renumbering. Despite its many advantages a complete deployment of IPv6 is not possible. In order to make the change from IPv4 to IPv6 as smooth as possible a transition system will have to be put into place meaning that IPv4 and IPv6 will have to coexist until all systems are able to support IPv6. One of the fundamental transition technologies involves the presence of two Internet Protocol software implementations in an operating system, one for IPv4 and the other for IPv6. This is known as a dual stack. These dual stack IP hosts have the availability to run IPv4 and IPv6 independently of one another or through hybrid implementation. This form is more commonly implemented in modern operating systems on server and end-user computers. Hybrid dual stack implementations allow programmers to write networking code that works transparently on IPv4 or IPv6. The software allows for IPv4 or IPv6 packets to be accepted but the address is represented in a special IPv6 address which is actually an IPv4 mapped address (Grossetete, 2006, 126). Unfortunately, due to the significant internal differences between IPv4 and IPv6 some of the lower level functionality in IPv6 is not available to programmers. There are also common IPv6 stacks that do not support the IPv4 mapped address feature; the two stacks are different implementations such as XP and Server 2003 or because of security concerns. Tunneling is the technique used to get IPv6 packets to the IPv6 Internet through the IPv4 infrastructure. Generally, the IPv6 datagrams are encapsulated in IPv4 packets indicated with a specific protocol number. However, the IPv6 can also be encapsulated within the UDP packets or through other ways as used in AYIYA or GRE (Davies, 2008, 178). In configured tunneling the tunnel endpoints are configured explicitly either by an administrator or by the operating system’s configuration mechanisms. Closely related to this is automated tunneling when the tunnel endpoints are configured by a tunnel broker or automatic service. However, in large, well-administered networks it is recommended that configured tunneling is used because it is more deterministic and easier to debug. The advantage to automated tunneling is the compromise between the ease of use and the deterministic behavior of configured tunneling. Other barriers to a complete deployment of IPv6 include problems with hardware and equipment as well as consumer buy-in. Existing hardware and equipment poses a problem for several reasons. First, some of the companies that originally manufactured the hardware no longer exist or the manufacturer refuses to support the upgrade because it is too expensive. Second, some of the equipment is so dated that upgrades are impossible or the device has insufficient resources to implement the IPv6 stack. Finally, in some devices IPv6 is supported but it has poor performance results. Consumer buy-in is also a block to full deployment of IPv6. Often times the consumer is not looking ahead at what they will need, they are looking to the most cost and time efficient solution. Plus, at the moment the consumer doesn’t recognize or see any of the existing problems with address exhaustion. Publicity and education are expensive therefore many people are unaware that an address exhaustion problem even exists. Small consumers are the ones most likely to suffer because they often view networking devices in the same manner as small appliances; they rarely need repairs and never have to be configured or updated. IPv6 is definitely not something that drives consumer purchases. But, with only a few years before a universal upgrade to IPv6 there are many devices that will not function. It is mainly a software issue that prevents devices from working. Therefore smart equipment that contains software will need explicit IPv6 support and manufacturers have not shown an interest in updating equipment so that it will support IPv6 when it becomes necessary. Manufacturers, at this time do not want to spend money on development costs for hardware that has already been sold when they can make more money from the “IPv6” ready sales of equipment. Mainly, there is just a hope that somehow IPv4 and IPv6 will be able to coexist and streamline the transition (IETF Tools, n.d.). This leaves the internet community divided on the issue of whether it should be a quick switch or longer transition and whether or not they should require all internet servers to be prepared to serve IPv6 clients only in the near future. That near future is closing in quickly as the demand for internet address space on IPv4 increases and the amount of addresses available diminishes. Even with its many advantages manufacturers and consumers are slow to adopt IPv6. Hopefully, as small consumers are made more aware of the issue it will gain publicity and manufactures and the internet community as a whole will being to make moves and decisions that lead to the complete deployment of IPv6. If the Y2K disaster taught internet users anything, hopefully, it is that the best prevention is early intervention.
References
Bradner, S., & Mankin, A. (n.d.). RFC 1752 - The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol. IETF Tools. Retrieved June 5, 2010, from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1752
Davies, J. (2008). Understanding IPv6, Second Edition (2 ed.). Washington D.C.: Microsoft Press.
Grossetete, P., Levy-Abegnoli, E., & Popoviciu, C. (2006). Deploying IPv6 Networks (Networking Technology) (1 ed.). Indianapolis: Cisco Press.
Hagen, S. (2006). IPv6 Essentials (2 ed.). Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media, Inc..
History of the IPng Effort. (n.d.). Playground.Sun.COM. Retrieved June 2, 2010, from http://playground.sun.com/ipv6/doc/history.html
RFC 5214 - Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP). (n.d.). IETF Tools. Retrieved June 15, 2010, from http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5214…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ipv6 Is Inevitable

...IPv6 is inevitable Ever wonder how a computer reaches out to another computer? Ever wonder why it’s called an email address? The quick answer is that computers, much like our homes, have an address; better yet, an IP address. This is how a computer’s “mail” (data packets) is delivered. These addresses are right now known as IPv4 addresses. And much like real world addresses, they can be broken down the same way we do with addresses of apartment complexes and high rise buildings. But much like the limits of real world addressing, IPv4 is near reaching its limit. This will eventually lead us into the realm of IPv6. IPv4 is the current form of addressing being used for the Internet and TCP/IP data traffic. It consists of five classes (A, B, C, D, E), and uses a 32-bit structure broken down into four 8-bit octets. IPv4 gives up to 4.3 billion addresses. However, as we will find out later, that is quickly reaching its limit due to rapid growth of the internet. IPv6 a new form of addressing that uses a 128-bit address structure. This will greatly expand the possible number of users. The IPv6 address format uses hexadecimal addressing separated by colons instead of dotted decimal. It can give up to 340 undecillion addresses (340 with 36 zeros). But, it is not backwards compatible with IPv4. Currently, the number of vacant IPv4 addresses is down to 5%. Europe’s RIPE NCC (Reseaux IP Eutopeens Network Coordination Centre) expects to allocate the last of its addresses by midyear....

Words: 656 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ipv6

...Provides an overview of IP addressing, the current standard IPv4 and the future standard of IPv6. Explains the limitations of IPv4 and the reasoning behind looking for an alternative IP addressing protocol. Addresses the advantages of the new IPv6 addressing technology with improved security, auto-configuration abilities, and improvement in routing. Explores mobile IPv6 features and the concerns with deploying IPv6 now and in the future. Studies Comcast as the first early-adopter of the technology and both their need for the adoption so early in the game and how they deployed the technology without interrupting service to customers. Investigates what steps need to be taken to deploy IPv6 with regard to current hardware still running IPv4, such as tunnels and translators like NAT64 and ALG. Also discusses the security risks and difficulties with deploying the technology right now with recommendations on how to avoid potential attackers through IPv6. Explains stateful and stateless automatic configurations, the new features of IPv6, and flow labels that IPv6 uses to increase efficiency by prioritizing data to devices that are on the same path. Introduction to Internet Protocols Every machine has a unique identifier that differentiates it from other machines on a network. This number is called the Internet Protocol address. There are two different standards for IP addresses, IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 is the first version of the Internet Protocol address to be largely deployed,......

Words: 3006 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Ipv6

...IPv6 Jeremy Odom NT1430 Mr. McClain April 8, 2013 IPv6 What does IPv6 stand for? What exactly is IPv6? IPv6 stands for Internet Protocol version 6. IPv6 is the next generation internet protocol that is in the making of taking over the current internet protocol which is IPv4 or Internet Protocol version 4. Continue reading to learn more about IPv6. “The current version of the Internet Protocol IPv4 was first developed in the 1970s, and the main protocol standard RFC 791 that governs IPv4 functionality was published in 1981. With the unprecedented expansion of Internet usage in recent years - especially by population dense countries like India and China. The impending shortage of address space (availability) was recognized by 1992 as a serious limiting factor to the continued usage of the Internet run on IPv4. With admirable foresight, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) initiated as early as in 1994, the design and development of a suite of protocols and standards now known as Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), as a worthy tool to phase out and supplant IPv4 over the coming years. There is an explosion of sorts in the number and range of IP capable devices that are being released in the market and the usage of these by an increasingly tech savvy global population. The new protocol aims to effectively support the ever-expanding Internet usage and functionality, and also address security concerns. IPv6 uses a128-bit address size compared with the 32-bit......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ipv6

...IPv6 First I would like to state that I have a bit of a beef with IPv6 and the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) for developing it the way they did. I’m not saying that I am smarter than they are or that a new version of the internet protocol isn’t very very needed, but why does the IPv6 format have to be hexadecimal. Numerical digits were working just fine and were pretty easy to memorize. Now network engineers have to find a way to either memorize or securely record eight four digit hexadecimal octets. I mean why not throw some wingding characters in the mix too and while you’re at, let’s throw some different colors in. Could they make it any more difficult to remember? When it comes to Secret, Top Secret, TS/SCI, and above networks how are the network engineers supposed to build, maintain, and expand their networks at the same pace as with IPv4? I mean you can’t write the Secret IP’s or subnets down, well you’re not supposed to anyway. Of course they will have classified documents and network diagrams and notebooks, but that kind of stuff would have to be kept in a safe and you would have to go through a whole process just to take a look at your books. With all that said, I will have to give them credit for developing an IP format that will have a ton more addresses and will take so much longer to exhaust and is much more secure than its predecessor. Ok, with that part out of the way let’s take a look at the history of IPv6. The need for a new......

Words: 1846 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Ipv4 and Ipv6

...Corlynn Wright IT 221 Mr. H 9/19/13 Introduction to Networking Concepts Fill in the Blank 1. The most widely used IP addressing scheme is IPv4 2. The most recent and largest address space IP addressing scheme is IPv6 3. To distribute IP addresses automatically, a network administrator would configure the DHCP service. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 4. The first attempt at breaking up IP address space used classfull addressing to provide address ranges of differing sizes. 5. Prior to the introduction of the Domain Name System, computers used HOSTS files to map human-readable named to IP addresses. 6. A(n) subnet mask is used to separate the host address portion of an IP address from the network address. 7. The subnet mask within the TCP/IP configuration is used to distinguish the network address from the host address. 8. In dotted-decimal notation, each IPv4 address is broken up into four octets. 9. Server computers and other systems that need to be accessed reliably by network clients should be configured with a(n) static IP address 10. The method of breaking up IP address space into address ranges of flexible size is called Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Multiple Choice 1. What must each host on a TCP/IP network be configured with in order to communicate with other hosts? IP address......

Words: 418 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ipv6

...IP v6 IPv6 or Internet Protocol Version 6 is currently the newest revision or version of the Internet Protocol. A type of communication protocol which is formal description of digital message formats; when communicating between computers using the internet connections. IPv6 is vastly similarly to IPv4 in many of its features still intact; providing different numerical IP addresses for internet compatible devices. IPv6 is considered the successor to IPv4 and to attend to the issues of IPv4. One of the major issues with IPv4 is that it utilizes 32-bits for the addresses it outlines, that is a fixed number; while being large in size many address are being taken over time will run out of addresses. IPv6 attempts to tackle this issue with its new feature, the utilization of 128-bits internet addresses. The IPv4 use 32 bits for the addresses it applies to internet devices, to determine how many IP this can provide is as simple as 2 to 32nd power which is about 4.30 billion unique addresses; these is the current amount of addresses for IPv4; still a fixed number. With steadily raising IP address being taken by our ever growing technology base world, our current demand for IP addresses is soon going to reach the limit at one point. The IETF or The Internet Engineering Task Force, decide to develop IPv6 to help address this issue before it becomes a major issue in the future. IPv6 is considerably larger in its unique address that it needs hexadecimal to help portray the unique......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ipv6

...Brett Baker NT1430 Research Paper In this paper I am going to tell you about IPv6 and IPv4. Also going to let you know aout DHCP and a sample configuration for DCHP. We will look at the differences and the similarities between IPv6 and IPv4. Also will be looking at how DHCP can be configured in Linux. In the next couple paragraphs, you will see these listed. IPv4 is the fourth version of Internet protocol which uses 32 bit addressing whereas IPv6 is a next generation internet protocol which uses 128 bits addressing. IPv4 allows 4,294,967,296 unique addresses whereas IPv6 can hold 340-undecillion unique IP addresses. IPv4 address notation: 239.255.255.255, 255.255.255.0. IPv6 addresses are denoted by eight groups of hexadecimal quartets separated by colons in between them. An example of a valid IPv6 address: 2001:cdba:0000:0000:0000:0000:3257:9652. (http://tianrunhe.wordpress.com/2012/04/25/compare-and-contrast-ipv4-and-ipv6/) When a DHCP client system connects to the network, dhclient requests a lease from the DHCP server and configures the client's network interface(s). Once a DHCP client has requested and established a lease, it stores information about the lease in a file nameddhclient.leases, which is stored in the /var/lib/dhclient directory. This information is used to reestablish a lease when either the server or the client needs to reboot. The DHCP client configuration file, /etc/dhclient.conf, is required only for custom configurations. The......

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ipv4 vs Ipv6`

...IPv4 vs. Ipv6 Internet Protocol (IP) is a set of technical rules that defines the network computer connections. There are two primary types of IP. Versions IP 4 and IP 6 IPv4 is the first version of IP to be the most used worldwide. This IP manages most of today’s internet traffic. There are over 4 billion IPv4 addresses, yet there are still not enough IP addresses for the world so something new had to be found. IPv6 is the next version of the growing and improving Internet Protocol. This was deployed in 1999. This new version meets the world’s IP addressing requirements for a very long time. The main difference between IPv4 and IPv6 are number of IP addresses each version contains. There are approximately 4,000,000,000 IP addresses in IPv4, which is 32bit. IPv6 has over 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 possible IP addresses because IPv6 is 128bit. Both versions work together with the Internet, but most all new IP addresses added to the Internet all come from IPv6 rather than IPv4 now because of the faster speeds and more options. IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long (4 bytes). The addresses are defined by host portion. The IP addresses are depended on address classes. In the 4,294,967,296 IPv4 addresses are available to the world; take the example IP address in the format 0000.0000.0000.0000 where each 0 could actually be a number from 0-9. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits long (16 bytes). Basic network architecture is defined as 64 bits and also hosts......

Words: 1604 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Ipv6

...IPv6 Protocol Text from presentation Sl2: Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 1998 (RFC2460) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. Sl3: Every device on the Internet must be assigned an IP address in order to communicate with other devices. With the ever-increasing number of new devices being connected to the Internet, the need arose for more addresses than IPv4 is able to accommodate. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, allowing 2128, or 340×1036 addresses (340 undecillion addresses). IPv4 (32-bit address) allows only approximately 4.3 billion addresses. Sl5: The main advantages of IPv6: * Larger address space * Stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC) * Simplified processing by routers * Jumbograms Sl6: SLAAC IPv6 hosts can configure themselves automatically when connected to an IPv6 network using the Neighbor Discovery Protocol via Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) router discovery messages. When first connected to a network, a host sends a link-local router solicitation multicast request for its configuration parameters; routers respond to such a request with a router advertisement packet that contains Internet Layer configuration......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ipv6 Addressing

...IPv6 Addressing * Research the following organizations and explain their involvement with the Internet public IP addresses: a) American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) - Provides services related to the technical coordination and management of Internet number resources in its respective service region. ARIN manages the distribution of IPv4 and IPv6 address space and Autonomous System Numbers. b) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) - The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of ICANN responsible for coordinating some of the key elements that keep the Internet running smoothly. Specifically, IANA allocates and maintains unique codes and numbering systems that are used in the technical standards (“protocols”) that drive the Internet. c) Asia-Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) - APNIC provide Internet registry services to the highest possible standards of trust, neutrality, and accuracy. They also provide information, training, and supporting services to assist the community in building and managing the Internet. * Approximately how many IPv4 addresses are possible? * 4.29 billion * Approximately how many IPv6 addresses are possible? * 340 undecillion * Why do you think the world is running out of IPv4 addresses? * The world is running out of IPv4 addresses since people are increasing and the addresses are limited. * How long do you think it will take before the IPv4 addresses are......

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ipv6 Addressing

...NT1230 Unit 3. Assignment 1. Ipv6 Addressing 1. A. American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)- Provides services involving technical coordination and management of internet number resources. They support the internet through the management of internet number resources and coordinates the development of policies for the management of IP number resources. They also provide services for technical coordination and management of internet number resources in its respective services region. The services include IP address space allocation and ASN allocation, transfer and record maintenance. B. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)- Responsible for the allocation of globally unique names and numbers that are used in Internet protocols that are published as RFC documents and for coordinating some of the key components that keep the internet running efficiently. They allocate and maintain unique codes and numbering systems that are used in the technical standards/protocols that drive the internet. Among such protocols are the domain names, number resources and Protocol assignments. C. Asia-Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC)- An organization that manages the internet number resources within Asia. They provide the number resource allocation and registration services that support the global operation of the internet. 2. An Ipv4 uses 32 bit IP addresses. The max number of of IPv4 addresses is about 4 billion. 3.The max number of Ipv6 addresses is about 48......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ipv6 Addressing

...Unit 3 Assignment 1 IPv6 Addressing 1. Research the following organizations and explain their involvement with the internet public IP addresses.   * American Registry for internet Numbers (ARIN)   IP address space allocation & transfer and record maintenance. Directories Registration transaction information (WHOIS) Routing information DNS (Reverse)   * Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) IANA coordinates the global pool of IP and AS numbers. It provides the Regional Internet Registries.   * Asia-Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) APNIC allocates IPv4 & IPv6 address space. Mantins the public Whois Database for the Asia Pacific region. Also represents the interests of the Asia Pacific Internet community on the global stage.   2. Approximately how many IPv4 addresses are possible? 32 bit. About 4.294 Billion addresses.   3. Approximately how many IPv6 addresses are possible? 128 bit. IPv6 can theoretically hold 2^128 IP addresses.   4. Why do you think the world is running out of IPv4 addresses? Because it is popular and there are many computers and cellphones, tablets all connected to a IP address.   5. How long do you think it will take before the IPv4 addresses are completely exhausted? I believe they have ran out already. Everything I read said that it should of ran out by 2012.   6. Since IPv6 is the long-term solution for this issue, why do you think we are still using the assigning IPv4 addresses on the internet? I...

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ipv6 Addressing

...Unit 3 Assignment: IPv6 Addressing Cuneo, Thomas / NT1230 4-5-13 Research the following organizations and explain their involvement with the internet public IP addresses. a. American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN): The non-profit corporation responsible for managing internet number resources (IPv4 and IPv6 addresses). The need for this organization is due to the internet addresses being unique and limited there is a need for some control and allocate address number blocks. b. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): This entity oversees global IP address location, autonomous system number location, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol related symbols and numbers. This department is also operated by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). c. Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC): Organization that manages the assignment of the Internet number resources within the Asian continent. They also set the rules and regulations/standards that all designated organizations must abide by and implement. One of their purposes is to provide standard-based inter-networking methods for IPv4 and IPv6 across such networks as Ethernet and so forth. 1. How many IPv4 addresses are possible? There are approx. 4,294,967,295 (4.3 billion) 2. How many IPv6 addresses are possible? There are about 3.4x10^38 (18 quintillion) 3. Why do you think the world is running out of IPv4 addresses?......

Words: 377 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Unit 3 Ipv6 Addressing

...maximum number of potential IPv4 addresses is 4,294,967,926 and they are running out. IPv6 is being introduced to replace IPv4. There are potentially 340 trillion, 282 billion, 366 million, 920 thousand, 938 followed by 24 zeroes (also known as 2 to the power of 128) IPv6 addresses available. I think the world is running out of IPv4 addresses because almost everyone has one device or more that require an IP address. Also, some companies requested more IP addresses than they needed and they are sitting dormant waiting to be used. According to some estimates the IPv4 addresses will be depleted sometime within this year. Other estimates suggest 2037 as the year of depletion. APNIC ran out of IP addresses on 4/15/2011, IANA ran out of IP addresses on 2/3/2013 and a third estimate says that ARIN will run out on 3/22/2015. IPv6 has not gone mainstream yet because of Network Address Translation (NAT). NAT allows you to use a single IPv4 address for each office, regardless of the number of systems in the office, and also allows a network to have an IPv6 address outside the firewall. Many Internet service providers do not have a deadline for moving to IPv6 and some don’t even offer IPv6 addresses or services yet. Making the switch would require a software update and in some cases new hardware for some devices. Several of the older devices do not support IPv6 although some servers can support both IPv4 and IPv6 allowing the devices to talk to each other but it can contribute to the......

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Project Charter Ipv4 Ipv6

...|Evaluation and Consideration for change from IPv4 to IPv6 | |Description |There are insufficient IP addresses under IPv4; around middle 2012 the stock will be gone. All institution, Company, | | |Organization must change to IPv6, and to avoid competitive disadvantage and get the challenge new application in the | | |future | |Company |Ncogroup inc, is a company with more than 100 offices around the world, all of them interconnect with a unique data | | |center in Horsham and other replication in Montreal | |Document Owners |Eduardo Lee Basso | |2.0 Business reasons for project | |Ability to continue operation with customers, partners and be more effectively | |Confront and afford new architectures and new technology is coming with IPv6 ......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

ian stanley | Christian Ullenboom - Java ist auch eine Insel: Programmieren lernen mit dem Standardwerk für Java-Entwickler, aktuell zu Java 8. Ausgabe 2016 | IMDb: 7 HD Ghost in the Shell: The New Movie