Free Essay

La Japonaise and Rue Du Caire: the Artistic Colonialism in the Late 19th Century France

In: Other Topics

Submitted By voreiller
Words 3628
Pages 15
Jo (Shihui) Wang La Japonaise and Rue du Caire: The Artistic Colonialism in the late 19th century France The second half of the 19th century was a time of unprecedented changes in European society. Commerce developed with the Industrial Revolution; technological innovations produced an increasingly material world; and colonial empires expanded tremendously into various continents. As a result of the commercial relationships with the colonies and the rest of the world, Europe was engaging with an unprecedented variety and depth of cultural exchanges. Looking at the refreshingly exotic forms of foreign art from the point of view of great imperial powers, European artists sought to incorporate the Oriental elements into European society as a means to either strengthen the existing conventions of the society, or to undermine them. One example of this phenomenon was the construction of a street named Rue du Caire as part of the Worlds’ Fair Exposition in Paris in 1889. Another example was the painting titled La Japonaise by Claude Monet in 1876. Both La Japonaise and the Rue du Caire appropriated and modified Eastern artistic elements to meet the imaginations and needs of the French viewers of the 19th century. However, their executions varied because of their respective forms of art as well as the existing perceptions held by West towards the two different societies. Both the painting La Japonaise and the architecture of the Rue du Caire’s appropriated Oriental artistic elements and reproduced them within the context of 19th century France. The art of Egypt and Japan, two exotic cultures that came into contact with France, due to trade and colonial expansion, influenced the choices of the subject matters of the pieces as well as the styles in which they were executed. In the Paris World’s Fair of 1889, the Rue du Caire consisted of twenty-five houses constructed in the Champ de Mars that represented the various historical architectural styles of Cairo. The leading architect, Alphonse Delort de Gleon, integrated a central mosque into the Rue du Caire complex, along with other residential architecture based on Cairo, including bazaars, cafes and shops (Fig. 2). In the center of the Rue du Caire stood the miniature reconstruction of the Qaytbay Mosque from the Sultan Qaytbay’s funerary complex. It included an elegant and slender stone minaret, with a smooth bulb on top and a fully ornamented body in high relief. The street also featured an ornamented porch leading to the bazaar. Shops opened along the street, with decorated ancient woodwork above the doors. Gleon used musharabiyyas - window, door and other decorative details of the buildings that were recycled from the fragments of demolishing buildings in Cairo – in order to increase the authenticity of the street. Similarly, the painting La Japonaise by Claude Monet depicted a French bourgeoisie woman identified as Monet’s wife, Camille, dressed in an elaborate kimono with a Japanese fan in her hand, in a room filled with Japanese decorations (Fig. 1). The alarming red shade of the kimono occupied the majority of the space on the canvass, and became the visual focus of the painting rather than the woman herself. Intricate patterns of flowers and leaves spread across the top half of the kimono, while an eye-catching warrior figure holding a sword in a dynamic pose decorated the bottom half of the kimono. The kimono draped from Camille’s body to create elongated and elegant curves on the back, waist and legs, spreading out into a bell-shaped hem on the carpet. Madame Monet turns her face sideways to look at the viewer, smiling subtly while holding a Japanese paper fan next to her face and her soft blond curls. Behind her, fans of various sizes and designs of discernibly Japanese motifs decorated the wall and are scattered on the floor. In contrast, the fan Madame Monet is holding in her hand consists of red, white and blue, the tricolor of France. A carpet of an unconventional and repetitive geometric design covers the floor, which is in fact a traditional Japanese mat called Tatami. The painting La Japonaise was a representative image for the school of Japonisme, regarding specifically European art, particularly French impressionism, influenced by Japanese aesthetics. After Japan opened seaports to trade with western countries in 1854, tremendous amounts of Japanese woodblock prints, especially Edo period prints in the style of Ukiyo-e, flooded into Europe. Ukiyo-e prints, meaning “pictures of the floating world” in Japanese, were characterized by the use of flat spaces, bold colors and well-defined lines, usually depicting travel scenes, beautiful women or erotica. In 1862, Monet became disillusioned by the traditional art form taught at the Beaux Arts schools in France, and, together with Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frederic Bazille, and Alfred Sisley, began to search for new artistic languages. Around 1871, Monet encountered Ukiyo-e prints in a print shop in Amsterdam, while he was escaping the Franco-Prussian War. At that time, Europe had been swept by a fascination of Japanese art, resulting in paintings, prints and ceramics in a combined French and Japanese style, contributing to the term Japonisme. The Japanese influence on Monet’s La Japonaise was not limited to Monet’s choice of subject matter, but also inspired the execution of the painting stylistically. Influenced by Ukiyo-e prints, Monet borrowed their stylistic characteristics. The painting that depicts the woman standing in front of a simple wall of a muted blue tone, decorated by numerous paper and bamboo fans that seem to either be hanging on the wall or pasted on it, lacks a significant perception of depth and angle of perspective. Large patches of highly saturated tones of red, yellow and blue on the kimono produce an artificial aesthetic effect. Replacing the well-defined and clearly visible lines that characterize Japanese prints, Monet painted in almost visible brushstrokes that highlighted the contrast between lightness and darkness. All these characteristics exhibited by the painting would later on become more defined and enriched to form the School of Impressionism. Although it is still not known whether Monet was inspired by the stylistic approaches of Japanese prints or was simply reconfirming his styles through the Japanese prints, common visual elements, including coloring, shading and composition, were clearly visible from each of the two. Although Europe in the 19th century had experienced an unprecedented fascination and curiosity for art and culture from both Japan and the Islamic world, the representation of the Orientalist or Japonisme art was often times modified and even distorted. Through the process of appropriating Oriental artistic elements and reproducing them in France, both Delort de Gleon and Claude Monet redefined the purpose of the object of their appropriation to serve the tastes and fantasies of French society, while the original meaning of the Oriental or Japanese artistic elements have been lost. The Rue du Caire, originally consisting of residential buildings in Cairo, served as both an object and a medium for an exotic cultural exhibition and entertainment as part of the Word’s Fair exhibition in Paris. For example, Gleon had adjusted the width of typical Arabian streets so that the railway could run through the street. This showcased that in the process of reproducing ancient Egyptian architecture, it was inevitable for architects to assimilate modern technology into the design in order for the planning of the Rue du Caire to fit into the modern city of Paris. In addition, more substantial changes were made to the purpose of the architecture on Rue du Caire in order to realize the full commercial potential of the street. To showcase the variety of architectural styles from Egypt, Delort de Gleon incorporated the Qaytbay Mosque from the Sultan Qaytbay’s funerary complex into the Rue du Caire. However, Delort did not intend for the mosque to serve any kind of religious purpose for the Islamic people residing in Paris or those brought to be the stage “cast” on the Rue du Caire from Egypt. Instead, he transformed the interior of a monumental religious building into a coffee shop with belly dancers that served and entertained French viewers who came to the street. As one Egyptian visitor, Muhammad Amin Fikri, criticized on the subject of the miniature reproduction of the mosque, “its external form as a mosque was all that there was. As for the Interior, it had been set up as a coffeehouse, where the Egyptian girls performed dances with young males.” Hence, although the architecture of the Rue du Caire originated from residential buildings in Cairo, its purpose at the Fair was not to accommodate the residents or to faithfully represent a scene of life in Cairo: it became a place of a “spectacle" that represented an Eastern fantasy. It aimed to entertain the European visitors of the Rue du Caire and to feed the curiosity of French society. Similarly, in La Japonaise, Monet appropriated several elements critical to Japanese culture and freely modified their purposes and connotations. Different from the construction of the Rue du Caire, an Arabian street exhibited for the exoticness of its Islamic identity, the painting La Japonaise emphasized the French identity underneath the Japanese artistic elements, which were used in the painting to serve a simply decorative function regardless of their original cultural connotations. The warrior figure on the radiantly red kimono that Camille wore was identified as Shok, a traditional Japanese folklore figure who drives out evil sprits, and is normally embroidered on kimonos reserved for kabuki performances or for festive functions. Yet in this painting, the connotation associated with the style and function of the kimono are lost, and the kimono is nothing more than an elaborately decorated garment that fell in line with 19th century French society’s curiosity for exotic Japanese aesthetics. The most blatant representation of the juxtaposition of different national identities comes from the fan that Madame Monet holds in her hand. Rather than a fan painted with a Japanese motif such as the ones of the fans scattered across the wall or lying on the mat, the fan held by Camille Monet consists of three colors, the French tricolor of red, blue and white. The fan is placed in such a central visual position in the painting, right next to the painted object’s face, held at an elevated position. One could argue that this symbolizes the ultimate French nationality of both the woman in the painting and of the painting itself. It accentuates the ironic contrast between French identity and the Japanese garment to emphasize the element of displacement and disharmony. In a letter Monet wrote to his friend Philippe Bury, also a prominent Japanese art collector, on October 10, 1875, Monet said that he deliberately painted the contrast between the Japanese actress’s robe and his wife Camille’s blond curls to stress the artificiality of the disguise. Even the title itself was ironic: La Japonaise literally meant “the Japanese woman” in French, yet not only did Monet know that he was painting his spouse, a French bourgeoisie woman, but also he had Camille specifically put on a blonde wig to disguise her dark curls to accentuate her Parisian identity. Monet reduced the meaning of the Japanese kimono and fans to a decorative form: the kimono becomes the costume, the fans the props, and the tatami the stage set. Combined, they become the artificial “stage” on which Monet constructed this painting. Freely borrowing artistic elements from different cultures, both Claude Monet and Delort de Gleon were part of the bourgeoisie socioeconomic class within French society who would have the privileged access to observe foreign art at a close proximity at the second half of the 19th century, when the rest of European society had only been aware of Oriental and Japanese art through secondary sources or periodical world expositions. Hence, the privilege of access was not only of a higher economic class but also of a more educated class. Delort de Gleon, a wealthy French baron, lived in Egypt for about twenty years before receiving the commission to build the Rue du Caire at the Paris World’s Fair. In fact, he had enough money to have a portrait made by Jean Leon Gerome, painter of the Orientalist painting The Snake Charmer. During his years in Cairo, Delort de Gleon had a privileged access to study not only the ideology behind Islamic architecture, but also to observe its current stage of preservation in Cairo. In fact, he ordered the paint on the buildings on Rue du Caire to be made to specifically look dirty, in an effort to resemble the actual buildings in Cairo. This, along with the creation of an Egyptian atmosphere by bringing shop owners and performers from Egypt, would not have been made possible without the architect’s personal experience of living in Cairo. Less wealthy than Delort de Gleon, Monet came from a second-generation Parisian bourgeoisie family, and Camille from a wealthy Parisian merchant family. And although Monet experienced constant economic turmoil throughout his life, he had enough resources to become an early and prolific collector of Japanese Ukiyo-e prints, and even owned several kimonos, one of which Camille wore in the painting. Hence, he had significantly more access to closely examine Japanese art from an early time. He would later on continue to collect up to 231 Japanese Edo prints, and preserve them in the house at Giverny, which was also designed based on the Japanese Zen School of architecture. In order to display the unconventional content of the appropriated artistic elements, the painting and the architecture had been maneuvered to incorporate the role of the spectator as a part of their visual displays. In fact, both the painting and the architecture displayed a sense of artificially arranged spectatorship. The Rue du Caire not only displayed the architectural history of Cairo, but also the vibrant cultural and commercial aspects of life in the Arabian city, by incorporating dancers, vendors, and donkeys. In fact, the committee transported people as well as animals, such as donkeys, from Egypt to the Rue du Caire to produce an authentic atmosphere. When the visitors drank coffee, appreciated the belly dancers or made purchases from the side shops on the street, they became part of the street stage. Yet, such an arrangement of spectatorship was only made possible by the complicated efforts that went into the construction and planning of the street. Furthermore, the unconventional integration of spectatorship was not an equal relationship. According to Gleon’s own writing, some windows from the Rue du Caire were built in such a way so that the inhabitants of the building could look onto the street without being seen by the visitors (Fig.3). Therefore, the visitors to the Rue du Caire were presented with an image of the lives of Egyptian people that was carefully designed and executed by the architect, and were blocked from seeing the real lives of the inhabitants, inside of the buildings. Similarly, the arrangement of various elements in La Japonaise reflected the similar artificial spectatorship as well. Depicted in the painting, Camille Monet turned her face sideways, to gaze into the eyes of the viewer. She leaned backward in an almost impossible pose, in imitation of the female figure in the prints of Kitagawa Utamaro, the revered leader of the Ukiyo-e school of printmaking. Interestingly, a surprisingly majority of Japonisme paintings depicted women, and women were identified as the primary audience of Japonisme paintings. The dissemination of the Japonisme craze relied on women’s fascination with Japanese design, as they became the earliest and most prominent sponsors of Japanese objects for interior decoration. Yet at the same time, they were also the most common subject of both the Ukiyo-e prints from Japan and the Japonisme paintings in France, the latter romanticized and fantasized not only the idea of Japanese exotic costume, but also the idea of women who wore those costumes. Similar to the design of the Rue du Caire, the line between the subject and the object became increasingly blurred, as the assimilation of Oriental and Japanese artistic elements into western society became an interactive experience. Although both La Japonaise and Rude du Caire represented two similar larger trends of obsession with the Middle East and Japan, the underlying factors behind the popularity of Orientalism and of Japonisme were somewhat different. Primarily contributing to these factors was the mentality of artists under colonial influence. The Rue du Caire aimed to realize the commercial potential of the street, along with displaying the architectural history of Egypt. In truth, one fact that was perhaps deliberately overlooked was that the committee that oversaw the construction and design of Rue du Caire sought to profit from incorporating belly dancers in the street. Those often times nude or half nude dancers were regarded as eroticized mysterious figures from the Orient. Edmond de Goncourt’s memoirs described the Rue du Caire as virtually a red light district, comprising of lengthy descriptions of sexual fantasies triggered by the dance and by the bodies of the dancers. Thus, although different in terms of artistic forms, the incorporation of nude belly dancers, who often danced on the male visitors of the Rue du Caire, resembled the painting of The Snake Charmer by Jean-Léon Gérôme. They both sought to please the Western world through a fantasized display of sexuality and exoticism, while dehumanizing the people and degrading the culture on display. Yet a different mentality existed behind the proliferation of Japanese artistic elements in Western paintings. Japan, although forced to open trade by the American navy in 1854, was never a colony of any country, and remained outside the spheres of Western influence. The popularity of Japanese art was furthered by the artistic pursuits by the artists in the West, which distinguished Japonisme paintings from Orientalist paintings that sought to reinforce the idea of a colonial empire through its fantasized depiction of the foreign cultures. Many European artists sought to find a fresh artistic language from the Japanese prints exported to Europe, hoping to shatter the existing academic control over the stylistic creativity. The emphasis on the spirit of liberation characterizing Japanese art also prompted Western artists to use Japanese elements to evade historical artistic restrictions imposed by Western artistic society. Consequently, many Japonisme paintings were experiments of the Western artists in both content and style. Therefore, La Japonaise and the Rue du Caire are inevitably products of the historical ideas from late 19th century France. By stereotyping Asian paintings and African architecture as “primitive”, the post-Enlightment European society thus established itself as the opposite. The fantasy world constructed by the Rue du Caire emphasized the irrationality and exoticness of the East, which in turn stressed the power of the state of France as an imperial player, and its rationality of social conventions in contrast to the debauchery of the Rue du Caire. Yet, it was those same social conventions, with regards to established restrictions of the creativity of the arts, against which painters like Monet were rebelling, employing the new artistic language that integrated formal elements from Japanese art. Thus, the French reproductions and interpretations of Oriental and Japanese art were the artists’ own projections of their reactions to the artistic and socioeconomic trends of French society in the 19th century. Bibliography Çelik, Zeynep. Displaying the Orient: architecture of Islam at nineteenth-century world's fairs. Vol. 12. University of California Press, 1992. Çelik, Zeynep, and Leila Kinney. "Ethnography and Exhibitionisni at the Expositions Universelles," Assemblage, no. 13 (1990): 34–59. François, P. O. U. I. L. L. O. N. Dictionnaire des orientalistes de langue française. KARTHALA Editions, 2008. Mitchell, Timothy. Colonizing Egypt. Cambridge and New York, 1988 de Gléon, Alphonse Delort. "L’Architecture arabe des Khalifes d’Égypte à l’Exposition universelle de Paris en 1889." La Rue du Caire, Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit (1889): 9. Volk, Alicia, In Pursuit of Universalism: Yorozu Tetsugoro and Japanese Modern Art (UC Press, 2010), 13-41. Weisberg, Gabriel P., and Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. The Orient Expressed: Japan's Influence on Western Art, 1854-1918. Mississippi museum of art, 2011. Lacambre, Geneviève, ed. Le japonisme. Ed. de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1988. Wichmann, Siegfried. Japonisme: The Japanese influence on Western art in the 19th and 20th centuries. Harmony Books, 1981.

Appendix

Fig.1 View of the Rue du Caire, including the Egyptian cast and the Europeans. Black and White Photograph. 1889. Fig.1 View of the Rue du Caire, including the Egyptian cast and the Europeans. Black and White Photograph. 1889. Fig.3 A window on the Rue du Caire that allowed the inhabitants to look out without being seen. Black and White Photograph. 1889. Fig.3 A window on the Rue du Caire that allowed the inhabitants to look out without being seen. Black and White Photograph. 1889. Fig.2. La Japonaise, Claude Monet, 1876 Fig.2. La Japonaise, Claude Monet, 1876

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Çelik, Zeynep. Displaying the Orient: architecture of Islam at nineteenth-century world's fairs. Vol. 12. University of California Press, 1992.
[ 2 ]. Mitchell, Timothy. Colonizing Egypt. Cambridge and New York, 1988.
[ 3 ]. Wichmann, Siegfried. Japonisme: The Japanese influence on Western art in the 19th and 20th centuries. Harmony Books, 1981.
[ 4 ]. Lacambre, Geneviève, ed. Le japonisme. Ed. de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1988
[ 5 ]. de Gléon, Alphonse Delort. "L’Architecture arabe des Khalifes d’Égypte à l’Exposition universelle de Paris en 1889." La Rue du Caire, Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit (1889): 9.
[ 6 ]. Weisberg, Gabriel P., and Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. The Orient Expressed: Japan's Influence on Western Art, 1854-1918. Mississippi museum of art, 2011.
[ 7 ]. Ibid.
[ 8 ]. Weisberg, Gabriel P., and Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. The Orient Expressed: Japan's Influence on Western Art, 1854-1918. Mississippi museum of art, 2011.
[ 9 ]. Volk, Alicia, In Pursuit of Universalism: Yorozu Tetsugoro and Japanese Modern Art (UC Press, 2010), 13-41.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

La Stratégie Du Choc

...La stratégie du choc La montée d’un capitalisme du désastre (Naomi Klein, Leméac-Actes Sud, 2008) La stratégie du choc. La montée d’un capitalisme du désastre Naomi Klein, Leméac-Actes Sud, 2008 (2007 pour la 1ère éd. américaine) Le contexte Quelles sont les conséquences d’une crise, d’un désastre ou d’une catastrophe ? Au moins trois paradigmes concurrents s’affrontent pour répondre à cette question. Le premier suppose qu’une crise est généralement suivie d’un retour à la normale. Le deuxième envisage une forme de « pédagogie des catastrophes », grâce à laquelle les sociétés tireraient les leçons des drames pour en éviter, autant que possible, la répétition. Enfin, la troisième suggère que les chocs majeurs sont autant d’étapes dans le renforcement des inégalités préexistantes, car elles renforceraient le pouvoir des puissants et la fragilité des faibles. L’ouvrage engagé de Naomi Klein, largement inspiré par la catastrophe de l’ouragan Katrina en 2005 (qui détruisit La Nouvelle-Orléans en Louisiane, aux États-Unis) est emblématique de ce troisième paradigme, et doit être replacée dans cette controverse. L’auteur et sa thèse Naomi Klein, journaliste, essayiste et réalisatrice, est diplômée de la London School of Economics. Elle est l’auteur du best-seller mondial No Logo (2001). Elle contribue régulièrement au Nation et au Guardian, et s’est rendue en Irak pour le magazine Harper’s. La stratégie du choc a remporté le Warwick Prize for Writing. Selon elle,......

Words: 1565 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

19th Century

...19th Century Life Criticized Hard Times is a novel written by Charles Dickens in the mid 1800’s. Hard Times criticizes the philosophy of Utilitarianism (Hard Times, 2013). “Dickens believed that Utilitarianism reduced social relations to cold self-interest.”(Hard Times, 2013) This reduced social relation can be seen throughout the novel. Dickens criticizes several aspects of 19th-century life. Dickens criticizes the treatment of children, the life of factory workers, the relationship between employer and employee, and the city they live in. Dickens shows how little respect there is for the children of the time. The children in the school are numbered. They are called by their number and not by their names. Mr. Gradgrind points out Sissy Jupe and calls her “Girl number twenty.” (Dickens, 1854, pg. 10) Gradgrind showed no respect for her name or who she said she was. He insisted that “Sissy” was not a name and that she should only refer to herself as “Cecilia” (Dickens, 1854). Sissy attempted to answer Gradgrind’s questions and he interrupted her every time. Gradgrind’s idea of teaching is to only feed children facts. Children are not allowed to imagine or fancy things. “You are never to fancy,” said a gentleman and Gradgrind confirmed his statement (Dickens, 1854, pg. 14). The only thing the children are to be taught and to repeat is fact. The children are not allowed to have a mind of their own. Dickens raises many contemporary issues in his......

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Description de La France

...La France, en forme longue la République française, est une république constitutionnelle unitaire ayant un régime parlementaire à tendance présidentielle dont la majeure partie du territoire et de la population sont situés en Europe occidentale, mais qui comprend également plusieurs régions et territoires répartis dans les Amériques, l’océan Indien et l'océan Pacifique. Elle a pour capitale Paris, pour langue officielle le français et pour monnaie l’euro. Sa devise est « Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité », et son drapeau est constitué de trois bandes verticales respectivement bleue, blanche et rouge. Son hymne est La Marseillaise. Son principe est gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple et pour le peuple4. La France est un pays ancien, formé au Haut Moyen Âge. Du début du xviie siècle à la première moitié du xxe siècle, elle possède un vaste empire colonial. À partir des années 1950, elle est l’un des acteurs de la construction de l’Union européenne. Elle est une puissance nucléaire, et l’un des cinq membres permanents du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies. La France joue un rôle important dans l’histoire mondiale par l’influence de sa culture et de ses valeurs démocratiques, laïques et républicaines. La France a, en 2011, le cinquième plus important produit intérieur brut au monde. Son économie, de type capitaliste avec une intervention étatique assez forte, fait d’elle un des leaders mondiaux dans les secteurs de l’agroalimentaire, de l’aéronautique, de l’automobile, des......

Words: 263 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

L'Echec Du Bic En France

...L’échec du BIC en lancement des sous-vêtements en FRANCE   Sommaire L’histoire…………………………………... ………………………………………………3 Présence mondiale……………………… ………………………………………………4 Développement durable………………… ………………………………………………5 Bic en chiffres……………………………. ………………………………………………6 Références………………………………... ………………………………………………7   L’histoire Le Groupe BiC est une société cotée en bourse fondée le 25 octobre 1945, dont le siège social se situe à Clichy en France. Années clés – expansion vers international 1945 - Marcel Bich (1914-1994) et son associé Edouard Buffard (1908-1996) fabriquent à Clichy (France) des pièces détachées de stylos plume et porte-mines 1950 - Marcel Bich lance le stylo à bille BIC® Cristal® en France. BIC® est une version raccourcie de son propre nom 1954 - Entrée de BIC sur le marché italien 1956 - Entrée de BIC sur le marché brésilien 1957 - Entrée de BIC au Royaume-Uni, en Australie, en Nouvelle-Zélande, en Afrique du Sud... par l’acquisition de Biro Swan (Royaume-Uni) 1958 - Entrée de BIC sur le marché des Etats-Unis par l’acquisition de Waterman Pen 1959 - Entrée de BIC sur les marchés scandinaves 1960 - Expansion de BIC en Afrique et Moyen-Orient dès le début des années 60 1965 - Entrée de BIC sur le marché japonais et le marché mexicain 1969 - Création de BIC Graphic (marquage publicitaire) 1972 - Entrée de BIC en Bourse (Paris) 1973 - Lancement du Briquet BIC® 1975 - Lancement du Rasoir BIC® 1979 - Entrée de BIC sur les......

Words: 1494 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

De La Rue Discussion

...STRT6200 Wk1 Discussion 1: De La Rue What are the unique resources and capabilities that enables De La Rue to obtain a competitive advantage? Are De La Rue’s advantages sustainable? Why? De La Rue has a long history as an established leader in the currency design and printing business. The company’s unique resources include: • Reputation as an established leader in the business • Proven ability to design, print and deliver a secure currency • Ability to cost effectively deliver large scale orders • Proven ability to meet tight deadlines • Services offered at substantial discount to cost a country would incur doing it themselves • Longevity and reputation allow De La Rue to stand out from the small crowd of competitors • Global competitor having a relationship with 150 countries Until the planet becomes cash-less or De La Rue consistently fails to live up to it’s long-established reputation there is no reason to think its competitive advantages are not sustainable. If we think about this business from the point of view of a country looking to outsource such a vital component to their infrastructure as currency, then cost-effectiveness along with a long standing reputation for success become very key. The barriers to enter into this business based on the sensitive nature of the service are extremely high and simply too risky to place in the hands of an un-established leader in the industry. The botched order in 2010 and subsequent new business......

Words: 301 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

19th Century Slavery

...The process by which slavery became the prominent feature of the United States was very gradual and complex. During 19th century, the availability of ample slave laborers was used as a comparative advantage to help prosper the United States economically. Slaves were dominantly used to grow commercial crops such as: sugar, rice, tobacco, and cotton to help expand the economy abroad. The services of slaves were highly enjoyed by both the southern and northern slaveholders, yet they were denied the status of admissible culture. Slaves were vital contributors of American economic success in the 19th century. Slaves were constantly oppressed and tortured by their masters that prevented them from climbing the ladder of success and social classes. In addition, the slaveholders often broke the ties between many slave families through violence, sexual harassment, and the selling of family members to different plantations. This essay will vividly describe the hardship of the slaves in the 19th century. During the 19th century, female slaves experienced both physical and mental hardships. According to the narrative of Frederick Douglass, female slaves were often the prays of slave masters. Many slave masters used female slaves as their mistress. They used them for their physical pleasure at their will. Such female slaves were victims of greater hardships and physical torture. Their mistress often hated them for providing sexual pleasure and having multiple mulatto babies with their......

Words: 1208 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

France Period

...HISTORY OF FRANCE • 13th century Spreading the weight of vaults over a series of ribs, columns, and pilasters, Gothic architecture allows the dissolution of the wall. Windows in cathedrals and churches are filled with stained glass; the shimmering colored light transfigures the vast interiors. Depicting biblical stories, scenes from the lives of the saints, or single figures, stained-glass windows complement the sculptures on the exterior and the rites and ceremonies observed within. • 1209 The Albigensian Crusade is launched by Pope Innocent III with the help of Cistercian monks. While the original spark for this war springs from papal desire to extinguish the growing problem of heresy in the region surrounding Toulouse, the political struggle between the independent southern territories and lords from northern France, joined after 1226 by Louis VIII, plays itself out in a war. In 1229, Count Raymond VII of Toulouse, who had been Louis VIII's main adversary, is compelled to cede territory to the king's control. • ca. 1210–1250 Artists at Chartres install an elaborate and extensive program of stained-glass windows in the cathedral under construction there. In addition to religious and historical subjects, the intensely colored windows depict numerous scenes of tradespeople at work, including bakers, furriers, wheelwrights, and weavers. These tradespeople were likely contributors—through hefty taxes—to the construction of the church. • 1226 Louis IX (d. 1270),......

Words: 10574 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

19th Century Ideas

...movement accomplished was that it motivated the Northern states to either end slavery al together or at least work towards gradual abolition. By 1787, Congress had banned slavery in the Northwest. Around that same time many of the slave owners in Virginia and Maryland also freed their slaves. In 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation was put into place. This declared the freedom of the slaves within the Confederacy. Finally, in 1865 the Thirteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution banning slavery across the entire country. There is a modern equivalent to the abolitionist movement. Today we are fighting what is known as modern- day slavery, also known a human trafficking. The big difference between slavery in the 19th century and modern- day slavery is that in the 19th century, a slave knew that it was such, but in today’s society, many of the victims suffer from what is known as Stockholm syndrome. This is when a victim becomes so accustomed to the lifestyle that they are forced to live, that they become attached to their abusers and believe that there is nothing wrong with the abuse inflicted upon them. However, whether they believe it is wrong or not is a moot point. The fact still remains that it is no different than slavery. The main ideal of the Abolitionist movement was equality for all people. This is still relevant to the country today. It is clearly stated in the Pledge of Allegiance “with liberty and justice for all”. That is to include all races, genders, and......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

La Reforme Des Retraites En France

...LA REFORME DES RETRAITES EN FRANCE Introduction : En cette période de crise, les français s’inquiètent de plus en plus pour leur avenir. Les dernières semaines ont été marquées par de nombreux mouvements de protestations contre le projet de réforme des retraites qui a été présenté par le gouvernement. La principale raison de cette réforme est que le nombre d’actifs par retraité diminue du fait de l’allongement de la durée de vie, entrainant un déséquilibre financier des caisses de retraites. S’ajoutant à cela, la génération du « baby-boom » amène 280.000 nouveaux retraités par an depuis 2006. Tous ces éléments montrent que le système de retraite actuel ne peut pas être sauvegardé sans être réformé. Il faut savoir en effet que la France était en retard en matière de réforme des retraites. En effet de nombreux pays européens avaient déjà adopté un âge de départ bien plus élevée qu’en France, par exemple l’Allemagne qui dispose d’un âge légal de départ à la retraite de 65 ans (67 ans pour les assurés nés après 1963) mais il est possible de partir à 63 ans en totalisant 35 années de cotisations. Pour mieux comprendre cette réforme, nous allons voir dans un premier temps en quoi elle consiste, puis nous examinerons dans une seconde partie les différentes positions des parties en présence et l’évolution éventuelle de cette réforme. I. En quoi consiste la réforme des retraites en France ? Le système de retraite en France est principalement basé sur un système......

Words: 1604 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

19th Century Philosophers

... | | | |[pic][pic]Expand | | | |[pic] | | | |The most powerful philosophical mind of the 19th century was the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, whose system | |of absolute idealism, although influenced greatly by Kant and Schelling, was based on a new conception of logic and | |philosophical method. Hegel believed that absolute truth, or reality, exists and that the human mind can know it. This is so | |because “whatever is real is rational,” according to Hegel. He conceived the subject matter of philosophy to be reality as a | |whole, a reality that he referred to as Absolute Spirit, or cosmic reason. The world of human experience, whether subjective or | |objective, he viewed as the manifestation of Absolute Spirit. ......

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Colonialism

...Define Colonialism (Western) Colonialism: A political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. The purposes of colonialism included economic exploitation of the colony's natural resources, creation of new markets for the colonizer, and extension of the colonizer's way of life beyond its national borders. In the years 1500 – 1900 Europe colonized all of North and South America and Australia, most of Africa, and much of Asia by sending settlers to populate the land or by taking control of governments. The first colonies were established in the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th – 16th centuries. The Dutch colonized Indonesia in the 16th century, and Britain colonized North America and India in the 17th – 18th centuries. Later, British settlers colonized Australia and New Zealand. Colonization of Africa only began in earnest in the 1880s, but by 1900 virtually the entire continent was controlled by Europe. The colonial era ended gradually after World War II; the only territories still governed as colonies today are small islands. http://www.answers.com/topic/colonialism#ixzz1lYMQdYfY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony, and the social structure...

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

19th Century Philipines

...BEVERLY TIONGSON HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE 19th CENTURY: SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINES 19th CENTURY SPAIN • Spain during the first three quarters of the 19th century was a country of instability and chaos. • Conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte, he made his brother Joseph as king. • Guerilla warfare against the French ensued • In 1812 a constitution was made by the Liberal Cortes • Ferdinand VII was restored to power by 1814, he returned to absolute government • Civil wars broke out between the Liberals and Carlists (supporters of Don Carlos) • Maria Cristina as regent of her infant daughter Isabella (successor to the throne under the terms of Pragmatic Sanction • 1868 a revolution against Isabella took place and she was forced to abdicate • Alfonso XII of Spain became king, which finally brought Spain into a period of stability and reform 19th Century Philippines Economic Development • Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade • Reforms made by Gov. Gen. Jose Basco y Vargas • Real Compania de Filipinas 1785 • Tobacco Monopoly • 1830 – growth of export economy from the British and American merchants • Philippines exported agricultural products resulting to the growth and profit of Filipino hacienderos and inquilinos of the friar haciendas • Economic Development as a whole is a non-Spanish initiative • Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 Social Development The Native Population • PRINCIPALIA they are the rich landowners; local gov’t officials • ILLUSTRADO educated......

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

19th Century Russian Literature

...Every culture has their own values and beliefs. They have different views on religion, political systems, and even style. In 19th Century Russia two things that were important were serfdom and social status. The significance of these things can be demonstrated through pieces of literature from 19th Century Russia. Serfdom was extremely popular in 19th century Russia. Serfs and peasants were 82% of Russia’s society, since farming was major during this time. Peasants were not educated, nor did they have the opportunity. They could not make any decisions for themselves. Since the peasants were not allowed to have their own property, they lived with their master and mistress. In 1861, serfdom was finally banned by Alexander II, but they had to go back to their master and mistress and work for money. (Snider) Foolishness in 19th Century Russian literature is well demonstrated through “Sleepy”. In “Sleepy”, Varka is a 13 year old serf that lacks sleep due to her master and mistress working her too hard. Her master and mistress forced her to stay up all night with the baby while it bawled. The baby just kept crying through all of Varka’s efforts to get it to sleep. Eventually, Varka fell asleep, but was awaken by her master smacking her in the back of the head, calling her a scabby slut. She started rocking the baby back to sleep, but fell back asleep. As soon as her mistress saw her she yelled at her, and asked for the baby so she could feed it. Varka realized that the baby......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

19th Century Ideas

...19th Century Ideas Rebecca H Mullons His/115 Brad Comstock 2/22/15 Abolitionism is defined as a movement the freeing of slaves in Western Europe and America. This was too end the African and Indian slave trade. In the 19th century owning a slave was a normal thing. It helped the white men by giving them laborers to work for them. Mostly all of these slaves were treated extremely poor and forced to work in harsh conditions. Slaves were forced to serve their owners and work in the field from sun up to sun down with little to no compensation meaning money or any other rewards. Slaves were often beat for doing something wrong and were made to be scared of their owners they were seen as property not people. There has definitely been progress made in the aspect of slavery and the horrible conditions from the 19th century. There are laws in place that make it illegal to try and own another free willed individual or to overwork or abuse them. Blacks and whites are not separated through public buildings or schools anymore. There is racial equality for most of America. Of course there are individuals that are still extremely racist but by words and not be ownership most often. I do believe that there is a modern equivalent to abolitionism. Freeing the slaves in the 19th century meant the African and Indian slaves but today there are more actions that resemble slavery. In today’s society there is more sexual trafficking than ever and these woman are owned by the men this......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

American Imperialism in the 19th Century

...American Imperialism in the 19th Century In the late nineteenth century, the American Imperialism movement began. Imperialism is the "acquisition of control over the government and the economy of another nation, usually by conquest." (Davidson, Delay, Heyrman, Lytle & Stoff, 2008, p. G-4) During the late 1800's, Americans had visions of empire. Their sights were aimed toward Canada, Mexico and Cuba, as well as "more distant lands in Asia and Latin America...by opening the doors of trade to foreign markets and resources." (Davidson et al., 2008, p. 611) Through imperialism, a country can gain power by amassing new territories and building wealth. The American Imperialism was adopted for many reasons. According to the Regents Prep website (2000): The public perception of the "closing of the west", along with the philosophy of Social Darwinism, contributed to a desire for continued expansion of American lands and the spreading of American culture. The result was a shift in US foreign policy at the end of the 19th century from a reserved, homeland concerned republic to an active imperial power. (para. 1) The Spanish-American War started the era of American Imperialism. Cuba was trying to gain independence from Spain. Newspapers made up stories of Spanish brutality in Cuba causing Americans to call for war. 260 Americans were killed when the USS Maine, stationed in the harbor of Havana, exploded. The newspapers immediately blamed the Spanish increasing the call......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Geox enkellaarsjes | Beyblade Burst | My Daughters Men Season 4 - 내 딸의 남자들 4My Daughters Men Season 4