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Karlstad University

A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care Products Purchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Business Administration School of Graduate Studies

Master Thesis – One year program (FEAD 01) Karlstad University Academic Year 2010

Thesis Advisors:
Per Skålén Sofia Molander

Chanintorn Moungkhem 860119-T219 Jiraporn Surakiatpinyo 860926-T204

Karlstads universitet 651 88 Karlstad Tfn 054-700 10 00 Fax 054-700 14 60 Information@kau.se www.kau.se

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ABSTRACT This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do so, the theories of masculinity and femininity, customer behavior theory, customer decision making’s theory, theory of metrosexual and theory of the four Ps in marketing mix strategy are employed as a theoretical framework and also adapted with theory of the self esteem involvement. It also endeavors to find out the reasonable impacts of perception on the relationship between variables and consumer behaviors. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to men who are in the age range between 15-45 years old and living in Karlstad, Sweden. The total sample consists of 94 respondents. Further, the returned questionnaires were analyzed by using factor analysis, correlation and path analysis in SPSS version 16.0. The results of the study indicated that the numbers of ‘men who use skin care products’ and ‘who do not use’ is not so much different. Most of male customers who using skin care products reveal that, the main reasons behind their using skin care products are for improving skin, personal care, attractiveness and self confident orderly. As a result, principally men’s skin care products purchasing obtain the effects of the interaction between their personal demographics and attitude, the emergence of metrosexual and marketing mix (especially quality and attribute of products, price, product’s ingredient, product brand and package of products). In contrast with men who do not use skin care products, there are two main reasons behind. Firstly products are not necessary in their point of view. Secondly this kind of products is expensive and lavish.

Keywords: metrosexual, men’s skin care product, self-esteem, masculinity, men’s beauty care consumption, buying decision process, marketing mix,

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research has been accomplished with the contributions and encouragements from many people. We would like to express our gratitude to all supports. Without these supports we would have had a tough time. Firstly, big thanks are addressed to our thesis advisors at Karlstad University, Professor Per Skålén and Sofia Molander. Their knowledge and help has really been useful while making this thesis such their kind encouragements, generosity, and patience in providing valuable comments and recommendations on every earlier draft. Without them, this research would not have been successfully carried out. The deep appreciations are also addressed towards all the people who had read and gave the information and advice that have made this thesis possible. Finally we would like to thanks all representative individuals in Karlstad city who had answered to our questionnaire.

Chanintorn Moungkhem Jiraporn Surakiatpinyo

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 8 1.1 Background and problem of the Study ............................................................................ 8 1.2 Purpose of the Study ........................................................................................................ 9 1.3 Delimitation of the study ................................................................................................ 10 1.4 Definitions of term ......................................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................. 12 2.1 The market of men’s beauty care ................................................................................... 12 2.1.1 The phenomenon of new market ........................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Blooming of beauty care for men .......................................................................... 13 2.1.3 Opportunities of the global market ........................................................................ 14 2.1.4 Forecasting of men’s skin care market .................................................................. 15 2.1.5 The beauty care market in Sweden ........................................................................ 16 2.2 Marketing mix of men’s Skin care products .................................................................. 17 2.2.1 Men’s skin care product ........................................................................................ 18 2.2.2 Pricing strategy of men’s skin care products ......................................................... 19 2.2.3 Place, distribution channel of men’s skin care products ....................................... 20 2.2.4 Promotion Vs. skin care products for men ............................................................ 23 2.3 The consumer behavior .................................................................................................. 27 2.3.1 Revolutionizing of men’s customer behavior........................................................ 27 2.3.2 Aesthetic in men’s perception ............................................................................... 28 2.3.3 Factors’ impact on men purchasing behaviors ...................................................... 29 2.3.4 Evolution of femininity and masculinity ............................................................... 31 2.3.5 The emergence of the metrosexual ........................................................................ 31 2.3.6 Improving the self-esteem through the self-image ................................................ 32 2.4 Customer decision making ............................................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................... 35 3.1 Research approach .......................................................................................................... 35 3.2 Population and sample ................................................................................................... 35 3.3 Data collection: Instrument/technique to collect data .................................................... 36 3.3.1 Secondary data collection ...................................................................................... 36 3.3.2 Primary data collection .......................................................................................... 36 3.3.2.1 The questionnaires ......................................................................................... 37 3.3.2.2 The administration of the questionnaires ....................................................... 37

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3.4 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................. 37 3.5 Reliability and Validity .................................................................................................. 38 CHAPTER 4: EMPIRICAL RESULT ................................................................................ 39 CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS .................................................................................................... 45 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION.............................................................................................. 55 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 57 APPENDIX A ......................................................................................................................... 62 APPENDIX B ......................................................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX C ......................................................................................................................... 65

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TABLE OF FIGURES CHAPTER 2 : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................. 12 Figure 2.1: Advertising investments for male cosmetics (millions of Euros) ................. 25 Figure 2.2: Investments allocation for male cosmetics (thousands of Euros) ................. 25 CHAPTER 5 : ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 45 Figure 5.1: The comparison of the skin care product’s consumption ............................ 47 Figure 5.2: The reasons of using skin care products ........................................................ 47 Figure 5.3: Factors influencing on men’s decision making on their product’s purchase 47 Figure 5.4: The most influence person on men’s purchasing behavior ............................ 49 Figure 5.5: The effect of “being considered as homosexual” on men’s products purchasing ...................................................................................................... 50 Figure 5.6: Reasons causing men not to use skin care products ....................................... 53 Figure 5.7: Factors affecting men not to buy products ..................................................... 53 APPENDIX A : THE ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................................................... 62 Figure A.1: Gillette was sponsors for Football World Cup (on package) ........................ 62 Figure A.2: Gillette was sponsors for Football World Cup .............................................. 62 Figure A.3: Nivéa was sponsors for Sports’ World .......................................................... 62 APPENDIX B : THE QUESTIONNAIRE .......................................................................... 63 Figure B.1: The questionnaire .......................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX C : THE RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................ 65 Figure C.1: One-Sample Statistics and One-Sample Test ................................................ 65 Figure C.2: Respondents’ ages ......................................................................................... 69 Figure C.3: Respondents’ marital status .......................................................................... 69 Figure C.4: Whom living with respondents ...................................................................... 69 Figure C.5: Respondents’ occupation ............................................................................... 70 Figure C.6: Respondents’ monthly income ...................................................................... 70 Figure C.7: The use of skin care products ........................................................................ 70 Figure C.8: Time of use .................................................................................................... 71 Figure C.9: Spending on skin care products (per month) ................................................ 71 Figure C.10: Place of buying ............................................................................................ 71 Figure C.11: Consumption habit on skin care product’s purchase ................................... 72 Figure C.12: The reasons of making product purchase by others .................................... 72 Figure C.13: Women or men area ..................................................................................... 72 Figure C.14: Urban fashion men/professional using skin care products .......................... 72 Figure C.15: The importance of the skin care product’s consumption ........................... 73 Figure C.16: The reasons of using skin care products ...................................................... 73

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Figure C.17: The importance of factors influencing on decision making ........................ 74 Figure C.18: The influence person who affect on your purchasing behavior................... 74 Figure C.19: The effect of “being considered as homosexual” on your purchase............ 75 Figure C.20: The reasons for Not using skin care products.............................................. 75 Figure C.21: The factors affecting you Not to buy skin care products ............................. 76 Figure C.22: The relationship between age and using skin care products ........................ 76 Figure C.23: The relationship between the attitude toward “metrosexual” and using skin care products ................................................................................................ 77 Figure C.23: The relationship between place of buying and the attitude toward ‘mestrosexual’ ............................................................................................. 77

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and problem of the study In the globalization era, improvement of technology, science, society, economy and education provide people to have better standard of living and styles. Relating to the development of purchasing power in consumers and market trend that people become more conscious of hygiene and beauty (Souiden & Diagne, 2009), it affects to the rapid growth in beauty care industry, especially in this decade. Because of the characteristic of the market is quite high by value, thus it attracts many companies to enter to this market continually. Not only domestic companies that try to take as much as advantages in their local market but multinationals also desire to reach the market. Even there is intensive competition in beauty care market; many companies still pay attention to invest in this market to respond for the high demand available in market. Most of people would like to be beautiful, healthy and good looking. The global world we are living in sets stereotypes that become models. Models are presented widespread all around us in daily life such as on the television, in the commercials, in the magazines, on the billboard, in the fashion shows, in the streets and even at school or at workplace. There is a normal fact that most people want to look like the models. Men and women are alike, a smooth and bright skin with an ideal body shape for a wonderful life (Nair et al, 2007). This desire and trends are growing and seen as a gold mine for the beauty care market. Beauty care products imply psychologically that customers are taking care of their hygiene, beauty and healthiness by using some products items to support. The beauty industry in women has been obviously growing since long times ago whereas the men’s market have just become blooming in men aspects lately. Currently men are more aware of their body and the demand for beautifulness, aesthetics, youthfulness, healthiness, and thinness which drag them away from old opinion about “only sanitation”. The advancement of fashion magazines for men emphasizes this point of view against their appearance (Souiden & Diagne, 2009). The explosion of the male press commonly affects more or less toward the consumption of men’s beauty products. As a result, men pay more attention to support patterns of beauty and are more sensitive to the products alternatives, like many products are launched to the market to convince customers to believe that its can improve their appearance, to put it in scene, to dramatize it. Nevertheless, even though men buy more beauty products as grooming and skin

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care products, it is predicted that these products are still bought approximately 80% by their wife or companions (Data panel, 2002). As a result, the percentage drive us to study if there is any internal or external reason which can be factor affects to men purchasing toward this kind of skin care products, just because men do not have many experiences against the products, or there is any masculine issue involvement. In general, some fear to buy these kinds of products directly can lead into question their virility, associating them to a female, effeminate or homosexual universe. Therefore, as research purpose, it is concerned significantly to understand and know which factors have the impacts of decision making toward purchasing of skin care products. What these terms mean at present in men aspect, taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and mentalities on another side, and of men’s orientation or preference for one or another sex. In contrast, male have no exactly the same “toiletry” speech apparently as female (Solomon et al, 1998), which mention about the product’s failure issues relate to packaging consideration to be too womanly characteristics. Like other marketing mixes considerations, it supposes to have considerably the impact on men’s purchasing decision making. Unlike homosexuals, products attributes for heterosexuals may be expected to have dissimilar uses and experiences (Blanchin et al, 2007). Apparently, there are many disparities between men’s and women’s market for skin care product. Hence, the companies have had to deep in details about the strategies of marketing to this new market target to persuade men’s attention to their products. Those adjustments suppose to concern all the areas of the marketing mix: product, promotion, place and price, including other related factor influences on their masculinity and metrosexual perspectives. 1.2 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this thesis is to investigate men’s attitude towards purchasing of skin care products. The focus is on the relationship between their consumption habit and market characteristic. Some said that men were not explicitly ready to use, or directly buy their skin care products by themselves whereas others considered the mentalities ready to confront an explosion of this new market (Blanchin et al, 2007). This research is studied in order to explore men perspective toward the skin care consumption, for instance; in the connection of self concept theory with the need for an individual to be recognized by others, is it possible to be one element that motivates men to take care themselves more by using skin care products? And also to figure out which reasons

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and factors have highly impacts of men customers before making decision to use the skin care products or to buy products, such as price, advertising, press, store location, the effects from others as spouse, family, friend, celebrity endorsement, and so on. Additionally, the factors influencing the purchase at the purchasing point, such as choices of products, packaging, product odor, promotion and etc, are studied whether it can affect to decision making at that moment. To do so, the study can permit to understand more the customer’s behaviors, market trends and purchasing evaluation in skin care market of men in Sweden. 1.3 Delimitation of the study The scope of this research is limited to study on factors affecting by men perspective toward their purchasing decision making of skin care products in Sweden’s market only instead of the global market due to time limitation and point’s focusing. And in order to keep away from the cultural differences that can be one factor to affect their purchasing decision making, doing survey across multi-nationality is avoided in this study. Moreover there is more convenient, accessible and directly to the point, in order to target the men who are in the age range between 15-45 years old and living in Sweden, particularly in Karlstad as the respondents for the questionnaire survey facilitating to the geographically current residence. However, the cultural aspect can be noticeable even in the same nationality as Swedish against the investigation in issue of the modernity towards skin care product’ consumption. The use or purchase of skin care products is possibly not the same in every period of time through the different generation of people. Nevertheless this aspect has not been realized dramatically as highly-involved in the analysis of empirical result, the reasons are, firstly this consideration could be too complicated, and then the most significance is to study men’s market in Sweden as representative for the market, not just only the individual generation. The Questionnaires had been distributed to 94 respondents during the end of April 2010 to the middle of May 2010. Furthermore some question is highly sensitive to answer by the respondents in terms of mentality. It could be difficult to know whether there is the real answer without any external or internal factors as afraid of being considered as homosexual, or not. Nonetheless the data would be analyzed following the finding and empirical results based on the questionnaires.

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1.4 Definitions of term Toiletry, any item used for grooming, personal care or toiletries is the beauty industry that manufacture consumer products used for beautification and in personal hygiene. To give a few examples, personal care includes products as various as chapstick, lipstick, lip gloss, colognes, deodorant, body spray, perfumes, cotton swabs, cleansing pads and wipes, facial tissue, makeup, eye liner, hair clippers, shampoo, mouthwash, toothbrushes, toothpaste, nail files, pomade, personal lubricant, lotion, skin cream, talcum powder, razors, shaving cream and toilet paper (Barel et al, 2001). Grooming is a moderately arbitrary term, and the meaning is culturally defined and varies. Commonly, even if the connotation is that one's personal hygiene practices as freely traditional to the customary cultural norm (Waters, 2002). To have the same comprehension, the word of ‘Men’s grooming products’ here covers five categories as bath Products, deodorant, hair care; shampoo, conditioner/treatments, styling products, hair color and others, shaving products; shave cream, lotions/balms, disposable razors/shavers, manual shavers, electric shavers , others and skincare products (MarketResearch.com, 2009). Skin care, the work of providing maintenance and treatment of the hygienic term of the skin under optimal conditions of sanitation and comfort for or attending to someone or something; "no medical care is included". Effective in skin care are probably washing, cleansing, bathing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In an assortment of disease aspect, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are practical. Caring of skin is principally significant in a variety of practices, in facing to sunlight, in newborns, and in recovering infection (Draelos & Thaman, 2006). Metrosexual, a usually heterosexual straight stylish urban male who has a strongly sensitive aesthetic sense and inordinate interest in his personal appearance by fastidious grooming, stylish living, beauty treatments, the art of decorating and fashionable clothes, similar to that of feminine or homosexual males against extraordinary more emotional and cares than most males. Some people mistake a metrosexual for a gay guy (Coad, 2008). Masculinity, a typical near-synonym of masculinity is virility, which refers to manly character. It particularly describes men and boys in terms of personal and human, dissimilar to male which can also mention toward animals, or masculine which can also describe noun classes. When masculine is used to mention toward men, it can classify levels of comparisonas more masculine or most masculine (Kimmel & Aronson, 2004).

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CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 The market of men’s beauty care The market of men’s beauty care products, including skin care sector is relatively a new market. The market trend of this new market seems to be potentially grown; therefore it is attractive to study from the beginning of the market as be concerned as a niche market, until the rapid growth currently and also in the future. Moreover there is interesting to attempt estimating at the mid-term the progression of the market and comprehensive the reason supported the growth in the future. 2.1.1 The phenomenon of new market The definition of a niche market is a subset of targetable portion of the market on which a specific product is focusing, therefore a business that head to a niche market is addressing a specific need for a product or service feature that is not being provided by mainstream providers, aimed to satisfying a relatively tiny part of market only as a narrowly defined group of potential customers. As well as the price range, production quality and demographics that is determined to crash (Dalgic, 2006). The market of hygiene and beauty for men, there are not many products alternative providing available in the market as countless as offering for women. There are a few brands that see this market as a niche and unique that can develop in the future. L’Oréal brand is perceived as a pioneer in this segment because in 1985, the L’Oréal group has launched itself with Biotherm Homme to serve in the men market. According to Antoinette (2005), the interview below, there is some idea about L’Oréal’s attitude toward men’ market. "We feel we launched it at just the right time because the category was tiny, and it is starting to bubble and move," said Carol Hamilton, president of L’Oréal Paris, in a past interview with Drug Store News. In fact, Biotherm Homme had lonely stood in this market for 20 years at least as opening this new market in 1985 with building new special line which donated to men market to react for the idea that men also require for the skin care products to look after themselves, to clean their skin, responding their wellness by using creams, lotion, toners, moisturizers, bath & body, hair care, even anti-aging creams (Jones, 2010). As the development of this segment, in the 90s, Nickel, a superior brand for men, created masculine beauty institutes that give the credit to carrying of the institutes; the brand realized

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the opportunity and growth in this market. Then, in 1996, it built its own line toward particularly for men. This new brand tie itself up to men segment even just noticed the market potential and know how to capture this market (The Nickel website, 2010). The real revolution was taken place in 2001 by Vichy and in 2002 by Clarins. As a result the market has been increasingly captured and competed intensively from time to time toward this potential growth among many famous brands such as Nivéa for Men, Klorane, Vichy, Nickel, Phytomer, Clarins Men, L’Oréal and etc (Blanchin et al, 2007). 2.1.2 Blooming of beauty care for men In earlier period, it seems to be not traditional one that most men would often think of looking after of their beauty comparing to the present. Using a moisturizer, exfoliating formulas, facial scrubs, skin toner, specialized shampoos and conditioners, specialized face product, lotion and many more were realized as feminine (Parry, 2005). It affects to the rapid development of beauty care in women market rather than in men. As generally shown that there are many bulky companies creating and launching loads of different kinds of skin care products designed specifically for women’s needs. It is commonly to say that not so many words to stand for the meaning of ‘cosmetology’ in the women mind when they go shopping for beauty care products, as persuasion, allurement, gorgeousness, healthiness, or delight (Wood, 2010). Thus there are many manufacturers have paid attention for women segment rather than another. Fortunately there is dynamic of the beauty care aspect in the past 15 to 20 years in order to offer products for men, excluding only shaving cream, aftershave, deodorant, body spray and hair product. It is increasing the space for the men to step on their taking care themselves after years of waiting, give the credit to the dynamic of the market surrounding as mentalities of the new masculine generation, appearance of “metro-sexual”, social liberalization of homosexual, and even the fact that men want to stay young, have better and clean look. The gap or distance between men and beauty products or skin care products has shorten by the bridge nowadays, their demand for skin care products are revealed to fulfill their pleasure and wellness, start from clean their skin, use the cream, feed the skin nutrition, anti aging treatment, body and hair cares, spa centers or even beauty institutions (Cole, 2008). According to L’Oréal Report (2010), it showed the changing of men’s perception in UK towards their personal appearance is positively growing for acceptance by a new generation. 80 percents of men in UK who have the age range between 18-29 year olds, are most men who consume the grooming

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products for their routine, not only special occasion. They realized that is no longer the social taboo on purchasing the grooming products as it used to be. The point is that men are more conscious about their look all the way into old age these days. A youthful look becomes popular ever more significant for the place of work, meeting, dating and social life. “Men’s interest for their appearance showed in their point: thus, it is approximately 64.6% to take care of their skin, 73.8% to pay attention more likely on hair, and 31.8% like trying novelties. Moreover, 38.7% pointed they dedicated time to look after of themselves. These numbers permit us to see clearly higher about men’ interest, especially who have age range less than 25 years old, and the percentage of interest on appearance reduce slowly when age’s increasing (Blanchin et al, 2007). The best technique to keep their skin and appearance looking healthy, attractive, impressive, and youthful is to use exclusive quality beauty care products that are designed particularly for men skin, not women one. Unless men want to waste thousands of dollars later in life on expensive risky and dangerous either face lifts or plastic surgery and, men should start to listen to their beauty now that become stronger demand and stimulate supply side to capture this market segment. 2.1.3 Opportunities of the global market The overall of this market looks so shiny, accessible, and profitable and opened for the growth. The forecasts are optimistic and the results are successfully over expected. For instance, by the fact of MarketResearch.com (2007) stated the average of Clarins’s products sales consumed by men is higher that the women’s one. Clarins Men reached 170% of its objectives in 2002. According to Christian Courtin (2003) from Clarins, men’s purchasing amount is higher than what the company aimed, she stated that men purchase for 4 items by average comparing to 2 items by average of women purchasing. One more case was from the first enter of Biotherm Homme, that launched approximately 45 product items at that time and made Biotherm become well known, well-recognized and grew up dramatically about 250% minimum during 1997-2002 (Casafree.com, 2007) The consumption volume can prove that men’s purchasing achieved over the expectation. Even men have strong demand and purchasing power but it could not be a good balanced market for men without attracting or motivating. As Jeff Falk mentioned in GCI magazine (2009) that,

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“Women are more emotional in terms of their product purchasing habits, whereas men are drawn to technical, functional things”. This is the reason that why many companies who are hygiene-beauty specialized in the women market, also try to offers more product line in men market to benefit from stronger market and demand, evolution of mentalities and to enlarge the men market space. Indeed many brands already earn advantages when they successfully provide the products to women market from the reputation and beauty care specialist image. The communication media is very powerful to influent on men readers by men’s press. It can emphasize men to concern and know themselves towards their implicit desire. Whether it could be Maximal, Men’s Health, New look, or even Mr. Magazine, and so, they draw in mind toward having attracted with the beauty (Feng, 2008). Due to the baby booming trends in men perspective, many companies capture this point as a main key target for products, not only adult who prefer good looking and pay attention on anti-aging products but younger men are also seen as bright opportunity in men’s grooming segment, particularly in skin care sector. Many companies as Unilever, the maker of Axe, and Gillette, the maker of Tag, are paying attention on the younger men by playing a marketing strategy between image of brand and gender distinction. Their ad campaigns are noticeably alike, are straightforward motivate men to use the products in order to be irresistible in women aspect (Antoinette, 2005). 2.1.4 Forecasting of men’s skin care market This market is flourishing and seems to be everlastingly up to the years. The beauty care experts said the same thing that this new market growing is not just a trend or fashion, but it can be a strongly attractive market with a high potential to develop and grow up more and more (Euromonitor, 2007). In a medium-term, approximately five years, beauty care experts assume that men’s market for beauty care will reach for 15% of women’s market (Courtin, 2003). Relating to the long term forecasts, L’Oréal France realizes that in 50 years, the volume of men user of beauty care cream and lotion will reach 50% (one in every two men), whereas nowadays, there is only 21% comparing to the past as in 1994, it was only 4% of men who normally used facial care products1. While the worldwide personal care market is sluggish, men’s grooming market, particularly in skin care sector is acting as one of the few shiny stars, with 6% value growth during 2007–2008, according to Euromonitor (2007). In
1 www.24heures.ch/home/journal/index.php?Page_ID=10373&art_id=35383 - 05/10/2010

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2008, men’s grooming was worth $26 billion worldwide as 8% of the whole global cosmetics and toiletries market, and this entire are estimated to increase. While the U.K. market which is more maturity of market is expressing the symptom of moving away from growth stage into maturity stage, the increasing of metrosexual men in emerging markets is fueling sales (Lennard, 2009). Regarding to MarketResearch.com (2009), the forecast for year 2014 suppose to reach to $84.9 Billion in this segment. In addition to sales of Men’s specific grooming products as bath and shower, deodorant, hair care, shaving cream, razors, lotion, moisturizer, cream, etc, valued at $19.7 Billion worldwide in 2009, and it is estimated to rise to $28.0 billion by 2014. So, as we approach 2014, the forecast permits us not to consider men’s market elusive any longer. There is noticeably shown that this tendency would increase regarding to several causes. The demand from men could be grown up due to new generation’s the behavior that have more feminine characteristic and take out some idea toward the taboos. Furthermore, men is a principally authentic target, thus once induced by using, it would lead to sustain customer. With supports from the supply, the companies have launched new product in this particular line continually. Men customers would have more various alternatives to choose. 2.1.5 The beauty care market in Sweden According to Euromonitor (2010), Cosmetics and Toiletries in Sweden, the data is shown that this market in Sweden had positively expanded years-to-years from the past until 2008. The market continually grows up little by little in slower growth rate. Customers demand becomes seriously aware of price issue. The declining of expensive and luxury products cause retailers to apply ‘price competitive strategy’ - lowering their prices to pull the customers during the economic situation in 2008. Moreover, at the end of the year as a crisis of global finance, Sweden’s central bank (Sveriges Riksbank) swiftly rose the interest rates up in 2007, and also highly expedited in 2008 (Högberg, 2007). Consequently there is higher dept level in Sweden, which affects to customers’ purchasing power. As a result, some brands realized to change to mass positioned brands in the same year, or even private label products. For this market characteristic in Sweden, the market is spitted and primarily led by transnational corporations (TNCs), such as L'Oréal AB, followed by Procter & Gamble Sweden AB and Beiersdorf AB in 2008. Invima AB was the foremost Swedish firm of the top ten ranks that was shown as the ninth rank in 2008 for retail value sales. Major transnational corporations could strengthen its positions decades ago because of earning

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advantage from economies of scale, which sustain them in terms of research and development of product, reduction of cost production, and the larger capability to empower the products as advertising and promotional reinforcements (Euromonitor, 2010). Regarding to this market in Sweden, particular in 2008, non-grocery retailers were considered as the most powerful distribution channels toward health and beauty retailers who provide the biggest fraction of premium products as superior skin care products. However grocery retailers as hypermarkets or supermarkets still have an important role toward distribution of grooming and skin care products. Those stores can reach huge volume sales of general products which do not require any specialty. For examples, bath and shower products, deodorants, hair care products, oral hygiene products and skin care products ,therefore the customers who do not attempt to buy this kind of products at first, can also be activated the purchase at the same time. As the impact of Sweden’s the weakening economic outlook, the future of the market seems to be slow down for value growth in the prediction measured up to the previous situation. Nevertheless, the effect of the economic situation is not considered dramatically in long run. In fact, Euromonitor (2010) showed that demand for luxury grooming and skin care products in Sweden suppose to recover soon due to customer confidence. 2.2 Marketing mix of men’s Skin care products The term “marketing mix" was first paved a way in the early 1950s but it was a prominent marketer, E. Jerome McCarthy, who promoted it to be known as the four Ps of marketing in 1960. After that, this idea of ‘marketing mix’ was amplified by Neil Borden (1964), which has been widely used to the marketing management. The marketing mix refers to four major elements of decision making in the marketing process, i.e. products, price, place and promotion that are combined to acquire the results yearned by the company or organization. In a relation with the skin care products’ market, to meet customers' needs the product providers should develop the products to content them, set and sell in the right price, distribute the products the right place, and to create the effective way for the existence of the product known through promotion.

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2.2.1 Men’s skin care product Product is any goods launched to a market for awareness, acquisition, utilizing or consumption and it suppose to be able to satisfy the need or demand. Products can be in terms of physical matter, services, people, places, association, institution and thoughts” (Borden, 1964). According to Draelos and Thaman (2006), Skin care product should provide the maintenance and treatment against the hygienic of the skin under optimal conditions of sanitation and comfort, or attending to someone or something. Relating to this study, skin care products include facial foam, cleanser, toner , day or night cream, moisturizing cream, eye cream, anti wrinkle & other anti aging, sun block and tanning cream. Generally shaving products are accounted as skin care product for men, but it seems to be common and logic for male customers to buy and use those kinds of products. Consequently the term ‘products’ in this study refer to skin care products, excluding shaving products. The products for men cannot be served as same as women one. Almost everything should be particularly designed for the differences. "We had done some research where we determined that there were 25 million men who were on the cusp, who were thinking about using something other than their wives' skin care or nothing at all." said Carol Hamilton, president of L’Oréal Paris, in a past interview with Drug Store News. The fact is that a facial skin of men is 22% thicker than women’s by average because it’s higher in collagen and elastic. Men's skin is oilier, tougher, and bigger prone and older look than the real age, L’Oréal Paris’ research reported (Imogen, 2005). That is first reason why men have dissimilar demand for the products from women’s. Not only because of different skin type creating diverse demand on products, but the differences of personality between men and women also become main consideration creating dissimilar demand of product’s quality, function, attribute and ingredient. For instance, as men usually spend time less in a bath room, the products have to be light textures in order to easily absorb. Additionally Men prefer the products which are invisible, fast penetrated, easy to use, less process, pleasant to put, less smells and with a proficient consequence (Hopkins, 2010). So it is reasonable that why 25 million men refuse to use a feminine product but they really seek for particular products designed for them. As the different demand between male and female market already has been revealed, Hamilton said, L’Oréal have tried their best to develop and strengthen the men’s skin

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segment as equal to women one (Antoinette, 2005). Like BeautiControl, during its first entering the male market, the company had to specifically formulate new products features adapted to male skin, also repackaging and changing their promotion strategies. Sales represents of BeautiControl start targeting directly to men through corporate events or seminars. As a result now over than half of the line's sales derive from male customers. (Miller, 1997) 2.2.2 Pricing strategy of men’s skin care products. After the study of varied sources about demand, supply, the offer and the market, 'the selling price-fixing’ is the most pricing strategy employed in market. The companies are in the position to fix the selling price of products according to many factors in the market as the relevant actors in order to buy or sell a product, or sustain under the surrounding conditions of market as that price is still in a price range by the group of market makers related to supply and demand while the buyers make a decision how much they are willing to pay for products (Schneider, 2003). More scrupulously, the selling price that the company set for the products must relate to the production’s cost, the quality or attribute of products, the product ingredient, the positioning alternative, product brand, the evaluation of competition, the customer perception and the value toward the products. Actually, in order to set the price, it has to be set in relation with the value provided to customer and perceived by him, including after consumption (Kotler, 2000). Price can be concerned as differentiation of products and brand image providing by the companies comparing each others in the skin care market against men’s customer mind. In addition to the relationship between price and men’s customer, price is a big influence on buying decision making. According to Datamonitor's "Male Grooming Trends: Profiting in 2009 and Beyond" report, released in March, price was considered as primary factors on men in order to purchase their personal care products. More than 50 percents of all male respondents answered that price had either "high" or "very high" impact on their product purchasing. This result was a significantly higher response rate than other factors, even though "ease of use" or "habit/preferred brand" are realized as the important factors in men perspectives as well (Antoinette, 2009). As in the present market, there are various price ranges of skin care products provided in the market. Price-setting normally relate to the distribution channel the company used. For intensive distribution, some skin care products are launched and distributed to outlets as

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many as feasible in order to be reachable by men customers easily at all over the place they go as super store, supermarkets, convenience store, direct sale or internet, etc. (Lamb et al, 2008), and here ‘penetration pricing strategy’ is adopted for intensive distribution. Price is set as low price to extremely promote for obtaining more market share and to earn more advantage from economies of scale faster than other competitors. This pricing strategy is presumed to work well with the male customers who are price sensitive, and it also imply that there is low of product awareness (Hirschey, 2009). In the same time other competitors can be quickly use the same pricing strategy and become direct competitors. Like Nivéa for Men, they set low price for their products to go through the market with distributing their products as many places as possible. For a selective distribution, ‘skim pricing strategy’ is employed with the products that are distributed by a few screening dealers. Only a few distributors are selected, male customers have to seek out the products in specific place as cosmetic counter, perfumery and drug store (Lamb et al, 2008). Consequently there are many brands adopted premium price because they aim to obtain more profit margins, to have a superior product image or to be the top of the market from using high pricing strategy to men customers, who are less sensitive toward price, (Brown, 2006), such as the line of Jean-Paul Gaultier, Shiseido Men, “le Mâle”, etc. 2.2.3 Place, distribution channel of men’s skin care products In general, the word ‘place’ in marketing mix strategy refers to how the products would be sold or distributed to the customers. What products the company is selling, can directly affect on how the products should be distributed, and it chiefly impact on the production of products or service (Borden, 1964). For example of a small company or local branch, the appropriate position in the distribution system is at the end of the chain because a company is providing an assortment of products directly to the customer. In a relation with the male skin care market, there is a choice of channels in order to distribute the products to be reachable for the customers such as cosmetic counter, convenience store, super store, perfumery & drug store, direct sale and internet (Moungthong et al, 2008). Cosmetic counter: department stores can be classified into two main classes as high-end and low-end stores. But normally skin care products have their own counter in department store, so that; the skin care expert can give specialized guidance on products to customers. For instance, there are several brands that provide their products through cosmetic counter in

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many leading department stores such as Shiseido Men, Lancôme Men, Clinique for Men, Clarins Men, SKII-Men etc. The availability of products in counters or department stores relies on the product brand and image, store location and reputation of department store (Christopher et al, 2007). Convenience Stores: as the characteristic of convenience stores which is easy and comfortable to access the skin care products without time consuming for searching as in a large store, regularly open 24 hours and locate in many area covering with countless branches that match with male’s personality that usually make a purchase quicker than women, Hence there is seen that some product choices are available here which is very comfortable for the consumers buy products (Swoboda et al, 2009). For instance, there are some medium positioning of skin care products available in Pressbyrån and 7-Eleven. Super store or supermarket: generally either a super store or supermarket is larger and more diversified than convenient stores. Super stores or supermarkets usually adopt a high-low pricing strategy, employing some promotions and selling their products at low price (Swoboda et al, 2009). Most of the skin care products available in the super stores or super market are in the medium positioning such as Nivea, L’Oréal, Olay, etc. are available through the leading super markets such as ICA, Netto, Coop, Hemköp, Lidl etc. The reason is, most customers here want to buy other things such as food, candy, snacks, house ware, electric appliances, etc. Perfumery and drug stores: are specialty stores which attempt to focus at a specific target to offer a full range of health and personal grooming products of a specific brand with the expert service such as skin test for diverse skin types of customers or testing the products. These value added services try to pull customers who are seeking for products which can have a specific function or attribute towards some skin problems such as anti-wrinkle, anti acne, etc., and the value added service work well with male customer who have less experience with their skin care products. For instance, Vichy by L’Oréal has been selling through Apoteket as pharmacy brand (Christopher et al, 2007). Its location is often placed in city center or shopping center, including in early locations as well as in more separated areas. In the other hand of customary perfumery and drug stores are higher in their product pricing (Swoboda et al, 2009).

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Direct sales/Internet: Nowadays the direct sales or internet can facilitate the customers to buy skin care products because it’s more comfortable, convenient (particularly for male customers), and sometimes these direct sales or internet offer customers a discount. Some male customers prefer to order the skin care products such as SKII-Men, Lancôme for Men, and Shiseido for Men, etc, via the internet to avoid unfavorable feeling from social taboo (Moungthong et al, 2008). Consequently the choices of direct sale and internet are new and anonymous distribution channel. According to Jack Hannah (2010), TheMetroMan.com has become one of the most wanted e-marketplace for men customers to visit and shop. The website also offer promotion as 10% discount using the coupon code, Moreover they attract the customers more with promotion of free shipping for orders over $50. The others: nowadays there is increasing for the exclusive distribution channels, is that, the way of distributing the products by having only one or a few dealers within a limit of selective area (Lamb et al, 2008) such as the beauty institute specialized for men customers. Furthermore, consequence of the increasing competition within men’s grooming market generate more alternative outlets and retail to combine the skin care with other services as gyms, salons and direct marketing in order to promote it to be new chance accessing to men market (Meunier, 2004). What is more, regarding to Michael Pike, a founder of design consultancy, Pikefell, there is implied that men’s grooming become bigger and bigger, but it still has not been so several places for men feeling free to step on because those places are not actually focused and designed particularly for them (Woods, 2005). In the previous period, men had to go to female section like their beauty hall where men felt as the odd. Moving forward to current modernity as a increasing demand of men in grooming products, many leading skin care providers have paid more attention on giving the comfortable in-shop environments allowing male customers to feel more content to facilitate their purchase (Meunier, 2004), and aim to offer them a better shopping experience. Like Space NK Men, Groom aims to establish the new store's interiors which were designed by Universal Design Studio, with in-store graphics by Bibliotheque Design, in order to pave a better entrance for male customer into this kind of market since touching the doorsill he probably feel like home. More scrupulously, the 39th Space NK store is newest one but it become the first against under men branding of the Space NK which the store’s interior had cautiously combined between men-friendliness, hi-tech design and compassionate service (Woods, 2005).

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2.2.4 Promotion Vs. skin care products for men Promotion is the communication process which the company or product itself attempt to convey with customers in order to attract and establish the customer’s demand and consumption (Borden, 1964). Here are the main key issues related to promotion; Branding: building a trademark or identification of a distinctive image to the products. During the intensive competition in many markets, the word ‘brand’ is primarily considered as main element as competitive advantage to differentiate it from others if the company has reputed brand as a commercial application (Clifton, 2004). Besides, brand name communicates product image which connect to certain values. So the name should correspond to its positioning. In a relation with men’s market of skin care product, it is important consideration of dissimilar promotion for men perspective from women one. As the product name, branding the products with a masculine implication or right word can content men customers not to feel ashamed toward their consumption. For example, naming the products by traditional way as a clear and simple word (as Clarins or Biotherm do) or emphasizing on male name as Nickel should be considered. This consideration of promoting male name in the products can stimulate men for their use and consumption. For well known brands, they just preserve the reputation of their brand name that they have created since providing in women market but points out the space, particular for them as Biotherm Men, Nivéa for Men, Lancôme Men, SKII-Men, etc. (Blanchin et al , 2007). In addition to sustain the purchasing repetition, according to Datamonitor's recent "Male Grooming Trends: Profiting in 2009 and Beyond" report, released in March, found that there was over half of men do not care to search for new products in their personal care, they probably cling to the products that they have experienced with and satisfied (Antoinette, 2009). Hence it is important that if the product providers can serve them the desired products create a good brand image and take advantage from their brand loyalty. Packaging: is the combination of the science, technology, art and fashion to protect and keep the products to customers that involve with the considerations of products attribute, distribution, storage, use, sale, production, cost, public image, customers, etc. (Soroka, 2002). For men products, marketer has to pay attention on the package design because package is the first thing that customer sees, so it should present product in an enviable and suitable way to draw the customer’s attention. The vital points that should be realized carefully are the form,

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texture, the smell and colors of packaging. All that criteria on package can be seen as sensory marketing to capture the male customer (Blanchin, 2007). “A key difference when it comes to male product and packaging is that men are more interested in what the product does for them”, says Space NK founder Nicky Kinnaird (Woods, 2005) Regarding to Desborder & Kimmel (2002), the packages small, clear, soft, pink, will be felt to be rather female than male, contrary on the packages which is huge, dark, tough, hard, or blue. Therefore Clarins is a good example presenting itself to capture male market by using a dissimilar color, logo and name from women’s product. The tone reds intended for the women are transformed into blue for the male line of goods (Tan, 2008). Moreover package should not have something like flowers on bottle. Even men maybe into experimenting with these pictures, but they are not going to buy bottle with flower (Miller, 1997). In addition to upper market, the finest brands design more plainly style and less descriptive on their product package. They believed that their customer have already known well what they are purchasing (Woods, 2005). Advertising: it is one of promotional activity to inform and activate the public in order to rise up the product sales. There are many forms of these promotions such as press, television, internet, sponsoring, public relation and sale promotions (Moungthong et al, 2008). Regarding to men’s skin care market, the marketers have to consider who your target are, and what you want to communicate to them. "With women, you can still touch upon beauty' and appealing to the opposite sex. That won't work for men", Zuckertnan said, president of G-abriella Z Ltd. Therefore the messages should promote about personal hygiene, improving the skin, antiaging, solving skin problems, attractiveness, good looking, self confidence or even modernity trend (Miller, 1997). Furthermore, many firms as Unilever, Axe, Tag, Gillette, etc, are capturing the young men as target by playing up the messages between their brand’s images with gender. So their ad campaigns are alike which is prominently simple: “using the products, then women will find you irresistible” (Antoinette, 2005). To advertise the products to male customers, marketers have to design which communication strategies would be use to promote the products. According to Blanchin et al (2007), two major communication strategies are classified into the media communication and the non-

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media communication. The first one covers many types of media, such as press, public relations, radio, billboard, cinema, television, and internet. Another type as non-media communication includes sponsoring, sales promotion, personal selling, direct response marketing, etc. Regarding to advertising investments for male cosmetics in figure 2.1, the graph obviously show that there is the big dynamism of investments

concerning all the media in this male market. It was

increasingly up to 36 percent within 6 years since 1996-2004 (Blanchin et al, 2007). More deeply, television seems to be the most selective media rather than other types, such as magazines, press, radio, billboards and cinema ads, for advertising this kind of products to male market. Refer to figure 2.2 TV was no.1 rank to be used for reaching male market for this sector with 59 percent of market share. In 2004, there was 73,635 thousand Euros in advertising investment through television ads. Then magazines with 24 percent of market share. It was 22,712 thousand Euros in advertising investment through magazines (Blanchin et al, 2007).

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Here, there are some explanations for two major types of media which are highly involved with skin care product’s advertising. • Media communication; Press: giving the credit to the press media which have more space, particularly for male customers, such as Esquire, Maxim, Men’s Health, FHM and Cargo, that can create new opportunity for them to be new potential customers after reading article or male magazine introducing them to know more about products. More precisely to the up-trend in men’s grooming is that, men are more likely to make a skin care product purchase by themselves because after reading, it can activate their irrefutable demand (Meunier, 2004). Television: the famous way to present the products to be recognized by customers in case of distributing the products through the department stores is the advertising through television spots (Blanchin et al, 2007). For example in the U.S. market, Nivea for Men introduced itself roughly as newly evolved skin care 8 years ago, it promoted itself intensely by TV ads (Meunier, 2004). Internet: is seen as new communication tool that permit users to get specialized suggestions or services about beauty and cares, such as how to choose the right products suit the skin type. For instance, Clarins provide the customer suggestion and service through their website (Blanchin et al, 2007). One more example of Zirh’s success, after its directed marketing efforts, Zirh become realized internet as powerful marketing tool to reach men customer who prefer anonymously online shopping too (Meunier, 2004) • Non-Media communication; Sponsoring: Some companies try to present their logo, brand, slogan and products as frequently as possible by doing sponsoring like sports event in order to obtain customer awareness. As figure A.1 and A.2, can obviously show that Gillette was sponsors for Football World Cup to reach male customer (see Appendix A). Like Nivéa in figure A.3, it introduced itself in sports’ world (see Appendix A). Sales promotion: are special promotions that are developed in the distribution sectors in order to stimulate the customer’s purchase. For example of Pierre Fabre which has privileged non-media communication by using advertising on the selling place (Barbeau, 2005)

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Public relations: is impersonal and promotional activity that can convey to countless audiences at one time advertising in order to establish the customer demand and activate a purchase. As in the current strong competition, it happen the same in men’s skin care market that each brand attempts to do PR by the mass media as TV, radio, billboard, sign board at the bus stop, sky train station, subway etc. Furthermore famous skin care products always choose the well known celebrity endorsement or presenters who have the correlating characters to the product functions or attributes to promote its products (Moungthong et al, 2008), such as one of Gillette’s monochrome ads which has David Beckham to be brand ambassador (Woods, 2005) 2.3 The consumer behavior 2.3.1 Revolutionizing of men’s customer behavior This part mainly focuses on consumer behaviors that affects decision making. Customer behavior is an ongoing process when individual or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas and experience to satisfy needs and desires (Askegaard et.al, 1999). Moreover, Askegaard et.al (1999) noted that people do not buy the product for what they do but for what they mean. That sentence implies that the roles of products play in our lives go well beyond the tasks it performs. Customer will choose the brand or product that has an image consistent with his or her underlying ideas. Therefore, understanding customer behavior helps us to understand more about factors that influence customers. In this part, the authors focus on men’s customer behavior and factors that affect their behavior toward skin care products. Furthermore, trends of consumption and production change all the time. According to Conseur (2004), she noted that “In relation to consumption and production, women were the consumers and men were the producers. Thus, consumption and the act of consuming have historically been linked to females and femininity. Masculinity, on the other hand was associated with production not consumption. However, there is a shift in society as men are becoming more involved in the act of consumption”. Furthermore, Firat (1994) mentioned that men need to be involved in the consumption because people now can also represent themselves through what they consume; “what one has, wears, drives, does during periods of leisure and so on”. Nowadays, men are seen more as consumers and consume more and more, not only men stuffs such as car, sport equipments and electronic products, etc. but also stuffs which are seen as feminine products such as

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clothes, accessories and jewelry, cosmetics and shoes, etc (Conseur, 2004). Taking care of their appearances and health is becoming a big trend for both men and women. So this trend might be an impact on men’s customer behaviors toward aesthetic. 2.3.2 Aesthetic in men’s perception. Women have been aware of their appearance for long times. They always maintain and take care of their physical image for being attractive and staying competitive in this society (Blanchin et al., 2007). In addition, Shopping and grooming with appearance have been related with women but now blurring gender roles in society are making male socially acceptable and it is also acceptable for men to exhibit other feminine characteristics including sensitivity, devotion and showing emotions (Conseur, 2004). Currently, appearance, image and youthful are becoming more and more important in this society. So many men have turned and focused on their appearance more than in the past because not only women want to be good-looking and young but men also. According to Blanchin et al. (2007), their previous study clarify the connection between male and beauty care as below, “The relation between men and beauty care can be seen as a simple relation to his appearance. They (Men) want to feel good about themselves, to be in harmony and to reach a mental physical equilibrium. Men want to be proud of their bodies. This is why they (Men) use products to embellish themselves”. In the past, men might be familiar to aftershave, deodorant and soap but now there are many kinds of skin care products available for men. Moreover, shelf space for male cosmetic and skin care products were limited to few products but now there are many kinds of skin care products available for men such as facial foam for men, day and night cream, anti-aging cream, sun protection and etc (Pitman, 2005). L’Oréal, Nivea and Biotherm can be good examples because these brands have launched men section to respond to their men’s customer needs. Therefore, men have become more comfortable about buying products and service to improve or enhance their personal appearance and men move beyond the basic of washing and shaving to embrace more sophisticated products and grooming concepts (Imogen, 2005). Even though these trend motivate men to take care and concern more on themselves, not all men are turning to use skin care products because these products are associated to a female so the consumption of cosmetics by men is still labeled gay (Blanchin et al., 2007).

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2.3.3 Factors’ Impact on men purchasing behaviors There are many factors that influence on men’s purchasing behavior both external and internal factors. These factors play as important roles to men’s purchasing behavior especially, when they (men) buy skin care products. Age, occupation, income, living area, reference group, family, celebrity endorsement and culture are the basic factors that affect men behavior and purchasing behavior toward skin care products. Age Customers in different age groups have different needs and want. While people who belong to same age group differ in many other ways, they tend to share a set of values and common cultural experiences that they carry throughout life (Askegaard et al., 1999). In term of skin care products, younger generation tend to be more open to skin care products than older generation. In a relation with this kind of market, Amanda (2004) revealed that men who are in the 18-24 years old, were driving apparel spending and are increasingly spending money on appearance related products as well. Occupation It might be one factor that affects purchasing behavior because some occupations have to take care and maintain their appearance. Staying competitive in term of appearance in workplace is becoming more and more importance. As Antoinette (2001) said that many working men believe personal appearance does influence whether someone is promoted or succeed professionally. Therefore, spending patterns is found among different occupational groups
(Prakask and Vinith, 2007).

Income Income plays as an important factor in purchasing behavior. According to Chunhapak et al., 2008, noted that people who have different income have different selection of product. Moreover, people who have high income are more ready to buy expensive products but people who have low income are not. Therefore, income is one factor that affects purchasing behavior. In term of skin care product, Blanchin et al., (2007) said customers should have enough time and sufficient income to purchase and use the product.

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Living area Living area is one factor that influences on customer’s consumption. Elsey and Sukato (2009) said that consumer behavior might change according to location; urban and rural area. People who live in urban area do not have the same desires as people who live in rural area. In case of skin care products, rural men do not concern more about using skin care products because the lifestyles there are less competitive and relatively relaxed but many urban people do (Elsey & Sukato, 2009). Location of living area can make the difference in purchasing behavior. According to the research of Prakask & Vinith (2007), 50% of the urban respondents and 53.3% of those belonging to the sub urban areas made their purchases individually, while 32 % of urban consumers purchased cosmetics with their spouses. Reference group and family The influence from group of people (friends and colleagues, etc.) or family is considered as an important element that affects on other purchasing behavior. According to Elsey & Sukato (2009), friends or family possibly convinced consumers into purchasing a particular product. Moreover, Antoinette (2006) noted that women (wife or partner) have an influence on men behavior such as men will buy skin care products easier or take care more on themselves if they are encouraged and accepted by people who surround them. Celebrity Endorsement Celebrity endorsement is one factor that affects on customer’s purchasing behavior. It can be seen as a significant impact nowadays. They (celebrities) have influences on product’s perspective. In term of skin care products, celebrities such as David Beckham and Brad Pitt have changed perception about men who use cosmetic. According to Cheng et al (2010), it noted that, “Increasing endorsement of metrosexual celebrities opinion-former such as David Beckham and Brad Pitt who openly admits to using skincare product and publicizing that men can make themselves look better with the product had contributed to making men more comfortable and positively changed men’s attitude toward the idea of consuming male grooming products. Young men choose brand or product through the imitation of celebrity endorser such as David Beckham and Brad Pitt because they are known for their looks and style which resonate well with the metrosexuals tastes”.

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So it is becoming more acceptable nowadays for men who take care themselves by using skin care products. 2.3.4 Evolution of femininity and masculinity In the past, men were supposed to be assertive, competitive and tough but women were supposed to be more concern with taking care of their home, of children and of people in general (Hofstede, 1991). Women evolution might be one factor that affects men’s behaviors. Today women do not have to stay at home and take care of their home anymore; women can do whatever they want such as get a college education, participate in sport events and run for president. Women can be doctors, police officers and whatever if they yearn for. A large increase in mothers working outside the home and in women entering male-dominated professions has influenced masculine and feminine roles (Twenge, 1997). So it seems that the gap between masculinity and femininity have been reduced in term of value from time to time. Twenge (1997) supported that it is possible for both men and women to adapt feminine and masculine roles in their life. In a relation with this study, Hofstede (1991) mentioned that Sweden and Norway are seen as the most feminine countries. There was no difference between score of masculine and feminine, and both (males and females) expressed equally tender, nurturing values. However, men’s value and women’s value need not be identical in all aspects, only they do not differ along a tough-tender dimension. Moreover female can learn to function in a masculine way and vice versa. So it is not surprise that men also have feminine side when talking about how to take care and maintenance their appearance and body (Hofstede, 1991) Emerging new kind of men such as metrosexual, is the affect from those evolutions. This new kind of men will be seen easier nowadays and become more and more acceptable because it is more accepted by men to apply some feminine way in their life 2.3.5 The emergence of the metrosexual Metrosexual is a word that uses to describe group of men who pay an attention on taking care of their appearance by going to gym, focusing on fashion and using grooming products, etc. Moreover, it might be referred to group of men who have more money to spend on fashionable products, cosmetics and spa services, etc. (Janowska, 2008). According to
Janowska (2008), metrosexual men use a number of elements to communicate a desirable

image. They consider appearance as very important when making first impression. This modern men desire to achieve certain point of sophistication with their appearance, clothing

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and other materialistic products they use. Desirable image is achieved by materialistic items as well as interest and information about product category. In 1994, the word “Metrosexual” was introduced by Mark Simpson in his article. Metrosexual is combined from 2 words: “Metropolitan” and “Sexual” to designate men who are living in big cities and who give a particular importance to their physical aspect (Blanchin et al., 2007). However, metrosexual people are neither homosexual nor androgynous. They consider themselves as virile people who challenge conventional masculine values by having a new and trendy lifestyle (Souiden & Diagne, 2009). David Backhem can be seen as an example of Metrosexual man who always takes care of himself. It can be called that David represents the way of Metrosexual’s life. Furthermore, He has changed the definition of a Metrosexual man. He shows that man does not have to be less masculine just because he enjoys new haircuts, designer fashion clothing, earrings and grooming products (Janowska, 2008). According to Rohlinger (2002), Metrosexual may be seen as images of the perfect male”. Moreover, metrosexual play as main customers in men’s cosmetic industry because Metrosexual always enjoy shopping and feel comfortable with it. Consequently more and more products are produced and developed especially for men (Janowska, 2008). 2.3.6 Improving the self-esteem through the self-image Self esteem is the opinion of yourself. High self esteem is a positive opinion of yourself and low self esteem is a negative opinion of yourself (More-selfesteem, 2010). Self-esteem depends on many factors such as physical appearance, career and social status, etc. Moreover, self-esteem is a basis positive attitude toward living. High self-esteem people are confident, willing to try new things, responsible for their action either good or bad and open for it, etc. In contrast, low self-esteem people are opposite such as be afraid to try new thing, blame the other for their problem and compare themselves with others, etc. Therefore, it is significant to improve the self-esteem because it affects thinking, action and even relationship with other people (Blanchin et al., 2007 and More-selfesteem, 2010). High- and low-esteem subjects are motivated to maintain favorable self-images, but that low-esteem subjects are constrained in this effort by less favorable beliefs about themselves (Lynch et al., 1992). Therefore, improving self-image might be one step to improve self-esteem. Nowadays, many people turn to take care themselves more than in the past, especially men. They have changed their lifestyle by taking care more on themselves, not only going to the gym but also using skin care products. Using men’s skin care product is not something far away from their life any longer because physical appearance and youthful have become more

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and more important in this current society. According to Sturrock & Pioch (1998), the main stimuli for the consumption of male grooming products were the creation, development and maintenance of a self-image. So many men are trying to improve their image and maintain their youthful in order to stay competitive in workplace (Antoinette, 2007). Moreover, Martin & Kennedy (1994) found that physical attractiveness appears to be an imperative factor determining male’s levels of self-esteem. Grooming products may not improve only the physical appearance of the man but also his psychological image by increasing his confidence level about his appearance (Souiden & Diagne, 2009). Users feel more pleasant on themselves after using skin care products. So they feel more confident on their image and it pasts through to their behaviors and make them more believe in themselves (Amanda, 2004). 2.4 Customer decision-making According to Askegaard et al (1999), they stated that there are 5 stages in customer decision making. All the steps are followed by the consumers for some purchase but not every time. 1. Problem recognition It occurs whenever the consumer sees a significant difference between his/her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state. The consumer perceives that is a problem to be solved. In case of skin care products, consumers might concern about their skin and appearance so using skin care products may help them to maintain or repair their skin problem. 2. Information search Once the problem has been recognized, consumer needs information to resolve it. So consumer will begin survey or search his/her environment for appropriate data to make reasonable decision. In skin care products, females receive information from family and friends more than men. However, males depend more on advertisement (Prakask & Vinith, 2007). 3. Evaluation of alternatives In this stage, customer will use all information that acquired from stage 2 to evaluate all product choices.

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4. Product choice Once the relevant options from category have been assembled and evaluated, customer will choose product among them. So in a relation with skin care market, the variety of product alternative for men is not so intensive competition comparing with women’s. 5. Outcome After customer have bought and used product for a while, customer will have an experience or satisfaction/dissatisfaction about the product. And the outcome would affect for the repeating the purchase or searching for new product in the future. Consequently it is important that products providers should offer products, including the related offering to content men’s customer for their repetition of purchase.

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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY This chapter provides the explanation of processes and methods that are applied in this research. All selected methods and the reasons why all of these methods are used or demonstrated in this part. Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the study and research are concentrated. 3.1 Method 3.1.1 Research approach Deductive approach was adopted in this research. According to Brymen & Bell (2007) and Greenspum (2010) noted that deductive approach begins with a general ideas (such as theory, laws, principles) and based on them, specific hypotheses are formed which can be tested in order to support the general ideas. Then observation will be conducted to test all issues. The purpose of deductive approach is to confirm or reject the given theories. Moreover quantitative approach was applied in this research. A quantitative approach can be constructed as a research strategy that emphasizes quantification in the collection and analysis of data. Furthermore, quantitative methods gives priority to fixed measurement, hypothesis and a lesser flexible form of fieldwork involvement. Quantitative method projects for reliability by utilizing tools such as standardized questionnaires (Brymen & Bell, 2007). The purpose of this research is to understand and to find out factors that affect men’s behaviors and their buying decision in skin care products. Deductive approach was applied in this research because this approach supported us to confirm and reject all issues that were form base on pervious researches and theories. Furthermore, Quantitative approach was an appropriate way to find out the tendency of men’s skin care products and men behavior toward skin care products. Moreover, quantitative approach was also useful to evaluate, summarize and report the finding accurately. 3.2 Population and sample Regarding to purpose of this research, the authors attempt to study the relationship between factors that can affect on the men consumers and skin care products in Swedish market. The study is concentrated in Sweden’s market only instead of the global market due to time limitation and point’s focusing. And in order to keep away from the cultural differences between nation that can be one factor to affect customer’s purchasing decision making, doing survey across multi-nationality is avoided in this study. Moreover there is more convenient, accessible and directly to the point, in order to target the men who are in the age range

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between 15-45 years old and living in Sweden, particularly in Karlstad as the respondents for the questionnaire survey facilitating to the geographically current residence. Consequently group of Swedish men were selected to take part in this research. The sample is 94 Swedish respondents. More precisely, distributing electronic questionnaire (by Query&Report system) directly to the respondents can generate some limitation toward the variety of respondents, most of respondents are Karlstad University’s students, some of them are Karlstad University’s employees and minor group is other occupations. 3.3 Data collection: Instrument/technique to collect data 3.3.1 Primary data collection Primary data is the specific data which the researchers collect or observe by themselves such as conducting a questionnaire and interview. This specific data can be seen as an important data because the data is unique and it is collected and observed according to the specific purpose draw by researches (Brymen & Bell, 2007) In this research, the authors conducted questionnaire for gathering all concrete information to analyze and answer all the issues in this research question. Primary data is seen as valuable and essential data in the research regarding to an exclusive result that the authors obtained directly from the survey. 3.3.2 Secondary data collection Secondary data collection can be seen as a beginning of this research. Firstly, the authors had studied and reviewed many relevant data to know and understand the area of the research. Secondly, the authors used secondary data as an indicator to do further research. According to Brymen & Bell (2007), secondary analysis is the scrutiny of available data by previous studies or other researchers who probably have not been involved in the collection of those data. This data is concerned as an important tool for gathering all relevant data according to the purposes of this thesis. Moreover, secondary data provides many benefits to this research such as cost and time saving with high-quality data. Those are the reasons to support why secondary data was applied in this research.

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3.3.2.1 The questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts; personal data and consumption data. Closed-ended questionnaire were applied in this research. Personal data started from question number 1 to question number 6. All questions in personal data part asked about age, marital status, living area, who does respondent live with, occupation and income. In consumption part, it started from question number 7 to question number 21. Moreover, consumption part was divided into 2 parts for those who use skin care products and for those who do not. So respondents who use skin care products suppose to answer question number 7 to question 19. However, respondents who do not use skin care product suppose to answer question 7, 20 and 21. In that part, all questions consist of consumption habits; reasons why respondent buy skin care products, factors that affect purchasing decision and feeling toward their using skin care products. However, respondent who does not use skin care products has to answer question number 7 and then skip to number 20 and 21 to give the reasons why do not use or buy the products and if they wanted to buy, which factors would been concerned. This questionnaire was created to understand more about male behavior toward skin care product’s purchasing. So the authors targeted both two groups of people who use skin care products and who do (see the questionnaire in Appendix B). 3.3.2.2 The administration of the questionnaires Query&Report system was used to collect all primary data according to the limitation of time, efficiency and effectiveness of this system, cost saving and availability of respondent list. This system was provided by Karlstad University for all students who study in C and D level and would like to create a questionnaire and distribute it to respondents. The questionnaire was sent via e-mail to group of Swedish men by the Query&Report system. After all data was collected, all answers were shown into basic statistic data by the system. So using Query&Report system was very helpful in this research. 3.4 Data analysis Principally the data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.0. In order to analyze all answers obtained from the questionnaires, all answers are summarized as descriptive statistic in empirical finding, chapter 4. And also in the beginning of chapter 5: analysis. The descriptive statistic is employed for the basic features of data in this study. It offers simple conclusions about the sample and the measures (Trochim, 2008). At first part of analysis, summarizing the data deriving from mean value by frequency is mainly considered. Corresponding with simple

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graphics analysis, it shapes the basic of virtually every quantitative analysis of result. More

precisely, the analysis of the data which are answered as a rating indicating in terms of perceived level of importance, is evaluated and analyzed by weighting, each level of importance is weighted differently. The weight of ‘not important’ is 1 and the weight of ‘critical important’ is 7. The weight increase progressively in order (one by one). Finding the mean of each value by average is calculated for the analysis part (as used in figure 5.1-5.7, chapter 5). Unlike descriptive statistics, inferential statistics are highly involved in analysis to extend further than the data alone. For instance, this study use inferential statistics to infer some judgments or conclusions of the probability which relate to an observed difference between groups and factors is the reliable one or one that might happen in this study. Therefore, the inferential statistics is used to make inferences and connection between the obtained data and related theories (Trochim, 2008). Additionally ‘the pareto charts’ are created and used as toolkit of the analysis by SPSS version 16.0 in order to correlate the factors and facilitate for drawing the conclusion in this study.

3.5 Reliability and validity According to Joppe (2000), she defined reliability as the extent to which results are consistent over time and an accurate representation of the total population under study is referred to as reliability and if the results of a study can be reproduced under a similar methodology, then the research instrument is considered to be reliable. Validity is to evaluate the level of relation,

between theoretical framework and empirical work, which also represents the aspect of representation and trustworthiness of the thesis (Brymen & Bell, 2007). In this research, the authors tried to make sure that questionnaire was clear and understandable so the questionnaire had been sent to two people to test before it was distributed to all respondents. Moreover, to avoid misunderstanding, all questions did not contain technical term because that kind of errors can reduce the consistency and accuracy of the finding result. In order to secure validity, our study used multiple sources of information to check the information in order to confirm finding.

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CHAPTER 4: EMPIRICAL RESULT This chapter provides the facts of the result deriving from the responses of the questionnaires, and to be understandable, the statics values and corresponding graphs are in Appendix C, from figure C.1 to C.21. Age: The sample consisted of 94 respondents from age between ‘below 18 years old’ to ‘above 32 years old’. Most of them are between 23-27 years old (36.2%). Follow by age between 28-32 years old (27.7%) then between 18-22 years old (25.5%) after by age above 32 (8.5%) and the least is age below 18 (2.1%). Marital status: Most of the respondents are single (85.1%). 10% of the respondents are married and only 4.3% are divorced. Living area: 31.91% said they live in Kronoparken. 21% said that they live in Centrum, and then 12.77 said that they live in Norrstrand. For those who live in Våxnäs are 6.38% of respondents and only 2.13% live in Hammarö. Out of these, 26% live in other places such as Campus, Färjestad, Kvarnberget, Bellevue, Orrholmen, Skare and Herrhagen. Who do you live with? : 53.19% of respondents stay alone. Those who stay with their partner or spouse are 10.64% follow by 13.83% of respondents live with their parents. 21% live with their friends and 3% live with others as their relative and children. Occupation: Most of the respondents are student (68%). Follow by 19% of the respondents are employees. Then 6% of the respondents have their own business. 4.26 % of the respondents are authorities and only 2.13% is other occupation. Monthly incomes: 40% of respondents said they can earn money from 7,001-10,000 Kr per month. Approximately 30% said they earn less than 7,000 Kr per month, follow by 19% said that they earn more than 22,000 Kr per month. Only 4% said they earn between 19001-22000 Kr per month. 6% of respondents can earn between 10,001-19,000 Kr per month. Do you use any skin care products? : In this point reveal that 49% from total use skin care products but 51% do not use any skin care products. Thus, the continued results finding from question no. 8) to 19) are the data based on the respondents who use skin care products. Further, for the rest of people who do not use skin care products, the reasons why they do not use and some attitude against their decision making, are exposed from 20) to 21).

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How long have you used skin care product? : 47.83% of total who use skin care products said they have used skin care products more than 3 years. Following by 43.48% of respondents said they have used it between 1-3 years and the rest have used for less than 1 year. How much do you spend on skin care products per month? : Almost 61% said that they spend from 0-300 Kr per month. 30% said that they spend from 301-600 Kr per mouth. Only 9% said that they spend from 601-900 Kr per mouth. Where do you usually buy skin care products? : 36.36% answered that they buy from super store. 30.30% of respondent buy from convenience store then 18.18% buy from perfumery and drug store. Follow by 9.09% of respondents who buy from direct sales/Internet. Only 6% of respondents buy from counter service. Consumption habit toward buying skin care products: Almost 87% showed that they buy skin care products by themselves and only 13% said the other people (as partner, family and friend, etc.) buy for them, and the below paragraph permits us to know the reason of making the skin care products by others. Why do not buy skin care products by yourself? : In this question, all answers (such as no reason, lack of time, lack of knowledge, lack of self-confident, and other reasons) are chosen as cause of making the skin care products by others equally shown as 20% by average. More precisely, in 20% of other reasons that the skin care products are made by others, can be clarified as 10% because other can get the discount and another 10% is from indolence. Do you think skin care products are more a woman than a man area? 52% of respondents said skin care products are not woman than man area. On the other hand, 48% said skin care products are more woman then man area. Do you see yourself as “urban fashion men/professional” when using skin care products to take care your appearance? : 48% of the respondents do not see themselves as “urban fashion men”. However, 26% said they see themselves as urban fashion men and another 26% said they see themselves as “urban fashion men” sometimes. Since question no. 15 to 21 in the questionnaire, likert scale was employed; the questions are required to answer a rating indicating their perceived level of importance. The alternatives are

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divided into 7 levels from ‘not important’ to ‘critical importance’. Consequently there are the summaries in term of level of importance by frequency and average of answers. Additionally in order to be understandable, see figure C.15- C.21 in Appendix C together). The consumption of the skin care products. In this question consisted of five kinds of skin care products as follows; Facial foam/ Cleanser/ Toner: The result shown that the highest frequency for their perceived level of importance for using facial foam/ cleanser or toner is 21.74% for ‘somewhat important’. Day/Night/Moisturizing cream: The result express that there are 3 levels of importance that were chosen equally towards this kind of products as ‘somewhat important’, ‘quite important’ and ‘very important’ by 21.74% per each. Consequently the average of the consumption for this kind of product is 3.78 from 7 (or it is ‘quite important’). Eye cream/ Anti wrinkle cream: The data is revealed that 43.48% of total who use skin care products think that eye cream/anti wrinkle cream’s consumption is not important in their attitude while 17.39% think it is somewhat and other 17.39% for moderate importance. Sun block/ Tanning cream: The result shown that there are 4 levels of importance that were chosen equally towards this kind of products as , not important’, ‘moderate importance’, ‘very important’ and ‘extremely important’ by 17.39% per each. Consequently the average of the consumption for Sun block or tanning cream is 4.13 from 7, or we can draw the conclusion that it is ‘quite important’ by mean. Other products: 43.48% of all respondents who use products believe that it is not important to consume the other kind of products while 21.74% think that it is quite important to use other products together. The reasons of using the skin care products For medical reasons: The result shown that the highest frequency toward their perceived level of importance for using skin care products because of medical reason is approximately 40% for ‘somewhat important’. For personal hygiene: 26.09 % of all respondents think that it is very important and 21.74% believe that it is extremely important to use skin care products for their personal hygiene.

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For improving the skin: About 39% think that it is extremely important to use skin care products for improving the skin while 17.39% think it is quite important and other 17.39% for very important. Consequently the mean of answer that men use skin care products for improving skin is 4.86 from 7, or we can draw the conclusion that it is ‘very important’. For anti-aging/ solving skin problem: 30% of all respondents believe that it is somewhat important to use skin care products for anti-aging or solving skin problem. Moreover, attractiveness is seen as very important reason driving them to use the products by 30% of all respondents. For self-esteem/ self-confident: The highest frequency of answer is about 26% believe that it is not important to use skin care products because of self-esteem/ self-confident but there are approximately 17% said that it is quite important, and other 17% believed that it is extremely important for using skin care products for their self-esteem/self-confident. As a result, average of respondent’s perceived level of importance toward using skin care products because of self esteem or self confident is 3.73 from 7, or we can draw the conclusion that it is ‘quite important’. For other reasons: 48% of all respondents agreed that it is not important to use skin care products for other reasons which exclude from the alternatives. The factors that influence on your decision making Price and brand are alike, the result showed that almost half of male respondent who use skin care products see price and brand of products as ‘quite important’ on their decision making. Quality/attribute of product: The data is revealed that 39.13% of respondents who use skin care products see quality or attribute of product is extremely important in their attitude. Ingredient: 22% of respondents who use skin care products think that product’s ingredient is moderate importance affecting them for decision making to buy the products. Promotion and advertising: Approximately 39% of respondents believe that promotion and advertising is moderate importance for their decision making while 26% think that this factor is not important for them and 13% see this factor as somewhat important only. Packaging: About 26% said that package of product is very important for them that can affect their purchase’s decision making and there is other 21.74% felt that it is moderate importance.

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Store location: The data showed that there are 2 levels of importance that were chosen equally towards store location as factor affecting their decision making. It is 21.74% which see store location as quite ‘important’ and other 21.74% see it as ‘very important’. The most influence person on your purchasing behavior Yourself: Almost all of respondents see themselves as the most influence people that affect on men’s purchasing behavior which is seen as an extremely important person by average. Spouse/partner, family, friend and colleague are alike: most of men who use skin care products pointed that these people, such as spouse/partner, family, friend and colleague, are not important to have the effect on their product’s purchasing. In contrast, there are some minors that think differently and get the effect from these people in dissimilar level on their purchasing. As a result, average of respondent’s perceived level of importance toward the effect from their spouse/partner and family is 2.30 and 2.34 or ‘somewhat important’ in order, and average of the effect from colleague is 2.69 (moderate importance). Expert: About 34.78% said that expert is moderate important on their purchasing behavior and about 26.09% pointed that expert is quite important. Sales representative: The number showed that there are 2 main levels of importance that were chosen equally towards sales representative. There is 34.78% which see sales representative is not important and other 34.78% think it is somewhat important. Presenter/ celebrity endorsement: The result revealed that about 45% of all respondents who use skin care products think that presenter or celebrity endorsement’s influence is not important on their purchasing behavior. Following by 24% feel that presenter or endorsement is somewhat important on their purchasing. Nevertheless, average of level of importance for the effect on purchasing by presenter or endorsement is 2.13 or ‘somewhat important’. The effect of “being considered as homosexual” on your purchase Half of responses from men using skin care products expressed that the effect of “being considered as homosexual” is not important on their purchase of skin care products while 19.57% revealed that it is ‘quite important’ for them and 17.39% for ‘somewhat important’. As a result, the average pointed that this effect is 2.11 or ‘somewhat important’ thing to impact on their purchase.

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The reasons why you do NOT use skin care products According to figure C.20 (see Appendix C), the first reason that come prior in men’s mind affecting them not to use skin care products is ‘they think that this kind of products is not necessary in their viewpoint’ (the mean value is 3.70 or ‘quite important’). Following by the reason of ‘its expensiveness and lavishness’ with 3.43 of the mean value or ‘moderate important’, then other reasons seem to have less affect for them not to use this kind of products as fewer products launched for men, the effect of “being considered as homosexual” and other reasons. The factors affecting you NOT to buy the product As a result from the study; ‘price’ is first rank of all factors that can affect men not to buy the product with 3.27 of the average value (or ‘moderate importance’), afterward with the quality or attribute of the product for 3.12, ingredient for 2.72, brand for 2.68, promotion and advertising for 2.62 and store location for 2.52 (ordering by the average value of importance), at any rate all of this factors are seen as ‘moderate importance’. Additionally the study showed that ‘package’ come as the last factor affecting them not to buy the product with only 2.08 or ‘somewhat important’.

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CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS Beginning with exploring the use of products to see that how many Swedish men use skin care products, as a result show that 51% of respondents still do not use skin care products. In contrast it is about 49% of respondents said that they use skin care products. According to Conseur (2004) and Imogen (2005), it mentioned that men consume more and more, not only men stuffs but maybe including feminine products. Moreover, men have become more comfortable about buying products and service to improve or enhance their personal appearance and men move beyond the basic of washing and shaving to embrace more sophisticated products and grooming concepts. It can be concluded that the result confirmed Conseur (2004) and Imogen (2005) because the result shows that percentage of respondents who do not use skin care products and who use skin care products are not that different. It reveals that men tend to be more open to skin care products and purchase more on this kind of product. Moreover, it shows that men become awareness of taking care themselves more than they used to be. It implies to the increase of potential consumption of skin care products by men’s customers in the future. According to figure C.22 (see Appendix C), the respondents who are between 28-32 years old, are the most who using skin care products but other age range as 18-22 and 23-27 years old, are also have high numbers of using this kind of products. Relating with what Antoinette (2004) and L’Oréal Report (2010) said younger generation tend to be more open to skin care products than older generation. Men who are in new generation, were driving apparel spending and are increasingly spending money on appearance related products. This can be implied that younger generation tends to be more open on skin care products, unlike people who are over than 32 years old. They might have the different attitude toward using skin care products. Consequently this result can confirmed Antoinette (2004) and L’Oréal Report (2010) that younger generation tend to open to skin care products more than older generation because it was found that the respondent who are between 22-32 years old are the most people who use skin care products than people who are above 32 years old. However, not only generational effect but financial is another factor that affects on men’s purchasing behavior. It was found that 75% of the 23-32 years old respondents can earn more than 7001 Kr per month. On the other hand, most of all respondents as much as 80% who are less than 22 years old can earn less than 7000 Kr per month. The result supports Chunkapal et al. (2008) on this sentence “income is one crucial element that affects purchasing behavior ” because logically respondents who are between 23-32 years old have more opportunity to

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consume on skin care products than people who are below 22 years old. Consequently it can be concluded that generational and financial factors play as significant effects on their skin care product’s consumption. In a relation with occupation and income, it might be other factors that affects on purchasing behavior. According to Prakask & Vinith (2007), they said that different pattern of spending is found among different occupational groups. Moreover, Chunhapak et al. (2008) said people who can earn high income are more ready to buy products than people who can earn less income. In this research, the authors found that almost of 57% of men who use skin care products are student and the rest of them is employees, unemployed people and people who have their own business. 61% of students who use skin care products spend only 0-300 per month and the rest of them (39%) spend around 301-600 per month. In contrast, 45% of respondents who are employees and people who have their own business spend around 301900 per month. The rest of them spend around 0-300 Kr per month. The result shows that occupation and income are not important factor that affect on amount of spending behavior in skin care products per month because the average of spending of employees and respondents who have their own business is in the same level per month (0300 Kr) as respondents who are student and unemployed people. So it can imply that even though they have different job and income, most of them still have the same spending amount. So the result rejects Prakask & Vinith (2007) and Chunhapak et al. (2008) on their statements above. Not only how much they monthly spend on this kind of products is focused, but it is also important to focus on which kind of products they mostly buy. of Here five the is the care

comparison product’s

skin

consumption

between

facial foam / cleanser / toner, day / night / moisturizing cream, eye cream anti wrinkle cream, sun block/tanning cream or other kind of products. As figure 5.1, we can see that respondents see sun block or tanning cream as first important product to buy and facial foam/cleanser/toner is the second one. Both of these products are

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concerned as ‘quite important’ to use in men’s attitude. Follow by Day cream, night cream and moisturizing cream. Relating to the reasons of consuming they gave. Using the skin care products in order to improve the skin and to keep their personal hygiene, are two most significant reasons as seen as ‘very important’. Regarding to figure 5.2, after that two main reasons drive men to use skin care products, using the products for their attractiveness, selfesteem and self-confident become next strong motivation for them to use skin care products. This number show the result in the same line with the study of the consumer behavior that some of men use skin care products in order to be attractive and improve their self-esteem through Kennedy image. (1994) or As Martin &

said, good

physical looking

attractiveness

appears to be an important factor in determining the level of self-esteem by men. Furthermore using skin care products may increase their psychological confidence toward their appearance (Souiden &

Diagne, 2009). Moreover, the factors that influence on customer’s decision making (which products they are going to buy) are in the consideration of study. As the fact that men's skin is oilier, thicker, tougher, and bigger prone, L’Oréal Paris’ research reported (Imogen, 2005), so they yearn for particular products designed for their skin. Moreover most of male personality desires for the products have to be light textures in order to easily absorb, invisible, fast penetrated, easy to use, less process, pleasant to put, less smells and with a proficient consequence (Hopkins, 2010). Corresponding with figure 5.3 that the most influence factor on men’s decision making of their product’s purchase is quality’s or attribute’s

products. The data imply that most of respondents see

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‘product’ as ‘very important’ element for their decision making (prior to other elements of 4P’s in the marketing mix). Following by price as second factors, generally the price setting is sold in the fixed price for skin care market (Schneider, 2003) relying on product’s quality or attribute, ingredient, the positioning alternative, product brand, the evaluation of competition, the distribution channel, the customer perception and the value (Kotler, 2000). ‘Price’ is not just how much customers spend on products, is significantly considered but they also realize the products price as importance because it is also about the value and satisfaction which can differentiate products and brand image providing by the companies comparing each others in the skin care market against men’s customer mind. Corresponding with the fact of ‘Cosmetics and Toiletries in Sweden’, Euromonitor (2010), it reveals that Swedish men customers become seriously aware of ‘price issue’ since to the economic situation in 2008 toward their skin care products consumption. Consequently there is a strong relationship between price and men’s customers on their buying decision making. Before a consideration of next issue as brand, ‘ingredient’ becomes interesting element as well because of the dissimilar skin between men and women. Thus male customers pay attention on ingredient whether it is suit for their skin or not (Imogen, 2005). Further, ‘Brand’ becomes next consideration that accounted as one importance of 4P’s as well. As Blanchin et al, (2007) mentioned that it is necessary to be careful about naming the brand, brand’s promoting or building brand image. Branding the products with a masculine implication or right word can satisfy men customers not to feel ashamed toward their consumption. Following by packaging, store location and promotion & advertising in order, first two factors (packaging and store location) are significantly considered prior to promotion & advertising. Even though the study of the consumer behavior and the marketing mix show that promotion and product’s advertisement can introduce, help and activate male customers in order to experience the products. Especially TV and men’s magazine seem to be the most used communication media for skin care products companies to reach men customers (Feng, 2008). However packaging and store location play better role in marketing mix rather than advertising, as Nicky Kinnaird, Space NK founder stated that, “A key difference when it comes to male product and packaging is that men are more interested in what the product does for them” (Woods, 2005). The design’s package should be carefully realized about form, texture, the smell and colors of package because the package is what the first thing that customers see. So all of that can be

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seen as ‘sensory marketing’ to draw men customers’s attention (Blanchin et al, 2007). Like store location, this factor is one importance of 4P’s for customer’s purchase too. In a relation with the male skin care market, the place of product’s distribution should be reachable for the customers and match for their life style because each distribution channel offer dissimilar option and offering (Moungthong et al, 2008). For instance, convenience store provide only general products less than what super store provide but it is more convenient and perhaps cheaper (Swoboda et al, 2009). The relationship between marital status, who they living with and the most influence person on their purchasing behavior According to figure 5.4, it shows that men seeing themselves as the most influence person on their purchasing behavior on skin care products. This result can be related to Prakask & Vinith (2007) because they noted that females receive information from family and friends before they buy product more than men. Regarding to the results, it was found that 47% of respondents who use skin care products are singles and 2% of them are divorced and these two groups of respondents live alone. In a relation with our research, it was found that these groups of respondents see themselves as the most influence person on their purchasing behavior which follows by expert in the 2nd rank and friend in the 3rd rank. The rest of influence person (spouse, family, sale representative and representative) are almost seen as the same level. More specifically, 43% of respondents who use skin care products, who are single and who live with other people such as friend, parents and others. They also see themselves as the most influence people as same as those who are single or divorced that live alone. However, Antoinette, (2006) noted that women (wife or partner) have an influence on men behavior such as men will buy skin care products easier or take care more on themselves if they are encouraged and accepted by people who surround them. Corresponding with this sentence, this study found that 4% of respondents who use skin care products that already get married and live with their spouses. This group of people see themselves as the most influence people but their spouses also have influence on their buying decision making as well.

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It can be concluded that the result can prove Prakask & Vinith (2007)’s assumption because men see themselves as the most influence person in their purchasing behavior (especially for skin care products) even though they live alone or live with other people. Family and friend do not play as significantly influence person on men’s purchasing decision. For men who are married, they still see themselves as the most influence person but their spouse plays as the second influence person on their purchasing behavior. This result is in the same line with Antoinette (2006) toward the consumer behavior as she noted that women (wife or partner) have an influence on men behavior such as men will buy skin care products easier or take care more on themselves if they are encouraged and accepted by their wife and partner. On the other hand, the result from this study rejects the assumption of Cheng et al (2010). They mentioned that increasing endorsement of metrosexual celebrities opinion former such as David Beckham and Brad Pitt who openly admits to using skin care product and publicizing that men can make themselves look better with the product had contributed to making men more comfortable and positively changed men’s attitude toward the idea of consuming male grooming products. Young men choose brand or product through the imitation of celebrity endorser. But our study found that celebrity endorsement is not seen as that significantly influence person on Swedish men’s purchasing behavior. Hence we can draw the conclusion that celebrity endorsements do not play as an important person here in Sweden market of men’s skin care products. They do not purchase skin care product because they want to imitate celebrity endorser. The relationship between men’s attitude toward being considered as ‘homosexual’ and ‘metrosexual’ affecting on their consumption habit Men who used skin care product are often seen as Metrosexual. Regarding to Souiden & Diagne (2009) and Janowska (2008) said metrosexual people are not homesexual but they pay an attention on taking care of their appearance. According to figure 5.5, The graph shows that being considered as homosexual because of using skin care product is not an important factor that make them do not use skin care product. According to figure C.23 (see Appendix C), it shows that 52% of respondents who use skin care product often see themselves as ‘urban fashion men/professional’ or ‘metrosexual’, and there is 22 % of respondents who make skin care

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product’s purchasing by themselves that see themselves as metrosexual. Moreover, this group of respondent said the effect of ‘being considered as a homosexual’ toward their using or purchasing skin care product is only ‘moderate important’ for them. (In this study, ‘moderate important’ is weighted as level 3 from 7) Furthermore, there are 22% of respondents who buy skin care products by themselves feel themselves as ‘metrosexual’ sometimes. They said it is only somewhat important (as level 2 from 7 levels for level of importance) to being considered as homosexual can affect their using or purchasing skin care products. On the other hand, there is 43% of men do not see themselves as ‘metrosexual’ even they make the skin care product’ s purchasing by themselves. However, they said it is not important that ‘being considered as homosexual’ would affect on their using or purchasing skin care product. For people who use it but do not buy it by themselves, it is about 9% of respondents who use skin care products that see themselves as ‘metrosexual’ even they do not purchase by themselves. Moreover, they said it is only somewhat important that ‘being considered as homosexual’ can affect on their using or purchasing skin care products. 4% of respondents who use products but do not purchase by themselves, do not see themselves as metrosexual men. Additionally it was found that most of respondents who have used skin care products less than 1 year, they do not buy skin care products by themselves because of lack of knowledge, lack of time and no specific reason. Only 33% of them said that they feel lack of self-confident to buy skin care products. Therefore, it can be concluded that ‘being considered as homosexual’ is not important reason that most of them concern. This result could rejects the assumption of Blanchin et al, (2007) that even though they (men) take care and concern more on themselves, not all men are turning to use skin care products because skin care products are associated to a female therefore the consumption of cosmetics by men is still labeled gay or being considered as homosexual because of using skin care products is not the important factor indicating men to use or do not use. Regarding to this study, the most important reason indicating men not to use the products is, they believe that skin care product is not necessary in their point of view. On the other hand, the result also confirms Conseur (2004)’s sentence because she noted that shopping and grooming with appearance have been related with women but now blurring gender roles in society are making male socially acceptable. So the result revealed that it is an accepted for men to buy skin care products for themselves as the present day. Moreover, they feel more comfortable to buy and use it.

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Moreover, the result confirms the metrosexual phenomenon because more than half of men who use skin care products see themselves as metrosexual. This result reveals that more than half of respondents tend to open themselves for skin care products and most of them purchase these products by themselves. These men do not have any problem to use skin care products to improve and maintain their appearance. The relationship a places of buying, the attitude toward products and toward themselves when using skin care products. Each distribution channel has diverse characteristics and target customers differently. So place is one element of 4P’s that marketer often play as company’s marketing strategy. And now here we emphasize on the correlation between men’s attitude toward products whether they think skin care products is more likely for women area or men, the attitude of seeing themselves as urban fashion men after using skin care products or not, through their place of buying. Beginning with men customers who buy skin care products from Drug store, normally most of customers who buy products from ‘drug store’ are probably seeking for products which have a particular function or attribute towards their skin, or in order to get the personal advice from professional directly. The value added service work well with male customers who have less experience or who very take care themselves (Christopher et al, 2007). Relating to the result, more than half of respondents (approximately 67%) who buy products from ‘drug store’ said that they feel themselves as ‘urban fashion men’ or ‘metrosexual men’ when using skin care products, 16.5% feel that ‘sometimes’ and only 16.5% do not feel themselves as ‘urban fashion men’. For convenience store, according to Swoboda et al (2009), convenience stores which is easy and comfortable to access some medium positioning or general skin care products for normal use and less of product choice, maybe match with male’s personality who usually make a quicker purchase of simple desire, such as buying at Pressbyrån and 7-Eleven. And the data show that most of men who buy products from ‘convenience store’, using skin care products for their personal hygiene as principle comparing to other reason as self-esteem, attractiveness, medical reason, etc. As figure C.24 (see Appendix C) showed that there are 12 men from all 20 men (or 60%) who buy from ‘convenience store’ do not feel themselves as ‘urban fashion men’ or ‘metrosexual men’ when using skin care products. Next, we are going to jump the to an electronic choice because it provides very outstanding function comparing to other channel. There are 6 people who buy their skin care products from internet and all of them do not see themselves as ‘urban fashion men’ or ‘metrosexual men’. Relating to what Moungthong et al (2008)

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mentioned, internet can facilitate men customers to avoid unfavorable feeling from social taboo toward purchasing of skin care products. Internet is new and anonymous way for men whom do not feel comfortable or convenient to buy it directly. Wherever men customers mostly buy products from, the result show that more than half of skin care product’s male users see this kind of products is not more women area than men’s any longer. And only 33% of them, who agree with that, do not feel as ‘urban fashion men’ when using skin care products. The rest, 42% of them totally feel themselves as ‘urban fashion men’ or ‘metrosexual men’: who pay an attention on taking care of their appearance by going to gym, focusing on fashion and using grooming products, etc. (Janowska, 2008). Moreover there are 25% of them who feel themselves ‘sometimes’ as mextrosexual men when using skin care products. Additionally Janowska (2008) mentioned that metrosexual men use many things to publicize their desirable image. As a result, the study permits us to see a strong relationship between place and customer’s attitude that each distribution channel can target different customers who have the different attitude toward using skin care products. Exploring the relationship of the factors and reasons affecting men NOT to use or buy skin care products Here we are emphasizing only men who do not use any skin care products. Why do not they use it? Which factors can affect them not to buy it? Beginning with reasons causing them not to use it,

according to figure 5.6, the first reason is that, they think this kind of products is not necessary in their aspect. Following by the reason that ‘beauty care products are expensive & lavish’ prior to the other reasons. Moreover the result show that about 79% of men who do not use any skin care products, earn income less than 10 000 Kr per month. Relating to the factors figure 5.7, Price plays as the most important factor that affect them do not the products which follow by quality/ attribute of products, ingredient, brand, promotion/ advertising, store location and package.

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Corresponding with the statistic of ‘Cosmetics and Toiletries in Sweden’ that Sweden market had positively expanded years-to-years from the past until 2008. The market continually grows up little by little in slower growth rate but customers become seriously aware of ‘price issue’ since to the economic situation in 2008. So the economic situation may influence on male customer’s behavior. (Euromonitor, 2010). However, the effect of the economic situation toward skin care market is not considered dramatically in Sweden as long run. As Euromonitor (2010) estimate that the demands for luxury grooming and skin care products in Sweden suppose to recover soon due to customer confidence.

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CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION

It might be seen that today men are not as same as in their father’s generation. Changing in men’s behavior and environment make them consume more and more. Today, the change of men’s behavior has distorted that attitude, not only being seen as consumer but also concerning more and more on their appearance. In this research, we found that men consume more on skin care products. Even though the result reveals that number of respondent who do not use skin care product is higher than number of respondent who use skin care products, the difference between these two groups are not that high. So it can be implied that men are more concerning on this trend. Especially younger generation because they are more open to skin care product than older generation. However, financial factor also plays as an important role because people who earn more money have more opportunity to access these kinds of products more than those who have less money. Moreover, it was found that occupation do not affect on their spending pattern because respondents who have the job spend the amount of money as same as respondents who are students and unemployed. And there are many reasons drive men to use skin care product but the most two important reasons are improving their skin and personal hygiene. These two reasons reveal that men are concerning on their appearance. For purchasing decision, men always see themselves as the most influence person on their purchasing behavior even though they live alone or with the other (family, partner/spouse or friend). In case of men who live with their partner or spouse, they see their partner or spouse as the second influence person on their purchasing behavior. What is more to be concerned before their decision making? As a result, marketing strategy offering by skin care products providers seems to be highly involved, ‘quality or attribute’ of the product seems to be the first element that men concern when he has to buy skin care product, following by price as the second importance. More precisely, sun block and facial foam are seen as the most important products that men usually buy. It also reveals that more than half of men who use skin care products do not see skin care products as women stuff any longer. Additionally we found that ‘being considered as homosexual’ might affect men’s attitude toward their skin care product’ consumption but it is still not important reason as other reasons supporting why they do not use skin care product. However, most of men who do not use skin care product revealed “it is not significant to use skin care product” and “this kind of products is expensive

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and lavish”. Corresponding with that, price is the prior factor that makes men do not use skin care product, follow by quality and ingredient. The result of this study indicates that many men are more comfortable to use and buy skin care products more than it used to be. It might be seen that skin care for men become more important in beauty care industry because skin care products are not seen as something that has been launched only for women anymore. Using skin care product can be seen as one way to take care of themselves as well, not only be labeled as ‘gay’. It can be seen that men have gone so far from the past and men have changed a lot on their consumption behavior but ‘men are still men’.

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Lynch M., Spencer J. S. & Steele M. C. (1993), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Self-image Resilience and Dissonance: The Role of Affirmational Resources, Vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 885-896. L’Oréal Report (2010), The L’Oréal UK Min’s Grooming Report, March 2010 Imogen M. (2005), Men’s Grooming: Brands Drive Growth, GCI magazine of February 2005, pp 39-40 Meunier, C. (2004), Global Report of Men’s Skin Care: Man in the Mirror, From media to retail, GCI magazine of January 2004, pp 46-49 Miller, C. (1997), CosmeticsMarketing: Cosmetics makers to men: paint those nails, May 12, 2007, pp.14
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Twenge M. J. (1997), Changes in Masculine and Feminine Traits Over Time: A MetaAnalysis, Vol. 36, Nos. 5/6. Zoe Diana Draelos Z, D. & Lauren A. Thaman A, L. (2006), Cosmetic formulation of skin care products, Volume 30 of Cosmetic science and technology series, New York: Informa Health Care Woods, A. (2005), Design Week: Clean break for men's grooming, May 19, 2005 Electronic sources: Barbeau, C. (2005), La cosmétique homme, [Electronic], Available: www.mondediplomatique.fr/2000/03/LEQUERET/13445 [2010-05-02] Casafree.com (2007), Society: The cosmetics market for men takes muscle, Electronic], Available: http://www.casafree.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=548 [2010-0402] Courtin, C (2003), “Clarins men: études de cas of 2003”, [Electronic], Available: http://www.effie.fr/_03clarins.htm [2010-04-01] Euromonitor (2007), The Changing Role of Men: How This Is Affecting Purchasing Habits, [Electronic], Available: http://www.euromonitor.com/The_Changing_Role_of_Men_How_This_Is_Affecting _Purchasing_Habits [2010-04-02] Euromonitor (2010), Cosmetics and Toiletries in Sweden, [Electronic], Available: http://www.euromonitor.com/Sweden [2010-04-01] Greenspun (2010), Deductive vs. Inductive [Electronic]. Available: http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=002ZrE [2010-0403] Hannah, J. (2010), Men Skin Care Experts Philip Lelle and Peter Mitchell Join Forces to Open TheMetroMan.com, [Electronic], Available: http://www.prlog.org/10351821men-skin-care-experts-philip-lelle-and-peter-mitchell-join-forces-to-openthemetromancom.html [2010-04-22] Hopkins, S. (2010), Skin Care for Men, [Electronic], Available: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Skin-Care-For-Men/16573#ixzz0l0Vf7bv8 [2010-05-01] Högberg, C. (2007), Avanza Bank: The minutes of the Executive Board's monetary policy meeting from 14 February 2007, [Electronic], Available: http://www.avanza.se/aza/press/news.jsp?newsArticleId=509526 [2010-04-01] Jones, G. (2010), Biotherm Homme - a brief history, [Electronic], Available: http://www.xrates.com/d/EUR/USD/hist2003.html [2010-04-24]

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APPENDIX A Promotion: Sponsoring Figure A.1: Gillette was sponsors for Football World Cup (on package)

Source: www.mpma.org.uk/pages/pv.asp?p=mpma47., visited on 1st of May 2010 Figure A.2: Gillette was sponsors for Football World Cup

Source: www.ghostinthemachine.net/cat_sports.html, visited on 1st of May 2010 Figure A.3: Nivéa was sponsors for Sports’ World

Source: abcrn.com/cases/case_nivea.html.,visited on 1st of May 2010

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APPENDIX B Figure B.1: The questionnaire

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APPENDIX C Figure C.1: One-Sample Statistics and One-Sample Test One-Sample Statistics Std. Deviation
.965 .492 .50257 .64904 .65791 .50505 .730 2.033 1.632 1.373 2.007 1.896 1.861 1.788 1.614 1.459 1.750 2.070 1.341 1.349 1.426 .963 1.706 1.405 1.628 1.527

N Age Marital Status The use of skin care products Time of use Spending on skin care products monthly Woman or men area Feeling as urban fashion Facial foam/ Cleanser/ Toner Day/Night/Moisturizing cream Eye Cream/Anti wrinkle cream Sun block/ Tanning lotion Other products Medical reason Hygiene reason Improving skin Anti-aging/solving skin problem Attractiveness Self-esteem/self-confident Other reasons Price affecting purchasing Brand affecting purchasing Quality/Attribute affecting purchasing Ingredient affecting purchasing Promotion& Ads affecting purchasing Packaging affecting purchasing Store location affecting purchasing
94 94 94 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46

Mean
3.16 1.19 1.5106 2.3913 1.4783 1.5217 2.00 4.04 3.78 2.26 4.13 2.70 2.78 4.78 4.87 3.22 4.30 3.74 2.26 3.96 3.48 5.30 3.61 2.74 3.43 3.26

Std. Error Mean
.100 .051 .05184 .09570 .09700 .07447 .108 .300 .241 .202 .296 .280 .274 .264 .238 .215 .258 .305 .198 .199 .210 .142 .252 .207 .240 .225

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Yourself Spouse/partner Family Friends/colleague Expert Sales representative Presenter/celebrity endorsement The effect toward ‘homo’ Medical reason/allergy Most products launch more for women Not necessary Expensive and lavish The effect toward ‘homo’ Vs Not using Other reasons Vs. Not using Price affecting not purchasing Brand affecting not purchasing Quality affecting not purchasing Ingredient affecting not purchasing Promotion affecting not purchasing Packaging affecting not purchasing Store location affecting not purchasing

46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48

5.52 2.30 2.35 2.70 2.96 2.26 2.13 2.11 2.35 2.27 3.71 3.06 1.62 1.88 3.27 2.69 2.96 2.73 2.62 2.08 2.52

1.260 1.412 1.538 1.562 1.349 1.307 1.424 1.337 2.058 1.469 2.287 1.873 1.347 1.593 1.954 1.788 1.833 1.987 1.864 1.485 1.650

.186 .208 .227 .230 .199 .193 .210 .197 .297 .212 .330 .270 .194 .230 .282 .258 .265 .287 .269 .214 .238

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One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Upper 3.36 1.29 1.6136 2.5840 1.6736 1.6717 2.22 4.65 4.27 2.67 4.73 3.26 3.34 5.31 5.35 3.65 4.82 4.35 2.66 4.36 3.90 5.59 4.12 3.16 3.92 3.71

t Age Marital Status The use of skin care products Time of use Spending on skin care products monthly Woman or men area Feeling as urban fashion Facial foam/ Cleanser/ Toner Day/Night/Moisturizing cream Eye Cream/Anti wrinkle cream Sun block/ Tanning lotion Other products Medical reason Hygiene reason Improving skin Anti-aging/solving skin problem Attractiveness Self-esteem/self-confident Other reasons Price affecting using Brand affecting using Quality/Attribute affecting using Ingredient affecting using Promotion& Ads affecting using Packaging affecting using Store location affecting using 31.744 23.458 29.143 24.989 15.239 20.436 18.574 13.492 15.722 11.166 13.960 9.644 10.142 18.144 20.463 14.954 16.686 12.250 11.438 19.889 16.546 37.355 14.347 13.220 14.307 14.488

Mean df Difference Lower 93 93 93 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 3.160 1.191 1.51064 2.39130 1.47826 1.52174 2.000 4.043 3.783 2.261 4.130 2.696 2.783 4.783 4.870 3.217 4.304 3.739 2.261 3.957 3.478 5.304 3.609 2.739 3.435 3.261

2.96 1.09 1.4077 2.1986 1.2829 1.3718 1.78 3.44 3.30 1.85 3.53 2.13 2.23 4.25 4.39 2.78 3.78 3.12 1.86 3.56 3.05 5.02 3.10 2.32 2.95 2.81

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Yourself Spouse/partner Family Friends/colleague Expert Sales representative Presenter/celebrity endorsement The effect toward ‘homo’ Medical reason/allergy Most products launch more for women Not necessary Expensive and lavish The effect toward ‘homo’ Vs Not using Other reasons Vs. Not using Price affecting not using Brand affecting not using Quality affecting not using Ingredient affecting not using Promotion affecting not using Packaging affecting not using Store location affecting not using

29.715 11.067 10.354 11.708 14.862 11.732 10.149 10.696 7.927 10.707 11.232 11.331 8.359 8.155 11.596 10.412 11.182 9.518 9.758 9.719 10.584

45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47

5.522 2.304 2.348 2.696 2.957 2.261 2.130 2.109 2.354 2.271 3.708 3.062 1.625 1.875 3.271 2.688 2.958 2.729 2.625 2.083 2.521

5.15 1.88 1.89 2.23 2.56 1.87 1.71 1.71 1.76 1.84 3.04 2.52 1.23 1.41 2.70 2.17 2.43 2.15 2.08 1.65 2.04

5.90 2.72 2.80 3.16 3.36 2.65 2.55 2.51 2.95 2.70 4.37 3.61 2.02 2.34 3.84 3.21 3.49 3.31 3.17 2.51 3.00

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Figure C.2: Respondents’ ages
Age 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 Below 18 18-22 23-27 28-32 Above 32 8.51 2.13 Distribution,% 25.53 36.17 27.66

Figure C.3: Respondents’ marital status
Marital Status 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 85.11

Distribution,% 10.64 4.26 0.00

Single

Married Divorced Separated

Figure C.4: Whom living with respondents
Whom Living With You 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 No one Spouse/partner Parent Friend Others 10.42 20.83 13.54 3.13 Distributioon,% 52.08

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Figure C.5: Respondents’ occupation
Occupation 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 68.09

19.15 6.38 4.26 Bureaucracy Distribution,% 2.13 Others

Employee

Student

Figure C.6: Respondents’ monthly income
Monthly Income 40.43 45.00 40.00 35.00 29.79 30.00 25.00 19.15 20.00 15.00 10.00 2.13 2.13 2.13 4.26 5.00 0.00 7001–10000 Kr 13001-16000 Kr 16001–19000 Kr 10001 -13000 Kr 19001-22000 Kr > 22001 Kr 1501 Kr Distribution,%

Figure C.10: Place of buying
Place of buying 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 36.36 30.30 18.18 6.06 9.09 0.00 Direct sales/Internet Perfumery and drug store Cosmetic counter Convenience store Super store Others Distribution,%

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Figure C.11: Consumption habit on skin care product’s purchase
Consumption habit on skin care product's purchasing 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 Purchase by yourself Purchase by others 13.04 Distribution,% 86.96

Figure C.12: The reasons of making product purchase by others
25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 The reason of making the product purchase by others 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00

Lack of time

Lack of knowledge

Lack of selfconfident

No specific reason

Others

Distribution,%

Figure C.13: Women or men area
Are skin care products are more a woman than a man area ? 55.00 50.00 45.00 Yes No 47.83 Distribution,% 52.17

Figure C.14: Urban fashion men/professional using skin care products
Do you see yourself as "urban fashion men/professional" when you use skin care products? 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 47.83 26.09 26.09 Distribution,% Yes No Sometimes

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Figure C.15: The importance of the skin care product’s consumption

Figure C.16: The reasons of using skin care products

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Figure C.17: The importance of factors influencing on decision making

Figure C.18: The influence person who affect on your purchasing behavior

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Figure C.19: The effect of “being considered as homosexual” on your purchase

Figure C.20: The reasons for Not using skin care products

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Figure C.21: The factors affecting you Not to buy skin care products

Figure C.22: The relationship between age and using skin care products

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Figure C.23: The relationship between the attitude toward “metrosexual” and using skin care products

Figure C.24: The relationship between place of buying and the attitude toward ‘mestrosexual’

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