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The Introduction Phase of the Speaking Test 本人善于从网络收集大量雅思资料,当然,都是相当实用的,对于自己复习的学生,可以看看我发的帖子,都是相当有用的!今天,一如以往,我找到了一个绝对对于中国学生在口语PART1中有用的东西!以下内容是从事多年雅思考试的外国朋友总结的,全部英文。-如果你连下面的内容也看不懂,要查字典的话,你的雅思成绩估计也就4分上下-(此话,是作者说的,不是我说的,哈哈)。


Note that EVERY candidate is asked these questions, exactly (or almost exactly) as they are written here.
The Standard Introduction Questions
1. “Good morning (good afternoon). My name’s X. Can you tell me your full name, please?” (= Please tell me your name.)
2. “What can I call you?” (= What shall I call you? = What should I call you? = What would you like me to call you?)
3. “Can you tell me where you’re from?” (= Where are you from?)
4. “Can I see your identification, please?” (= Could I see your identification, please? = May I see your identification, please?)
(The examiner is usually referred to as "he" on this page because writing, "he or she" is too cumbersome. Actually, about 40% of the examiners are female.)
The ‘Introductory’ phase of the test consists of a greeting from the examiner, followed by four questions. The main purpose of this part is to check the candidate’s identity. At the same time, the examiner begins to get an impression of the candidate’s English ability.
Although this is (indirectly) part of the test, you should not give long, detailed answers because:
a) Long, detailed answers are not appropriate for these questions and,
b) The examiner wants to do this part of the test quite quickly, in about 30 seconds.
Since this is the very beginning of the test and since the examiner wants to do this part quickly, try to avoid causing the examiner to ask you to repeat what you just said.
The four questions are standard questions that are used in every test. Therefore, since we know exactly what the questions will be, it is a good idea to look at them in order to avoid making unnecessary mistakes.
When the examiner first turns on the tape recorder, he makes a short statement into the tape recorder, stating such information as the date, location and the candidate’s name. * Then the examiner says something like: “Good morning. My name’s John. Could you tell me your full name, please?” * Many examiners say these three sentences together, without pausing after saying, “Good morning. My name's X.” Because the examiner does not pause to wait for the candidate to return the greeting, most candidates just answer the question without returning the greeting. However, it’s both good manners and more friendly to return a greeting. In other words, you should include “Good morning.” or “Good afternoon” in your answer. If you can catch the examiner’s name (without asking him to repeat it because he wants to do this section quite fast) then you should also include his or her name in your answer. * Don't say, “Good morning, Mr. John.” The words Mr., Miss, Mrs. and Ms. are only used before a person's surname and “John” is not (usually) a surname. The examiner usually just says his or her given name (first name), not their full name. * A suitable reply is: “Good morning, John. My name is Wang Jianfeng.” If you do not include his name, it doesn’t matter too much but remember that the examiner is a human being and hearing you say his name would be a pleasant surprise for him! He will think of you, “What a nice person!” * Throughout the speaking test, it is best to use the contracted forms of English whenever possible but in this first answer, it is perfectly appropriate to say, “My name is” rather than, “My name’s”. It is appropriate here because when a person states his or her name in a situation such as the IELTS interview, they usually want to say it very clearly so that the listener makes no mistake with the name. Don't forget, the examiner is verifying your identity here. * It’s ok to say, “Good morning, John. My full name is Wang Jianfeng.” but it’s not really necessary to repeat the word, “full”. However, you definitely must say your complete name – don’t just say, “My name’s Wang.” * Even though you are speaking a Chinese name, you still should speak it clearly for the foreigner. In fact, you should speak it more clearly than you would if you were speaking to a Chinese person. This is because it is important for the examiner to confirm that it really is you sitting there and not your brother or someone else. The examiner has your application form in front of him and your name is written on it in hanyu pinyin. Remember, the examiner does not want to waste time by asking you to repeat your name because he didn’t hear it clearly. * Don’t change the order of your name and say your name is, “Jianfeng Wang”. (Even if you do the test overseas, respect your Chinese naming system.)
Besides, your name will be written as, "Wang Jianfeng" on the application form, which is what the examiner is looking at as you say your name. * Don’t say, “My Chinese name is _____”. It is completely unnecessary to say the word, “Chinese” because the purpose here is to check your legal identity, that is, your real name; you only have one legal name and that is your Chinese name. The wording of the question, “... your full name ...” shows that this is a serious question and that the examiner wants you to say your real name. Your English name, if you have one, is no more significant than a nickname; you can change it at any time. * Don’t spell your name. (Only spell it if the examiner can't understand your pronunciation of it.) * Don’t say, “Wang is my family name and Jianfeng is my given name.” The question didn’t ask you to explain your name. Sometimes there is a Part 1 topic concerning ‘Names’ and in such a topic, explaining your name could be suitable. But not here. Saying that also gives the examiner the feeling that your answer comes from an IELTS book. You should avoid causing the examiner to think this because examiners very much prefer original answers from you. The only time when it might be appropriate to explain which is your surname and which is your given name is if you are a Chinese person doing the IELTS test overseas. * Don’t call the examiner, “Sir”, “Miss” or “Madame”. If you didn’t hear his or her name, just say, “Good morning.” without saying his or her name. Using “Sir”, “Miss” or “Madame” is a sign that you either consider the examiner to be a teacher or that you are being unnecessarily formal or that you consider the examiner to be your ‘superior’– you should think of the examiner as an equal, not as someone superior to you. If you think of the examiner as an equal, you will speak more openly, be more relaxed and get a better score than if you think he or she is a superior, or some kind of ‘examining god’. Remember, Westerners are usually less formal than Chinese people. * The examiner’s question was, “Could you tell me your full name, please?” and this sounds like a “Yes/No” question. However, this form of question is not really a “Yes/No” question; it’s an indirect question, which really means, “What is your full name?” Indirect questions are considered more polite than direct questions. * Whenever you are asked such an indirect question, you should not answer with, “Yes” or, “Yes, I could.” Native English speakers sometimes do answer such questions by first saying a very quick, “Yes” but you should not say that because the examiner might think that you think it really is a “Yes/No” question. * Some candidates give an answer such as this: “My name is Wang Jianfeng but you can call me Robert.” This answer is quite acceptable and quite natural in a non-test situation, for example, if you meet a foreigner on the bus. But I suggest you don't say that in the IELTS Speaking test because some examiners might think that you already knew what the second question is (“What can I call you?”) and that you had rehearsed your answer and examiners don’t like answers that seem to be obviously rehearsed.
Not only that, adding the words, “... but you can call me ...” in a situation where someone is verifying your identity is a little unsuitable. If a policeman or a bank clerk asked you, “Can you tell me your full name, please?” would you answer with, “My name is Wang Jianfeng but you can call me Robert” ? * In other words, I would say it is better not to add, “... but you can call me ...” after this question. Instead, wait for the examiner's second question. * Then the examiner will say: “What can I call you?” (Or, “What shall I call you?”)
With this question, the examiner is indicating that he or she would like to address you in the test with some name that is shorter and friendlier than your full name. This is a sign that the test will not be very formal and serious but will instead, to some extent, have some of the features of a friendly chat.
However, as I mentioned above, it is better to wait for the examiner to indicate this, with this second question, than for you to make the decision on the formality level of the test by saying, "... but you can call me ....". Let the examiner be in charge of the test. * You don’t need to use an English name! But if you do use an English name, make sure that it is simple and easy for the examiner to understand the first time you say it. It’s probably best to use a fairly commonly used name. For example, no English speaker chooses to be called, “Apple”, even as a nickname. This kind of name could cause the examiner to ask you to repeat your name because he might not be sure he heard it correctly. * If you do choose to say an English name, make sure that you can pronounce it correctly! Mispronouncing your own English (nick)name is an unnecessary mistake and would not give the examiner a very good impression. For example, if your English name is Harry, don’t say, “Just call me Hairy.” (See here for the meaning of "hairy".) Or, if your English name is Justin, don’t say, “Just call me Justine.”( Justine is the female form of Justin and is pronounced differently). * Occasionally, a candidate says something like, “Just call me by my English name, Yuki.” But Yuki (and Suki) are Japanese names, not English names. And ‘Pierre’ is a French name (meaning, Peter). You won't lose points in the Speaking test by making such errors but you won't impress the examiner with such basic errors of fact (not errors of English). If you use a name other than your Chinese name, find out if it is in fact an English name or not. * Most examiners in China are (or should be) used to candidates saying, “Just call me Xiao Wang” but, to be on the safe side, it might be better if you said, “Just call me Wang.” or, “Just call me Jianfeng.” without using the word “xiao”. * If you have a two-word name such as Liu Xiang and if this is what you would like to be called, don't say the name in exactly the same way as you said it in your answer to the first question. For example, for the first answer, you should say something like, “My name is Liu Xiang”, with the emphatic stress on your name. But for the second question, you should say something like, “Just call me Liu Xiang”, with the stress on the word “just”, not on your name this time because it is not something new. * If you use the word, ‘just’, don’t pronounce the ‘t’ – the ‘t’ is 95% silent (except when it is the last word of a sentence). * Many candidates say something like, “You can call me Stephen.” That answer is ok but you should not pronounce ‘can’ as ‘k?n’. Instead, you should pronounce it as ‘k?n’ or even, “k’n” – it should be pronounced in a quick, short way, not long as in ‘candle’ or ‘Canada’. (Hear the two ways to say, "can" here.)
‘Can’ is pronounced as ‘k?n’, a) when we ask a question – “Can you help me?”, “Can you swim?” and, b) when we want to emphasize, for example, when we say, “Yes, I can.” However, it is pronounced as ‘k?n’ or even, “k’n” when we speak sentences such as: “I can speak English”, “I can drive a car” and “She can play the piano.”
Some examiners will not notice the pronunciation of this word but even those who don’t notice will still feel that your English sounds natural if you say, ‘k?n’ or sounds a little unnatural if you say, ‘k?n’. * Don’t say, “You may call me Stephen.” because ‘may’, in this kind of situation, is used when giving permission to, or speaking to a person of inferior status. * Some candidates say: “You can call me by my English name, Stephen.” That’s acceptable but the examiner knows that Stephen is an English name, so why say it? Certainly, you should avoid the mistake of saying, “You can call me my English name, Stephen.” – this is a grammatical mistake – you must use the word, ‘by’ in this expression. Similarly, “You can call my English name, Stephen.” is incorrect. * Another acceptable answer is: “Please call me Stephen.” * Only say something such as, “All my friends call me Stephen” if it is true! Do your Chinese friends really call you ‘Stephen’? You want to avoid giving the examiner the impression that you learned answers like that from an IELTS book. * If you feel that it's suitable and interesting to tell the examiner where you got your English name or why you chose a certain English name, then it is quite natural to add a small comment about that. Examiners are interested in learning something new from candidates and they would like a naturally stated piece of extra information. But keep it very short. (The fact that your high school English teacher gave you your English name is not interesting enough to say in this situation.) * The third question that the examiner will ask you is: “Could you tell me where you’re from?” (Or, “Can you tell me where you’re from?”)
Again, this is an indirect question, which really means, “Please tell me where you’re from.” So don’t begin your answer with, “Yes.” * Just saying, “I'm from Heilongjiang” or “I'm from Harbin” is answering the question but, since these questions are checking your identity, you should give a more exact answer, i.e., don't just say the name of the province where you are from and don't just say the name of the city or town – say both. * In Chinese, you say the province first and then the city or town. But in English, it is the reverse of this – you should say the city or town first, followed by the name of the province. * Some candidates say: “I come from Shenyang, Liaoning Province.” That answer is not wrong but it could be a little better. How? By using the contracted form of English: “I’m from Shenyang, Liaoning Province.” As a general rule, you should use contracted English as much as you can, or as often as you remember in the IELTS Speaking test. It’s the natural way to speak English and it’s more fluent. * Definitely do not say: “I came from Shenyang, Liaoning Province.” The question is a present tense question and you should use the present tense in your answer. * For this question, it is suitable, (and perhaps a good idea) to add a small amount of extra information if you want but try to say it quickly and in a short sentence. For example you could say: “I’m from Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning Province.” Or, “I’m from Shenyang, Liaoning Province. That’s in north-east China.” (In that sentence, don't put sentence stress on the word ‘China’ because if you are doing the test in China, the examiner knows you are from China so there is no need to emphasize that word.) * Make sure you don’t make a grammatical error such as: “I’m from Shenyang, Liaoning, north-east of China.” ‘North-east of China’ means out of China (for example, Korea). The correct phrase here is, ‘in the north-east of China’ or, ‘in north-east China’. * Don’t say your town or city belongs to a certain province or part of China – that’s an incorrect usage of ‘belong to’. Instead, you should say it is ‘in’ a certain province or part of China. * Similarly, don’t say your town or city is ‘of’ a certain province or part of China – that’s also incorrect. For example, “I'm from Shenyang of Liaoning Province.” * If you come from a small city, town or village then it is perfectly acceptable to add that kind of information to your answer: “I’m from Bai Shan City, a small city in Jilin Province, not far from the border with North Korea.” * If you do the test in your hometown (city), you should say something like this: “I’m from here, Beijing.” And put the stress on the word, ‘here’. Don't answer the question in the same way you would if you were doing the test away from your hometown. Your situation is different to many other people and you should express this difference. * If you do the test in your hometown (city), don’t say: “I’m a local people” – ‘people’ is plural! However, it is quite natural to say, “I’m a local person; I’m from here, Beijing.” * If you’re from Beijing and you do the test in China, don’t say: “I’m from Beijing, the capital of China.” I think the examiner knows that Beijing is the capital of China!! But if you do the test overseas, for example in Australia or England, that answer is suitable. * Also, if you do the test in your hometown it sounds a little inappropriate to use the word ‘come’ in your answer because you never traveled to get to the test; you didn’t ‘come’. For example, “I come from Beijing.” sounds a little strange if you are doing the test in Beijing. On the other hand, “I’m from Beijing” sounds better, but as stated above, you really should express the fact that your situation is different to that of other candidates. * It is not suitable to say something such as: “I’m from Qingdao, a beautiful coastal city in Shandong.” Why is this not suitable? Firstly, it sounds like an advertisement. Secondly, and more importantly, the word, ‘beautiful’ is your opinion but the four questions in the introductory phase of the test are really asking for facts, not opinions. It would be acceptable if you just said, “I’m from Qingdao, a coastal city in Shandong.”
Describing Qingdao as ‘beautiful’ is not a major problem and you shouldn’t worry too much about making that kind of slightly inappropriate reply. The major problem with that answer is that you could cause the examiner to suspect that your answer came from an IELTS book, instead of being your own, original language. On the other hand, if you said, “I’m from Xian, the capital of Shaanxi Province and it's also a famous historical city”, the answer would be more acceptable because the words, ‘famous’ and ‘historical’ sound more like facts rather than opinions. * Throughout the test, don’t ask the examiner questions – it is the examiner who asks the questions! It is inappropriate (although quite natural in a normal, non-test situation) to say something such as: “I’m from Xian, the capital of Shaanxi Province. It was the ancient capital of China for several dynasties. Have you ever been there?” * Some candidates worry about which place they should say when they answer where they come from. You should choose the place where you grew up. If the address on your application form is different to the place where you grew up, it is entirely appropriate, and a good idea, to quickly explain your situation, for example: “Well, I grew up in Changchun, Jilin Province but I've been studying in Beijing for the past four years.” Examiners know that many people move to different places to study or work. * Some people think that they should answer by saying the name of the place where they were born. But if you were born in Wuhan and your family moved to Beijing when you were eight, you probably don't know much about Wuhan. In this example, to say that you were from Wuhan would not normally be a problem in the introduction phase of the test but it could cause a problem later in the test. For example, there is often a Part 1 topic, ‘Hometown’, and the examiner might ask you to talk about Wuhan. If this happened, you would then have to explain your true situation because you don't remember much about Wuhan. It would have been much better if you had explained your situation in the introduction phase of the test because if you wait until you are forced to explain your true situation, the examiner might start to wonder if you really are the person on the application form! Be honest and clear when you answer the 4 introduction questions. In the other parts of the test, it doesn't matter if you tell a few small lies (or even big lies!) – this is an English test, not an interview for a job – but keep in mind that it is more difficult to talk in detail and convincingly about things that are not true. And if the examiner realizes that you have told a (major) lie, he or she could lose some respect for you. This would not normally affect your score but if the atmosphere of your ‘conversation’ (the test) is spoiled then the examiner might be a little less patient or friendly and that could affect your performance. * The final introduction question is: “Could I see your identification, please?” You should have your 身份证 in your hand or on the table in front of you, ready to give to the examiner. * Note that the examiner doesn't really ask you to say anything. If you say nothing as you give your ID card to the examiner, most examiners will not mind. (I remember that when I was an examiner, I gave a final score of 7 to some candidates who said nothing when they gave me their ID card. The important thing is what you say in the rest of the test, not what you say, or do not say, as you hand over your ID card!) * Nevertheless, although most examiners would not consider it impolite if you didn’t say anything, it would be best if you did say something. There are two reasons for this: a) it is possible (although unlikely) that your examiner might believe that you should say something, and, b) you have an opportunity here to say something original. * If you cannot think of anything original to say, then simply saying, “Sure.” or “Ok.” in answer to the examiner’s request and giving him your ID card is adequate. * More than 80% of candidates say, “Here you are.” (or, “Sure. Here you are.”) as they hand over their ID card. There is nothing really wrong with this small sentence – it is suitable and it sounds polite. However, many candidates in China have learned this sentence from a book but have never actually heard a native speaker say it, even in a recording. The fact is that this small sentence is most frequently used in spoken English and is spoken quite fast and smoothly, with the major stress on the word, ‘Here’. If you can say it so that it sounds ‘natural’, that is, so that the examiner does not immediately think, “That’s from an IELTS book!”, then it is ok. But my advice is try to find something else to say because it sounds a little too rehearsed and since almost everybody says it, it is so predictable and boring for examiners! * Some candidates say, “Of course.” or, “Of course. Here you are.” I recommend that you do notreply, “Of course” to any of the introduction questions because it sounds somewhat overlypolite, formal and unsuitable. (This is my personal opinion, which might not be shared by every other native English speaker or IELTS examiner.) To me, it sounds too much like the language used by service people such as waiters. For example, if you were eating in an expensive, high-class restaurant in London and you said to the waiter, “Could I have a menu, please?”, a typical reply from the waiter would be, “Of course, Sir. Here you are.” Don't confuse the polite language of a service person, speaking to someone of ‘higher status’, with the polite language spoken between people of equal status. * Unfortunately, it is difficult to find something original to say as you hand over your ID card, especially now that most people in China have new ID cards. Before the new cards came into use, some people could have said things such as: “My card’s a bit old and tattered. I need to get a new one.”; “My hair was long in this picture but that was five years ago.”; or, “I look like a child in this picture.” * But if you can find something original and interesting to say about your ID card, consider saying that instead of, “Here you are.” as you show your card to the examiner. For example, in some parts of China, ID cards have hanyu pinyin as well as Chinese characters, and if you come from Xinjiang, Tibet or Inner Mongolia, you probably also have some non-Chinese writing on your card. * You should definitely not use the phrases, “Here you go.” or, “There you go.” as you hand over your ID card. The reason for this is that these phrases sound too casual and can sound condescending (i.e., speaking down to someone), and are used in situations such as handing an ice-cream to a child or giving money to a beggar. * Some candidates say, “Here it is.” as they give their ID card to the examiner. This is not a huge mistake but it is unsuitable – native English speakers would not say that in this situation. “Here it is.” is more suitable if you were looking for something and then found it. * For this fourth question, I have advised you more on what you should not say than on what you should say. To sum up, if you can't think of anything original (and interesting) to say, just say a quick, “Sure.” as you hand over your ID card.…...

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...太阳花的花语是:热情,阳光。太阳花永远面对阳光绽放着自己的笑容。象征着乐观勇敢,自强不息,欣欣向荣。   太阳花又叫向日葵 向日葵的花语(1) 生日花:向日葵(Sunflower) 花 语:太阳(The Sun) 向日葵具有向光性,人们称它为「太阳花」,随太阳回绕的花。在古代的印加帝国,它是太阳神的象徵。因此向日葵的花语就是-太阳。 受到这种花祝福而诞生的人,具有一颗如太阳般明朗、快乐的心。他是许多人倾慕、仰赖的对象,也因此他始终无法安定下来,并认真的接受一份感情,具有晚婚的倾向。 (2) 生日花:野生向日葵(Perennial Sunflower) 花 语:投缘(Affinity) 野生向日葵的用途很广:种子可以做成点心、还可以提炼食用油、叶片是家畜喜爱的饲料、花可以做成染料等。它和我们的日常生活可是息息相关的,是一种和人类相当投缘的植物。因此,它的花语是-投缘。 受到这种花祝福而生的人是理想的情人,更是最佳的终生伴侣。为了让你的他(她)早日出 (3) 光辉、高傲、忠诚、爱慕 (4) 向日葵的花语是勇敢的去追求自己想要的幸福 (5) 向日葵花语:爱慕、光辉、忠诚 (6)向日葵的花语是——沉默的爱. 向日葵又叫望日莲一个很美的名字 向日葵花语的含义 “更无柳絮因风起,惟有葵花向日倾”的向日葵是俄罗斯的国花。这向往光明之花,给人带来美好的希望。传说古代有一位农夫女儿名叫明姑,被后娘百般凌辱虐待。一次惹怒了后娘,夜里熟睡之际被后娘挖掉了眼睛。明姑破门出逃,不久死去,死后坟上开着一盘鲜丽的黄花,终日面向阳光,它就是向日葵。向日葵表示明姑向往光明,厌恶黑暗之意,这传说激励人们痛恨暴力、黑暗,追求光明。 关于向日葵,曾有一个凄美的传说。 克丽泰是一位水泽仙女。一天,她在树林里遇见了正在狩猎的太阳神阿波罗,她深深为这位俊美的神所着迷,疯狂地爱上了他。可是,阿波罗连正眼也不瞧她一下就走了。克丽泰热切地盼望有一天阿波罗能对她说说话,但她却再也没有遇见过他。于是她只能每天注视着天空,看着阿波罗驾着金碧辉煌的日车划过天空。她目不转睛地注视着阿波罗的行程,直到他下山。 每天每天,她就这样呆坐着,头发散乱,面容憔悴。一到日出,她便望向太阳。后来,众神怜悯她,把她变成一大朵金黄色的向日葵。她的脸儿变成了花盘,永远向着太阳,每日追随他,向他诉说她永远不变的恋情 ------------------------------------------------- 莲花 花语:忠贞和爱情(埃及) 银莲花:如花精般的红色花卉,花语是‘没有结果的恋情’,属性水。 紫银莲花:呈紫色的银莲花,花语是‘偷偷地爱慕’,属性暗。 白银莲花:呈白色的银莲花,花语是‘恋情的喜悦’,属性光。 基本个性:你就像是开在长长花茎顶端的百合。凡事都很慎重,一步一步慢慢来以达到最好的结果。你不擅长处理杂乱无章的事,所以会选择安全的路走。属莲花的人刻苦耐劳,储蓄能力强。 恋爱倾向:你向往自由开放的爱情。约会时你喜欢找一大票成对的朋友一起去玩,因此,所以你和喜欢的人虽然处得很好,但却很难发展成情侣。带有孩子气的你害怕更深一层的交往,诚实面对自己的想法才能解决问题。一旦和对方开始交往,也讨厌受到限制,所以你有可能会和其他男生逢场作戏。诚实地和对方交往是获得幸福的捷径。 小心花刺:你虽然稳重但有时却让人觉得你食古不化,不知变通就无法掌握好运。不要老是为了一些小事耿耿于怀。 莲花花语:不要有过度的欲求,常怀感恩的心就能为你带来幸福。 ...

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...随着人民生活水平的显著提高 with the remarkable improvement of people's living standard 3. 先进的科学技术 advanced science and technology 4. 为我们日常生活增添了情趣 add much spice / flavor to our daily life 5. 人们普遍认为 It is commonly believed that… 6. 我同意前者(后者)观点 I give my vote to the former / latter opinion. 7. 引起了广泛的公众关注 Sth. has aroused wide public concern. / Sth has drawn great public attention. 8. 不可否认 It is undeniable that… 9. 热烈的讨论/ 争论 a heated discussion / debate 10. 有争议性的问题 a controversial issue 11. 就我而言/ 就个人而言 As far as I am concerned, / Personally, 12. 有充分的理由支持 be supported by sound reasons 13. 双方的论点 argument on both sides 14. 发挥日益重要作用 play an increasingly important role in… 15. 对…必不可少 be indispensable to … 16. 正如谚语所说 As the proverb goes: 17. 对…产生有利/不利的影响 exert positive / negative effects on… 18. 利远远大于弊 The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. 19. 导致,引起 lead to / give rise to / contribute to / result in 20. 复杂的社会现象 a complicated social phenomenon 21. 责任感 / 成就感 sense of responsibility / achievement 22. 竞争与合作精神 sense of competition and cooperation 23. 开阔眼界 widen one's horizon / broaden one's vision 24. 学习知识和技能 acquire knowledge and skills 25. 经济/心理负担 financial burden / psychological burden 26. 考虑到诸多因素 take many factors into consideration 27. 从另一个角度 from another perspective 28. 做出共同努力 make joint efforts 29. 对…有益 be beneficial to / be conducive to… 为社会做贡献 make contributions to the society 31. 打下坚实的基础 lay a solid foundation for… 32. 综合素质 comprehensive quality 33.......

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...如何巧妙设计英语课堂提问 合适的课堂提问,是一门艺术,它往往能把学生带入一个奇妙的问题世界,使学生积极思考问题,寻求解决问题的途径和答案,从而培养学生分析问题、解决问题的能力,有效地提高英语课堂教学效率。对于缺乏自制能力的学生来说,有效而恰当的提问,更能起到意想不到的作用。下面是我结合自己的课堂教学,试着从几方面对如何有效恰当的课堂提问进行了探讨: 一、注重提问的原则 (一)启发思维的原则 教师的提问,应富有启发性。因为课堂提问本身不是目的,而是启发学生思维的手段。不能为提问而提问、教师必须明确,提问不等于启发式,好的提问才是启发式提问,启发式提问重在所提问有价值和有意义,能够引导学生积极思考,发展其思维能力。如:我讲授三——六年级英语提问时就不是很注重启发学生的思维,只是机械的训练学生的口语,回顾旧知。所以今后的提问应该注意启发学生的思维,让学生形成良好的行为习惯。 (二)激发兴趣的原则 学生学习的内在动力是学习兴趣,应此教师提问如果能激发学生的学习动机和兴趣,他们就有了学习的原动力,这是启发教学的关键。为此,教师必须从教材和学生心理特点出发,引人入胜地、步步深入地提出富有趣味性、启发性的问题,用科学的、艺术的、生动的语言,吸引学生去积极思维。 (三)难易适度的原则 课堂提问必须做到难易适度,尤其是难度较大的问题,一定要设计成一系列由浅入深,由旧导新、从易到难的小问题,使学生通过问题解答,逐步突破难点,把握要领,掌握规律。如:我在教授五年级牛津英语的时候,刚开始上课时,我总是把低年级学的一些简单的常用语(How are you ?How old are you? )等来提问,让学生有些许成就感,继而不断提高难度引导学生回忆Which …句型,把本课时的重点分解开来,生在不知不觉中就把知识学到手了。 二、注重学生主体性 素质教育主张以“学生的学”为中心,把学生真正当作学习的主体,在英语课堂教学中根据实际情况,灵活地采用各种提问方式,既可活跃课堂气氛,激发学生提问的积极性,又可扩大提问的面,增加学生练习的时间和机会。所以我们的课堂提问方式,都必须做到师生互动,生生互动,培养加强学生的提问意识。 三、注重提问的艺术性 课堂提问是一种技巧,更是一门艺术,并且是教学中用得最多而又很难用精、用巧的艺术。 (一)把握提问的最佳时机 教师在教学过程中不仅要具有驾驭教材,了解学生,优选教法的功夫,而且要有善于根据教学中的信息反馈,审时度势,不失时机地进行课堂提问的本事。课堂教学过程中,灵机应变、适时提问的机会是很多的。如某位教师在教学PEP unit 2 《my schoolbag》 part A Let’s talk 时,在教学关键句前,出示一个很重的盒子,且里面套着很多小盒子。 T:what’s this ? S: It’s a box 。 T:please weight it ,how do you feel? 待学生拿一拿盒子后说:很重。这时及时教学heavy 一词。学生会产生盒子里有什么东西的念头。这时我马上提问:what’s in it ?(随后要学习的新句)guess.让学生猜一猜。预习过课文的同学肯定会猜是book。结果里面却是一个稍小一点的盒子。接着问:what’s in the small one? 。结果还是一个更小的盒子。再接着猜接着问:what’s in the small one?…学生越猜...

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...大家网会计英语论坛 A (40)available hours 可用小时 A (41)avoidable costs 可避免成本 B (42)back-to-back loan 易币贷款 B (43)backflush accounting 倒退成本计算 B (44)bad debts 坏帐 B (45)bad debts ratio 坏帐比率 B (46)bank charges 银行手续费 B (47)bank overdraft 银行透支 B (48)bank reconciliation 银行存款调节表 B (49)bank statement 银行对账单 B (50)bankruptcy 破产 B (51)basis of apportionment 分摊基础 B (52)batch 批量 B (53)batch costing 分批成本计算 B (54)beta factor B (市场)风险因素 B B (55)bill 账单 B (56)bill of exchange 汇票 B (57)bill of lading 提单 B (58)bill of materials 用料预计单 A (16)accrual concept 应计概念 A (17)accrual expenses 应计费用 A (18)acid test ratio 速动比率(酸性测试比率) A (19)acquisition 收购 A (20)acquisition accounting 收购会计 A (21)adjusting events 调整事项 A (22)administrative expenses 行政管理费 A (23)amortization 摊销 A (24)analytical review 分析性复核 A (25)annual equivalent cost 年度等量成本法 A (26)annual report and accounts 年度报告和报 表 A (27)appraisal cost 检验成本 A (28)appropriation account 盈余分配账户 A (29)articles of association 公司章程细则 A (30)assets 资产 A (31)assets cover 资产担保 A (32)asset value per share 每股资产价值 A (33)associated company 联营公司 A (34)attainable standard 可达标准 A (35)attributable profit 可归属利润 A (36)audit 审计 A (37)audit report 审计报告 A (38)auditing standards 审计准则 A (39)authorized share capital 额定股本 B (59)bill payable 应付票据 B (60)bill receivable 应收票据 B (61)bin card 存货记录卡 B (62)bonus 红利 B (63)book-keeping 薄记 B (64)Boston classification 波士顿分类 B (65)breakeven chart 保本图 B (66)breakeven point 保本点 B (67)breaking-down time 复位时间 B (68)budget 预算 B (69)budget center 预算中心 B (70)budget......

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...早、午、晚要用in   例:in the morning 在早上   in the afternoon 在下午   in the evening 在晚上   in the day 在白天   at黎明、午、夜、点与分   例: at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明时候   at noon 在中午   at night 在夜间   at midnight 在午夜   以上短语都不用冠词   at six o’clock 在6点钟   at 7:30 (seven thirty) 在7点半   at half past eleven 在11点半   at nine fifteen 在9点15分   at ten thirty a.m. 在上午10点30分   也可以写成   seven to five 5点差7分(半小时以上)   five minutes after two 2点过5分   at a quarter to two 1点45分   at the weekend 在周末 年、月、年月、季节、周   即在"来年",在"某月",在"某年某月" (但在某年某月某   日则用on),在四季,在第几周等都要用in。   例;in 1986 在1986年   in 1927 在1927年   in April 在四月   in March 在三月   in December 1986 1986年12月   in July l983 1983年7月   in spring 在春季 in summer 在夏季   in autumn 在秋季 in winter 在冬季   in the fist week of this semester 这学期的第一周   in the third week 在第三周  阳光、灯、影、衣、冒 in,   即在阳光下,在灯下,在树阴下,穿衣、着装、冒雨等都要用in。   例:Don’t read in dim light. 切勿在暗淡的灯光下看书。   They are reviewing their lessons in the bright light. 他们在明亮的灯光下复习功课。   They are sitting in the shade of a tree. 他们坐在树阴下乘凉。   a prisoner in irons 带着镣铐的囚犯   He went in the rain to meet me at the station. 他冒雨到车站去接我。   The poor dressed (clothed) in rags in old society. 旧社会穷人们衣衫褴褛.   以及:in the bright sunlight 在明亮的阳光下   a merchant in disguise 乔装的商人   the woman in white (black, red, yellow) 穿着白(黑、红、黄)色衣服的妇女   in uniform 穿着制服   in mourning 穿着丧服   in brown shoes 穿着棕色鞋   in his shirt sleeves 穿着衬衫   将来时态in...以后   例: They will come back......

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...辩论训练讲义一 ——如何写好一辩陈词 一辩承担为本队开篇立论的职责。应该通过平实、生动、富有层次的语言,确立本方辩题的概念内涵、内在联系、基本形态和逻辑框架,并辅之实例加以论证。你的陈述要在评委和观众面前强化本方立场的优势,避免概念模糊或错误、条理不清、语言干瘪。当然,作为先锋,你的气势和自信是必不可少的。一般来说,立论时间为三分钟,人正常说话时间为每秒4到6个字,一篇立论大概在900字左右,根据个人的情况可以有所调整,一辩在场上发言时,要注意时间并根据实际情况灵活调整立论内容。最忌立论稿明显没念完的情况。 一.立论准备 辩题确认后,队员就可以根据辩题,共同商量,研究确立一个最有利于本方论证的具体的总论点。这个总论点也就是己方的底线。所谓最有利于本方,就是指底线不仅观点正确,旗帜鲜明,而且用之攻能破对方任何的立论,用之守能抵挡对方的任何攻击。能不能确立这样一个底线是一次论辩赛准备的成败关键。 为了要确立这样一个总论点,首先要对辩题进行严格的审题,也就是要对辩题字面上的每个词或词组逐个进行概念分析,即通常所说的"破题"。这种分析要同时站在双方的立场审视。尤其是要分析出哪些词或词组对对方立论具有潜在的有利因素,可能成为双方首先争论的焦点,因为一般的论辩赛双方都会抓住辩题中的某个词项解释入手开始辩论,有时会出现整个论辩赛始终围绕这种解释来进行。因此,尽量设法站在一定理论高度,对辩题做出有利于本方观点的界定,以获得大多数听众的"公认",是极为重要的一环。为了说明这个问题,下面举一例。1990年第三届亚洲大专辩论会有一辩题为《儒家思想是不是亚洲四小龙经济快速成长的主要推动因素》。南京大学持反方。为了说明儒家思想不是主要推动因素,南大对"儒家思想""亚洲四小龙经济快速成长""主要""推动因素"四项词组进行了剖析,发现辩论双方争论焦点肯定会在"主要因素有多个,儒家思想是其中之一。"于是,南大把"主要因素"界定为必须是具有总揽全局功能这一点上。这样一来,南大总论点的方向便明朗了:儒家思想只是四小龙取得经济快速成长的背景条件,而并非是一个主要推动因素,推动四小龙经济快速发展的主要推动因素是四小龙做得尤为突出的能总揽全局的正确而灵活的战略和政策。 在立论准备停当,各辩手便可分头撰写自己分工的辩词。 辩论赛中的辩题通常都涉及比较,因此,在进行破题之后,应该着手考虑设置一个相对公正、合理而又最大程度的有利于己方观点的比较标准,并基于这个比较标准设立几个立足点详细阐述。然而新辩手往往会有这样的两个问题存在:一是只会单方面陈述自己的利和他人的弊;二是总是想要让自己这方没有任何弊害。这两种情况,都是没有能够做好辩论中的“损益比”这一步。之所以会出现这两种情况,主要是因为这些辩手没有能力或者不愿意去寻找合适的比较平台以及合理的比较标准。如果在比赛场上不能够明确地向观众和评委提出自己选择什么样的比较平台和标准以及为什么要这样选择,那作出的比较是难以让人感到信服的。事实上,很多时候双方要说服评委和观众的,并不是我这么比好处比坏处多多少而他那么比不行,恰恰是我为什么要这么比以及我选择这样的比较平台和标准为什么比对方的科学。因为只有比较平台和比较标准是科学的可信的,那么结果才是有说服力的。就好比我要比较两个东西的质量,我说我用我的左右手掂量掂量就差不多知道哪个重了。是,也许你是能掂量出来,想要根据你掂量的结果去说服别人可能效果并不会怎么好;如果你是用天平去称的,那结果可能就比较能够服人了。那在这里,比较的平台就是天平,比较的标准就是公制质量单位,因为这样比较的平台和标准都...

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...  曾经我像鱼缸里的鱼,前进、转身、前进、转身、前进、转身……我感到疲惫失意;后来我在鱼缸外的世界,依旧前进、转身、前进、转身、前进、转身……于是我开始练习,从容地前进,优雅地转身,并保持冷静思考的模样……      10.   丢进海里的瓶中信,总是失去踪影.是被鲸鱼吃掉了吗?还是又飘到另一个无人的岛屿?这种随波逐流的缘分,除了青春浪漫的孩子,又有谁会相信呢?我虽然害怕做恶梦,但也只能在梦中,才能看到美丽和平的世界。      11.   所有的悲伤,总会留下一丝欢乐的线索。所有的遗憾,总会留下一处完美的角落。我在冰封的深海,找寻希望的缺口。却在午夜惊醒时,蓦然瞥见绝美的月光。      12.   我将自己种进花盆   假装是一朵花   城市巷弄阴暗   阳光终日短缺   雨水不足空气浑浊   只有在午夜三时   才能瞥见月亮默默滑过天空   我是一朵不开花的花   尚未学会绽放,就已习于凋零。      13.   我努力地爬上一颗不断滚动的圆球,却始终站不稳,常常跌落…….你说男孩别哭!   --《我只能为你画一张小卡片》      14.   总在快乐的时候,感到微微的惶恐。   在开怀大笑时,流下感动的泪水。   我无法相信单纯的幸福。   对人生的欺负悲喜,既坦然又不安      15.   那年的冬天特别寒冷,   整个城市笼罩在阴湿的雨裏.   灰蒙蒙的天空,迟迟不见著阳光,   让人感到莫名的沮丧,   常常走在街上就有一种落泪的冲动....   但是冬天总是会过去,春天总是会来。      16.   我的心常下雪,不管天气如何,它总是突然的结冻,   无法商量,我望向繁华盛开的世界,固定缺席。   我的心开始下雪,雪无声的覆盖了所有,湮灭了迷惘、   骄傲与哀痛,当一切归于寂静时,世界突然变得清亮明朗   所以,别为我忧伤,我有我的美丽,它正要开始…      17.   昨天,我爬出窗口,站在十七层高的窗口看黄昏的落日……我一定不是这城市里唯一的怪人,一定有一个人和我一样,空虚时对着夜空唱歌到天明,也许我永远也遇不到他,但我熟悉他的心情。   --几米〈我只能为你寄一张小卡片〉      18.   迷宫般的城市,让人习惯看相同的景物,   走相同的路线,到同样的目的地;习惯   让人的生活不再变。习惯让人有种莫名   的安全感,却又有种莫名的寂寞。而你   永远不知道,你的习惯会让你错过什么。      19.   小丑的世界,总一分为二.   一半阳光,一半阴影,   一半快乐,一半凄凉.   我真想知道那条神秘的分界线究竟是什么?      20.   他们彼此深信,是瞬间迸发的热情让他们相遇。   这样的确定是美丽的,但变幻无常更为美丽。      21.   期三的下午,风在吹,我睡着了。白色的窗帘,轻轻的飘起来。   毛毛兔来了,在窗外吹着口哨呼唤我。推开门,森林好安静,   阳光好温柔。好久好久没有在森林里游荡了。      22.   有人说等待浪漫的,也是漫长的   在数个关于等待的夜晚   也许少年也会熬成白头我时常会告诉自己   虽然在最低的位置   看不到花朵绽放时的艳丽   然而却不会错过   花瓣飘落时在风中悠扬飞舞的浪漫“      23.   午后,微凉的风吹过   我做了一场梦   梦见世界上   一千万棵苹果树上的一亿颗苹......

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Ielts Writing

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...されることは幸福ではない。愛することこそ幸福だ。 (ヘルマン?ヘッセ )   被爱不一定是幸福,去爱才真的幸福。   愛することにかけては、女性こそ専门家で、男性は永远に素人である。 (三岛由纪夫)   对於爱,女人往往是专家,而男人永远是外行。  安定は恋を殺し、不安は恋をかきたてる。 (マルセル?ブルースト)   恋爱在安定中灭亡,在不安中升华。  男がどんな理屈を並べても、女の涙一滴にはかなわない。 (ボルテール)   不管男人有如何道理,也敌不过女人的一滴眼泪。  男にとって愛は生活の一部だが、女にとって愛はその全部である。 (バイロン)   对男人来说恋爱只不过是生活的一部分,对于女人来说爱就是生活的全部。  男は目で恋をし、女は耳で恋に落ちる。 (ワイアット)   男人是用眼睛去爱的,但女人却由甜言蜜语而恋爱了。  恋の喜びは一瞬しか続かない。恋の悲しみは一生続く。 (フロリアン)   恋爱的喜悦只是不持续的一瞬,而那悲哀却是一生相随。  恋人どうしのけんかは、恋の更新である。 (テレンティウス)   对恋人们来说,吵嘴是爱的革新。  恋をして恋を失った方が、一度も恋をしなかったよりマシである。 (テニソン)   勇敢的去爱,即使失败也总比一次也没爱过好强。  心がわりせぬことは、恋愛の妄想である。 (ヴォーヴォナグル)   永不变心,不过是恋爱的美好愿望而已。  全ての場合を通じて、恋愛は忍耐である。 (萩原朔太郎)   总的来说,所有的恋爱就是忍耐。  その女を手に入れる事ができない期間だけ、男はその女に熱狂させられる。 (キルケゴール)   只有在还没追到的时候,男人才对女人狂。  尊敬ということがなければ、真の恋愛は成立しない。(フィヒテ)   没有尊重对方的心,就没有真正的爱情。  男性は女性の最初の恋人になりたがるが、女性は男性の最後の恋人になりたがる。 (オスカー?ワイルド)   男人总想是女人的初恋,而女人总想成为男人的最后一个爱人。  ひどく憎んでいる限り、まだいいくらか愛しているのである。 (デズウリエール夫人)   深深地恨著那个人,因为你还爱那个王八蛋  ほどほどに愛しなさい。长続きする恋はそういう恋だよ。 (シェークスピア)   请恰如其分的去爱,那样恋爱才能长久吧!  もっとも永く続く愛は、報われぬ愛である。 (モーム)   最长久的爱是不求回报的爱 今、手をつないでいるその人に出会えたのは、キセキのような、かくりつです。光の中に出ても、その手をはなすことのないように。by 野ブタをプロデュース 与现在牵着手的人相遇的几率,如同奇迹一般,就算走到了光明的地方也不要放开那只手。By野猪大改造     ◆人は誰でもタイムマシンを持っている。过去へは記憶が、未来へは希望が连れて行ってくれる   。by タイムマシン 每个人都拥有一个时光机器,让我们带着过去的记忆和未来的希望前行。By 时光机器   ◆俺がお前の記憶になる。by わたしの頭の中の消しゴム 我会成为你的记忆。By 我脑海中的橡皮擦     ◆目はいつも欲しいものを追い求める   。by ハンニバル?レクター  眼睛总是追逐着想要的东西。By Hannibal Lecter   ◆大いなる力には大いなる責任が供なる   。by スパイダーマン ベン?パーカー 能力越大,责任越大 BY......

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