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Example 6.3 A manufacturer of cereal wants to test the performance of one of its filling machines. The machine is designed to discharge a mean amount of 12 ounces per box, and the manufacturer wants to detect any departure from this setting. This quality study calls for randomly sampling 100 boxes from today’s production run and determining whether the mean fill for the run is 12 ounces per box. Set up a test of hypothesis for this study, using an alpha level of .01 Since the manufacturer is interested in any departure (more than 12 or less than 12) from a mean of 12 ounces the appropriate alternate hypothesis is µ ≠ 12. Therefore H0: µ = 12 and H1: µ ≠ 12 Example 6.4 Example 6.4 asks you to conduct the test from Example 6.3. This tutorial will demonstrate how to use Minitab to conduct the test. Figure 6.5 in the text visually represents the structure of the test. Any Z value larger than 2.575 or smaller than –2.575 will result in the acceptance of the alternate hypothesis (i.e., that the mean fill weight of the machine is not equal to 12. Example 6.5 Find the observed significance level for the test of the mean filling weights in Examples 6.3 and 6.4. This tutorial will demonstrate how to use Minitab to find the significance level for the test.

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Click on Stat. Click on Basic Statistics. Click on Display Descriptive Statistics We need to get a value for the standard deviation in order to conduct the test. Double-click FILL. Click the OK button (note the value for the sample standard deviation, .512 for this example). Click on Stat. Click on Basic Statistics. We will use a large sample test of a population mean because our sample size is >30. Therefore, click on 1Sample Z. Because the data is in the first column of the worksheet, click in…...

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...Hypothesis Testing: One Population Hypothesis testing is used to make decisions about a population based on the analysis of sample statistics. There are always two hypothesis statements which are mutually exclusive and complementary statements concerning the value of the population parameter of interest: Null Hypothesis (H0): An assumption regarding a population parameter of interest. This hypothesis always includes the equal sign as the null hypothesis is assumed to be true unless sample data produces evidence to the contrary. Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The alternative option available when the null hypothesis is rejected. Three Types of Hypothesis Tests: Lower-Tail Test Upper-Tail Test Two-Tailed Test H0: ( ( (0 H0: ( ( (0 H0: ( = (0 H1: ( < (0 H1: ( > (0 H1: ( ( (0 Two-Sided Tests: A Two-Tailed Test (TTT) is designed to detect a change in the population parameter of interest from some hypothesized value to some different value. One-Sided Tests: A Lower-Tail Test (LTT) is designed to detect a change in the population parameter of interest from some hypothesized value to some lower value. An Upper-Tail Test (UTT) is designed to detect a change in the population parameter of interest from some hypothesized value to some greater value. Test Statistics and Action Limits: A test statistic is a sample statistic corresponding to the population parameter being tested. For example, when testing a......

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...Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis testing is basically a process that uses statistical inference to test claims about population parameters. In hypothesis testing we begin by making a tentative assumption about a population parameter. This assumption is called the null hypothesis and is denoted by Ho. We then define another hypothesis, called the alternative hypothesis, which is the opposite of what is stated is the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is denoted by Ha. The hypothesis testing procedure involves using data from a sample to test the competing claims indicated by the null and alternate hypotheses. Testing the hypothesis is similar to a criminal trail. Ho: The defendant is innocent Ha: The defendant is guilty Just as the defendant in a criminal trial is assumed to be innocent, the null hypothesis is assumed to be true and given the benefit of the doubt. The testimony and evidence obtained during the trial provide the sample information. If the sample information is consistent with the assumption of innocence, the null hypothesis that the defendant is innocent cannot be rejected. On the other hand, if the sample information is inconsistent with the assumption of innocence, the null hypothesis is rejected and action is taken based on the alternative hypothesis that the defendant is guilty. Developing Null and Alternative Hypotheses In some applications it may not be obvious how the null and alternative hypotheses should be......

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...A2 Biology Coursework A1- Develop a hypothesis Outline your biological knowledge or research related to the problem under investigation Yeast are eukaryotic species and make up approximately one percent of species in the kingdom Fungi. One of the most well studied yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as bakers yeast, and also used in the fermentation of alcohols, is a model species for the study of eukaryotic cells. They are known to reproduce either sexually, by mitosis, or asexually, by budding, depending on environmental conditions. Yeast grow and reproduce by producing enzymes to catabolise polysaccharides. Upon maturation the parent cell passes its genetic information to the bud which then becomes a genetic copy of the original cell and adds to the population. A growth curve demonstrates the four stages of population growth for a yeast cell as follows: Diagram 1. Reference: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/33/flashcards/602033/jpg/bacterial_growth_curve1320203184633.jpg Lag phase: Indicates the process of assimilation of nutrients by the initial population. Growth is restricted as the yeast are adjusting to their environment and synthesising cellular macromolecules. Exponential phase: Growth is increasing rapidly at this stage and competition for resources is minimal allowing for the yeast to bud at maximum capacity. Stationary phase: The population is now stabilising as resources become depleted and competition......

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...Hypothesis Testing Paper PSY/315 - Statistical Reasoning in Psychology December 16, 2013 Jennifer Slothower Hypothesis Testing Paper There are many reliable sources that are readily available for researching topics, whether it is for personal or professional use. Two of these sources are known as the Internet and the Yellow Pages. Based upon the test performed, to determine if the Yellow Pages will become obsolete in the near future, the following information was found based on the hypothesis and test results that have been recorded in the passage. There are many people who would prefer the use of the Internet to the Yellow Pages because of the convenience and not having to flip through pages to find what you are looking for. The Yellow Pages have become a thing of the past and is quickly being replaced by new research methods individuals can access via the Internet. In the past twenty years the Internet has continued to grow into what we know today. In 1993 the first primitive search engine was released (Seymour, Frantsvog, & Kumar, 2011). Google became the prominent search engine around 2000 by using an algorithm to rank web pages; the desirable pages would be linked more than others based on importance (Seymour, Frantsvog, & Kumar, 2011). With the growth of the Internet and the rise of technology, there has been an increase in the number of businesses that use the Internet for marketing (Salehi, Mirzaei, Aghaei, &Abyari, 2012).......

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...take a sample. From the results of analysis from the sample data, we can predict the results from the population. Some questions that one may want to answer are 1. Are unmarried workers more likely to be absent from work than married workers? 2. Are the sixth graders in a certain school significantly less skilled in their mathematical abilities than the average student in the district? 3. In Fall 1996, did students in Math 163-01 score the same on the exam as students in Math 163-02? 4. Is there any difference between the strengths of steel wire produced by the XY Company and Bob’s Wire Company? 5. A hospital spokesperson claims that the average daily room charge for a specific procedure is $622. Can we reject this claim? WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS? Hypothesis: A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of testing. Examples of hypotheses, or statements, made about a population parameter are: The mean monthly income from all sources for systems analysts is $3,625. Twenty percent of all juvenile offenders ultimately are caught and sentenced to prison. Hypothesis testing: A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected, or is unreasonable and should be rejected. lFollowing is a five-step procedure for testing a hypothesis. 5 STEPS IN THE HYPOTHESIS TESTING PROCEDURE 1. State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis. Null Hypothesis......

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...Calorie and Alcohol Content Percentage in Large Sample of Premium Beers Due Date: December 8, 2003 Descriptive Statistics for Calories Per Beer: Focusing on the Descriptive Statistics of the number of Calories in the sample of beers it can be determined that, the average calories per beer, 142.3478, is the central point around which the data cluster. The median calories per beer, 148, are the middle value in the data and means that fifty percent of the beers have calories above 148 and fifty percent of the beers have calories below 148. The mode, 148, is the value, or number of calories that occur most frequently in the data set. The standard deviation is the typical spread around the mean number of calories per beer and is +/- 29.90221 calories. The range of calories per beer is 143 and measures the total spread of the data from the minimum value of 58 calories per beer to the maximum value of 201 calories per beer. The shape of the data concerning calories per beer is left or negatively skewed, meaning that there are some extremely low outliers, or beers that are very low in calories, which distort the shape of the data. Looking at the Frequency Distribution of Calories per beer it can be said that, 58% of the beers have 150 calories of less, 92.75% of the beers have 170 calories of less, and 34.78% of the beers fall between 150 and 170 calories per beer. Interval Estimates of Calories Per Beer: Concentrating on the Interval Estimate of Calories of beer it can be......

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...Two Sample Hypothesis Paper Hypothesis testing for Team C using the data set of Major League Baseball (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, p 730, 2008) was chosen because of its availability of data such as major league baseball player’s salaries and wins. The team has determined a hypothesis statement, from which the research was formulated around. The team then formulated numerical charts and verbal statements regarding the issue being researched as well as performed the five-step hypothesis test utilizing the data set information that we have. The steps that the team used were to first formulate a testable hypothesis, design the experiment, collect the data and make a decision. (Doane & Seward, 2007). The focus of this paper is to determine if the salary of players is a significant predictor of the number of wins that a team can expect to have. We will do this by means of regression analysis. When attempting to understand the relationship between the salaries earned by Major League baseball teams and the number of wins each team has, regression analysis of the two variables was used. In particular, we will test the hypothesis that the slope of the regression line is zero or not. If the slope is zero, then salary is not a useful predictor of the number of wins for a team. On the other hand, if the slope is non-zero, then salary is a useful predictor of wins. We conduct this test by means of an ANOVA table in which the salary is treated as a covariate. This is done by...

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...Hypothesis Testing Question for self-study: 1. Mary Arnold wants to use the results of a random sample market survey to seek strong evidence that her brand of breakfast cereal has a least 20% of the total market. Formulate the null and alternative hypothesis, using P as the population proportion. 2. The Federal Reserve Board is meeting to decide if it should reduce interest rates in order to stimulate economic growths. State the null and alternative hypothesis regarding economic growth that the board would formulate to guide its decision. 3. John Stull, senior vice president of manufacturing, is seeking strong evidence to support his hope that new operating procedures have reduced the percentage of under filled cereal packages from the Ames production line. State his null and alternative hypothesis and indicate the results that would provide strong evidence. 4. During 2000 and 2001 many people in Europe objected to purchasing food that was genetically modified, produced by farmers in the United States. The U.S. farmers argued that there was no scientific evidence to conclude that these products were not healthy. The Europeans argued products were not healthy. The Europeans argued that there still might be a problem with these foods. a. State the null and alternative hypotheses from the perspective of the Europeans. b. State the null and alternative hypotheses from the perspective of the U.S. farmers. 5. The 200- presidential election......

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...Hypothesis: The theoretical framework presented above will be used to develop the testable hypothesis for this study. The basis of the hypothesis is that the introduction of corporate governance best practice namely board leadership structure and board composition will be reflected in firm performance in the hospitality industry scenario. However the board structures in the global hospitality industry vary in firms and countries. Therefore, the hypothesis presented in this study will be tested to investigate the effect of corporate governance codes on firm performance in the global hospitality industry. Capital markets attract investor confidence for which good corporate governance is an essential. For good corporate governance to occur the board should effectively monitor the managers for their accountability to shareholders. The monitoring mechanisms of Board leadership (Ha) and Board Composition (Hb) are represented to investigate the accountability to shareholders through firm performance. 2.4 a. Board leadership Based on the above literary argument, it can be said that leadership structure of the firm will have an important impact on performance, because board leadership structure is a device that is implemented to monitor the activities of the CEO. Therefore in this study a monitoring leadership structure is considered important in affecting firm performance. Examination of empirical research in the above chapters has provided important insights into the......

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...purpose of this paper is to review the hypothesis testing of the influence bank account balances have on ATM transactions. Team A will use a two-sample hypothesis test to compare two means to examine the hypothesis. The first part of the process will develop the hypothesis statement numerically and verbally. The test begins with the determination of the level of significance and decision rule whether to accept or not reject the null hypothesis. Calculating the test statistic will provide basis of the decision according to the critical region. The final section will describe the results in relation to the research question of bank account balance influencing the number of ATM transactions. Hypotheses Team A uses a five step hypothesis testing method as part of the research for this document in determining if two sample groups of bank account balances influence the number of ATM uses in one month. As with the steps for a one population hypothesis test, a two population hypothesis test follows the same sequence. Step one for Team A starts with stating the null hypothesis. Given the data shown in Appendix A and Appendix B, Team A has a hunch that bank account holders with larger balances tend to use ATMs more frequently than low account balance holders. Group A, from Appendix A, hold balances under $1600 for a given month and the Team measures the lower balance account’s ATM transactions during the given month. Group B samples include accounts with balances......

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