Free Essay


In: Business and Management

Submitted By manginasal
Words 2876
Pages 12

(Lady Dawn Bartolo)
The fifth function of personnel is maintenance that which has been established, that is, an effective workforce with the ability and willingness to perform organizational task.
(Junette Bacus)
Communicating and counseling
One must face the task of maintaining the effective work force that has been assembled. Two features of this workforce that must be maintained (1) attitudes and (2) physical condition. The number of factors affecting the development and maintenance of employee is limitless, but verbal and nonverbal communication process is involved in all stages. In our report we will examine the nature of communication processes, channels and structures through which the flow and means through which blockages and filters can be minimized.
Nature & Importance of Communication
Communication – the act of inducing others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer. communist (Latin word) – “common”
Managing – getting things done through others, a task which requires the manager to communicate with other people.
Channels & Structure
Communication Networks 1. Similar to the formal structure of a firm (four persons able to communicate with only a central fifth person – the manager. 2. Representative of the behaviorally free-flow concept (everyone can communicate with each other). 3. Each person can communicate only with his or her two neighbors, somewhat reminiscent of an assembly line.

Upward Channels of Communication: * It originates from lower level of employment hierarchy. This communication focus that everybody is capable of generating thoughts and ideas resulting into organizational progress. It increases motivation and make employees feel valued.
Downward Channels of Communication: * It is passing information to the subordinate. It increases efficiency by synchronizing organizational procedures and can ensure that all are working towards the same goal.
Communication Filters
Filtering is a process of allowing external factors to affect the message sent through business communication.
Filtering may occur when a message travels through an intermediary or one individual explains a message to several other employees.
This filtering process allows an individual other than the original sender to add additional information to the message.
Additional information may be unnecessary or distort the meaning of the original message
The most important approach toward the filter problem is the development of leadership skills among all supervisors.
If supervisors can acquire the skills of openness and receptiveness, the thickness of the authority filters can be reduced.
Johari’s Window
The Johari Window is a communication model that is used to improve understanding between individuals. The word "Johari" is taken from the names of Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, who developed the model in 1955.
There are two key ideas behind the tool: * That you can build trust with others by disclosing information about yourself. * That, with the help of feedback from others, you can learn about yourself and come to terms with personal issues.
The Johari Window is a communication model that is used to improve understanding between individuals. The word "Johari" is taken from the names of Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, who developed the model in 1955.
There are two key ideas behind the tool: * That you can build trust with others by disclosing information about yourself. * That, with the help of feedback from others, you can learn about yourself and come to terms with personal issues.

The Johari Window is shown as a four-quadrant grid, which you can see in the diagram below.

(Joshpert Cadayday Garrido)
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The three basic elements of the communication process 1. The sender of the signal 2. The media by means of which the signal is sent 3. The receiver
The major symbols of communication 1. Words 1. Actions 2. Pictures 3. Numbers
Communication Symbols: Words
Words constitute the most important symbols used in the communication
Can be transmitted orally and be received by listening, or may be given in written form and be received by reading * A manager must recognize the fact that he/she communicates by actions as well as by words. * All observable acts communicate something to the observer whether intended or not by the supervisor. * The location of one’s desk can communicate formality and dominance, or openness and equality. * Body language communicates * Comic pages, motion pictures, and television have demonstrated the power of pictures in conveying meaning and understanding to other people. * The reports, organized in conformance with the exception principle and supplemented by summarizing graphs, charts, and pictures, conveys more meaning in less time. * Pictorial illustration is especially effective in communicating with groups of people. * People are greatly impressed with data that consist largely of figures and statistics. * Words may flow around them and pictures appear interesting, but when a few figures are tossed into a presentation, acceptance and belief tend to rise. * Skillful use of numbers and statistics can be applied to lead or mislead. * It is important for communicator to use data properly and admit the deficiency of statistics when necessary. * Sending is only a part of the process of communication. Some attention must be directed to the problem of receiving. * “The biggest block to personal communication is a man’s inability to listen intelligently, understandingly, and skillfully to another person
Various types of listening 1. Marginal 2. Evaluative 3. Projective
Marginal listening * A process giving the speaker a small degree of one’s attention. * This dangerous type of listening can lead to misunderstanding of the speaker and even insult to the person
Evaluative listening * Attentive rather than marginal * We approve or disapprove of what he/she says from our own point of view.
Projective listening * We attempt to project ourselves into the mind of the speaker and really try to understand his/her viewpoint without evaluation at this time. Evaluation of the content of a speaker’s remarks must come in any communication process, but should not come until the listener has heard, studied, and understood the meaning of the remarks.

(Jacqueline Tongko)
What is counseling?
Counseling is the means by which one person helps another through purposeful conversation.
It is a method of identifying practical solution to an identified problem.
Counseling for stress
Stress is any experience that creates a physiological imbalance within the individual. It is often defined as the body’s response to the demands of life. It has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings.
Sources of Stress:
Role Ambiguity
Role Conflict
Role Overload
Time Pressure
Coercive supervision
Inadequate performance feedback
Marital problems
Children problems
Physical difficulties
Financial concerns
Change in residence
Job Hazards
Responsibility for people/things
Career goal discrepancy
Changes of any type

How Can I Manage Stress Better

1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions.
2. Recognize what you can change.
3. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress
4. Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress.
5. Build your physical reserves.
6. Maintain your emotional reserves.

Direct Counseling
This is widely practiced by most managers, rest on the philosophy that the manager can best understand both the situation and the individual problems arising there from.
Nondirective Counseling
Rest on the belief that the individual can best understand his or her own emotional problems and work out an effective solution to them. This is done with the aid of a nondirective counselor whose major contribution is that of active and empathetic listening.
Supervisor can only hope to improve a basically directive approach with greater initial attempts to listen, to display openness, and to encourage feedback.
The goal is to facilitate development of self-insight.
Organization for counseling
This address individuals and employee groups who may be suffering from a variety of interpersonal problems, and behaviors, which in turn affect the larger group or department within which they work.
It is designed to improve overall organizational health and effectiveness, which in turn improve the working conditions of individual employees.

(Rial Abad)
Background on Safety and Health Programs
Modern Safety Movement (1912) – First Cooperative Safety Congress and organization of National Safety Council
Article III (Bill of Rights) Sec. 1: Life “Life, means something more than mere animal existence.”

Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) The approach in OSHA is one of the setting comprehensive and specific standards, governmental policing of company practices and workplaces, and enforcement through citations, fines and other penalties.
Safety Procedures
Four fundamental types of inspections that OSHA personnel will make: 1. General “surprise” inspections (71%) 2. Follow-up inspections to check on corrections (19%) 3. Inspections in response to specific employee complaints (8%) 4. Inspections of major accidents that have occurred (2%)
Estimated chemical compounds are approximately 2 million in existence, but scientists have developed information of the toxicity of only about 100,000.
A number of Supreme Court decisions in recent years have dealt with the issue of costs versus safety. The general conclusion has been that the law as written places benefits to worker health above.
WORKERS’ COMPENSATION LAWS * To retain their services over an extended period of time.
Schedule rating – means of obtaining reduced premiums through the establishment and maintenance of a safe physical plant
Experience rating – means of obtaining reduced premises through having a low accident record
Two types of benefits for injured employees:
*Substitute compensation for regular pay
*Medical benefits Four main types of injuries: 1. Temporary total disability (95%), occur when employees are totally of the job for a restricted number of days. 2. Permanent total disability occurs when the employee lives but will never work again. 3. Permanent partial disability occurs when the employee is permanently disabled but can return to work. 4. Death

Labor Code of the Philippines stands as the law governing employment practices and labor relations in the Philippines. It was enacted on Labor Day of 1974 by President Ferdinand Marcos, in the exercise of his then extant legislative powers. * Art. 83. Normal hours of work. The normal hours of work of any employee shall not exceed eight (8) hours a day. * Book IV. Health, Safety, and Social Welfare Benefits

(Carlo Lopez & Lady Dawn Bartolo)
The Safety Program
The Safety Program
Effective action in any field calls for advance planning. Once management’s interest in safety has been stimulated, there remains mapping out the program.
1. Support by top Management As in every other area, top management must lend a safety program its active support in order for it to survive and be effective. Management must give more than just lip service.
2. A safety Director To get any program off the ground, someone must be given primary responsibility for its installation and maintenance. If the company is too small to justify staff differentiation of the function and the line, it is still important to assign someone the additional duty of promoting the safety effort. In a larger firm, a staff safety director, often entitled “safety engineer”, is usually appointed.
3. Engineering Sound and forward-looking engineering must certainly be an essential requirement of any safety effort. Workplaces should be clean, well lit, and properly ventilated. Mechanical devices for material handling should be provided.
4. Education A large part of the safety program must be devoted to the process of educating the employee to act, think, and work safely. There are many avenues that this education can take, among which are the following: * Induction of new employees * Emphasis of safety points during training sessions, particularly in on-the-job training * Special efforts made by the first-level supervisor * Establishment of employee safety committees * Holding of special employee safety meetings * Charts, posters, and displays emphasizing the need to act safely
5. Record Keeping One requirements of OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) is that the employer should keep accurate records with respect to the number of accidents, occupational illnesses, and lost workdays.
6. Accident Analysis An accident is an unplanned incident and should be analyzed in terms of both costs and causes. If insurance premiums under workers compensation laws can be termed a direct cost, it is estimated that the indirect costs of an accident are four times as great. Among these indirect costs are the following: * Cost of damage to equipment, materials, and plant * Cost of wages paid for time lost by workers not injured * Costs of wages paid to injured workers over and above compensation required by law * Costs of supervisors and staff in investigating, recording, and reporting * Costs of replacing the injured employee * Miscellaneous Costs
As employers become fully educated in regard to the true costs of an accident, they become more highly concerned with accident analysis and prevention. The causes of accidents can be separated into two categories, technical and human. Technical causes are connected with deficiencies in plant, equipment, tools, materials, and general work environment. Human causes are connected with deficiencies in the individual, such as improper attitudes, carelessness, recklessness, inability to perform the job, daydreaming, alcoholism, and the use of drugs on the job.
7. Safety Contests Safety contests could be considered as one form of employee education, but they are sufficiently different in approach to merit separate discussion. There is a good deal of controversy over the merits of the safety contests. It usually happens that the accident level drops during the period of the contest, only to rise again after it has ended. It is to be hoped, however, that the habit of acting safely, gained during the contest period, will remain to some degree.
8. Enforcement Undoubtedly the fundamental approach to a safety program must be positive in nature; but it is naïve to argue that disciplinary action has no place. Individuals differ, and for some only the negative approach will stimulate the desired behavior. Reprimands, fines, layoffs, and discharge have their proper place in an effective safety program.
(Christian Angelo Eran)
Health Program
Physical Health
There is considerably more industrial activity in the field of safety than there is in the field of health. When health and medical programs are provided, it has been customary in too many firms to attach this function to the safety unit. The health portion of the program consists solely of a group of medical personnel, who administer physical examinations in the hiring process.
In order to have a properly organized health program, these are the following requirements: * A stated health and medical policy * The performance of periodic physical examinations on all employees exposed to health hazards * The availability of facilities for voluntary periodic physical examinations for all employees * A competent medical consulting staff * Systematic attention to sanitation, safety precautions, and industrial hygiene * A chief medical officer who reports to a responsible member of management * A well-equipped dispensary for emergency cases and physical examinations * Properly qualified medical and nursing personnel

Industrial Hygienist * Firms made an effort to elevate the hygienist to an organization position superior to that of the safety director. * The industrial hygienist is trained to adopt the preventive approach, to spot obvious and incipient dangers, and to request the appropriate specialty to eliminate those dangers. * A well-qualified industrial hygienist must undergo 1 or 2 years of college training in such subjects as physiology, psychology, air analysis, toxicology, and radiological aspects of industrial health.

Occupational Stress
Occupational stresses result in certain strains being placed upon the human body and mind. When stress is too great, the human body or mind breaks down. Thus, the emphasis is upon the elimination or control of the sources of occupational stress. Measures for the prevention and control of occupational stress can be applied to the following: * Source of the stress * The media of stress transmission * The individual subjected to the stress
Mental Health
Mental difficulties of various types are reflected in the firm’s productivity and profit records. Mental illness takes its toll through alcoholism, high accident rates, high tardiness rates, high labor turnover, and poor human relationships. Studies have shown that the emotionally ill have more accidents and safety violations, file more grievances and are discharged more often than healthy workers.
The recommended procedure for dealing with the alcoholic employee is as follows: * The supervisor maintains accurate records on employee performance, such as productivity, absenteeism, lateness, leaving the workplace, warnings, innovative excuses, and so on. * Through suspecting an alcoholic source the supervisor talks with the employee only about his or her objective record of performance. * If performance does not change, it is suggested that the employee join the supervisor in meeting with a counselor in the personnel unit. * During the initial phases of this meeting, the supervisor presents the objective performance record and then withdraws. * The counselor “lays it on the line” and suggests that a discharge is imminent if the performance is not improved. * If the employee indicates that alcohol is the source of the performance difficulties, he/she is retained on the payroll and referred to an appropriate outside agency, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, a psychologist, or a hospital specializing in alcoholism treatment. * The counselor follows the case for 1 year after referral to determine the extent of rehabilitation

- is the title given to a condition that exists when a person fails to come to work when properly scheduled to work.
Insight into the problem can be provided by classifying each absence as to basic characteristics. Such characteristics and emerging patterns as the following have been discovered: * Name of the employee * Reasons given * Projected reason * Age * Sex…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Aircraft Maintenance

...Module 3 Aircraft Systems and Aircraft Maintenance Learning Objective #10 Determine the requirements for maintenance records, compliance with Airworthiness Directives (AD), preventive maintenance, and alterations. Web Support link: The Savvy Aviator While browsing the Internet and reading through various FAA websites, I came across a column by a passionate pilot that likes to spread the good, educated, aviation word. I chose column #23: Maintenance Records highlighting the importance of detailed and accurate records, and compliance with FARs. One thing I found refreshing was how casual the author speaks to his audience, yet delivers a wealth of knowledge that is typically only gained through years of experience, both on and off the ground. The author goes into great detail as to what is required from the regulatory sense and what is required per good pilot and mechanic sense. He further breaks it down by addressing complying with airworthiness directives and how to annotate them properly, alterations and the depth at which they need to be captured, and preventive and routine maintenance. I found this article to be very informative and challenged my current maintenance practices, both personally and professionally. The article was simplistic enough that the youngest of aviator or manager would glean the basics, and maybe a few inches deeper of aviation knowledge, and those that have been at this for more than a...

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Muzzleloader Maintenance

...Muzzleloader Maintenance Daniel Schwerdtfeger Com/150 Effective Essay Writing 11-12-2012 Greg Downing Muzzleloader Maintenance Cleaning a muzzleloader, whether a Modern or Traditional style, is necessary in order to preserve the life of the barrel and breech areas, and also in maintaining the accuracy of your shot. The following will discuss how to disassemble, clean, and reassemble three different types of muzzleloader. There are key differences in the areas of disassembling and reassembling of the rifles, but cleaning both modern muzzleloaders and traditional muzzleloaders is similar. Gathering Cleaning Materials Before beginning the cleaning process for either Modern muzzleloaders or Traditional muzzleloaders, gather the supplies needed. Materials used for cleaning and preserving a muzzleloader include: Soap and warm water, cleaning solvent, gun oil and rag, two inch cotton-cloth patches, screw driver, nipple wrench, and a ramrod from the muzzleloader (or a range rod if wanted). Other supplies for the cleaning process are: A cleaning jag, an empty milk jug, a small container to fill with cleaning solvent for soaking the nipple and breech (if applicable), an old toothbrush and some twist-ties (or special tools able to be purchased), and finally some light grease. Please note, other materials may be necessary for a Modern Muzzleloader, such as a breech plug tool or Allen wrenches, so make sure to gather these as well if cleaning a Modern version of the......

Words: 1888 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Condition Based Maintenance vs. Phase Based Maintenance

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY There is an increasing desire for the implementation of condition based maintenance programs to replace the traditional hour based maintenance on Military rotor wing aircraft. There are several advantages and disadvantages to this type of maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss both and the affect that they play in regards to the organizational behavior of a business. There are distinct advantages in regards to cost when we talk about condition based maintenance. Replacing a part only when it is likely to fail saves the cost of replacement at a possible earlier time like in a phase based program, or catching a part that might have failed prior to the required hour inspection or replacement time. But this new technology comes with a cost. A cost, not only monetary, but also within the organizational behavior of a corporation or organization such as the military. When we talk about Managing change and stress, we have to talk about the external forces of change effecting these technological advancements. The technology of condition based maintenance is justified through the savings it generates through the maintenance program but what cost will it have on the people working on these aircraft? Will there be a reduction in jobs? This concern can start trouble, rumors, and decreased production from employees that normally work hard. What effect will it have on the organizational design? Will there be an increase or decrease in managerial roles? Will......

Words: 1525 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Home Maintenance

...Home Maintenance Paper Team A Pedro Viorato, Santos Nieto, Pao Yang, Samuel Vargas PRG/211 September 19, 2012 Bertram Lee University of Phoenix Home Maintenance Paper Our team has been assigned to come up with a software proposal that will help not only home owners but also those who rent homes. It is common knowledge that without regular home maintenance, whether it is a small or a simple fix could if gone unchecked mushroom into mega expensive repairs that might cause the homeowner to lose their investment. A routine maintenance check off list will ensure that the beauty and durability of a home and also will protect the homeowner’s investment for years to come. The routine maintenance check list that we have chosen to talk about is fixtures, appliances and pluming, which will be broken down into four different categories spring, fall, annual, as needed and as we know sometime we need a professional’s touch the last category is called pro needed. Problem Statement and Solution Our team of software developers won a contract in which we will develop a program to help its users identify recurring tasks to keep their home systems in good working conditions. The program will allow the user to keep a healthy home maintenance and stable home. The program will have different times of the year that it will be performed in order to maintain a good working conditions of the house. The tasks will be performed in the spring, fall, annual, as needed, and pro-needed...

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Maintenance Concept

...line-replaceable blades. Compatible with most Allison and Rolls Royce engine installations. NP2000 Maintenance Concept The NP2000 propeller system maintenance concept is based on phase inspections according to the number of flight hours. The interval of these inspections is 500, 1,000, 1,500 flight hours. Because of planning purposes, these phase inspections contain periodic maintenance tasks, which would be otherwise performed according to calendar time. Exceptions are inspections such as Pre-flight inspection, Post-flight, conditional, and turn around inspections that are performed at the (O) level. NP2000 Main Features Main features are introduced below: * Compatible with Allison and Rolls Royce engine installations. * Electronic control. * Individual line replaceable blades. * Reduced maintenance costs. * Fewer mechanical parts. * Higher reliability. * Reduced noise. * Lower vibration. * Reduced feather drag. * Tighter speed governing. NP2000 Basic Data * Diameter 13 ft 5 in * 5100 SHP rating, 5610 SHP growth * 1106 RPM Maintenance Levels A traditional three-level maintenance concept, consisting of Organizational level (O), Intermediate level (I) and Depot level (D) maintenance was adopted for the NP2000. Organizational Level Maintenance The “O” level maintenance is performed by operational units performing the following maintenance actions: * Pre-flight inspection, Post-flight inspection. *......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Maintenance Scheduling

...the locus from which all maintenance activity is executed. Scheduling should be viewed as the “point” function and “marketing arm” of the system because it yields the earliest tangible results (often within weeks of start up). All individuals and groups perform better and accomplish more with clearly established, communicated and published expectations. When the maintenance function is managed without a weekly schedule, there are no specific expectations as to what is to be accomplished with the resources for which payroll checks will be drawn. Instead, whatever reactive demands are made is what will be done. The fundamental requirement target (the schedule) against which to control, followed by action (execution of the schedule) to achieve the target. The results, measured against the original intention (called schedule compliance), provide feedback for correcting deviations (improving future schedule compliance). Managers must schedule precisely, proceed positively, and persistently pursue weekly targets. Using the results and reports such as those showing schedule compliance, the planner, the supervisor, the maintenance manager, and internal customers can continuously improve the planning, coordination and scheduling function. The schedule is a device for lining up jobs waiting to be performed so that operations are best served while maintenance also makes optimal use of its resources. Four abilities, as listed below, are necessary for maintenance schedules to meet......

Words: 2773 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Lean Maintenance

...development and maintenance To make application development and maintenance more productive, IT managers are getting lean. Noah B. Kindler, Vasantha Krishnakanthan, and Ranjit Tinaikar Web exclusive, May 2007 Burdened by high costs for application development and maintenance (ADM),1 many businesses have offshored up to half of their application development to low-cost locations, renegotiated rates on outsourced projects, and tightened the governance of new projects. In spite of these efforts, the costs of developing and maintaining applications now account for about half of the average IT budget and continue to rise. Labor costs make up more than 80 percent of application development, so many organizations have already reduced head counts or labor expenses where possible. Now they must begin to focus on improving the productivity of their development and maintenance staffs. In the past companies tried many methodologies, with mixed results (see sidebar, “Software-development productivity: Traditional methods”). Companies that apply the time-tested principles of lean manufacturing, which hunt for and eliminate waste from the production process (Exhibit 1), are seeing a significant impact within a matter of months. Although lean principles were originally developed for manufacturing environments, they are increasingly (and successfully) being applied to service businesses, especially those with many routine processes.2 Application development and maintenance is a......

Words: 2507 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Computer Maintenance

...Computer Maintenance Shakeyla Pugh A regular maintenance routine will help keep your computer in good condition. A maintenance routine should include cleaning the computer, disk maintenance, and regularly updating virus protection and operating system software. Cleaning An LCD (liquid crystal display) screen should be cleaned using a soft cotton cloth and a solution of water and isopropyl alcohol. The solution should be applied to the cloth first, never sprayed directly on the screen. To clean a keyboard, a can of compressed air can be used to spray in between the keys to push out dust and crumbs. Q-tips, a small flat screwdriver, or sticky notes can also be used to remove dust and crumbs from the keyboard. A can of compressed air should be used to clean the back of the computer tower, especially the cooling fan vents. The exterior of a mouse can be cleaned using a damp soft cloth. If the mouse has a trackball, the trackball should be removed and wiped with a dry cloth. Disk Maintenance Most operating systems have built-in performance and maintenance features that allow the user to free up space on the hard disk and rearrange files on your hard disk to increase efficiency. It is also a good idea to delete any unnecessary files from the hard disk on a regular basis. Updating Software New viruses are continually being created. In order to protect against new viruses, new virus definitions must be downloaded on a regular basis. Most virus protection software has an......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Preventive Maintenance

...thing a business starts with how much. As preventive maintenance relates to a company’s goals. The first thing that the program brings to the table is that it gives a business the ability to us the available maintenance resources for maximum benefit. Problems like this comes in a huge way from reducing the number of failures a company makes which helps keeps low cost minimization in which the big picture is what the company wants. In the coast breakdown, preventive maintenance program is what helps a business save money and is much better than reactive maintenance that is when you fit it when it breaks and results are in a high repair budget, in my opinion. In my long time in a business which maintenance is a very bug part there are four different maintenance program that companies use reactive, preventive, and productive all of these programs result cost in their own way. Each of the different forms effects costs in their own way proactive is when you monitor and correct the failure at the source. Predictive is when you repair based on the conditions of the equipment. Reactive is when it breaks you fix it .Finally, the end, there is preventive maintenance that usually is a planned repair. The breakdown should show that preventive maintenance has the largest impact on the cost, in the big picture. The second main point I will be touching on is down time and how it will greatly effects a business without a preventive maintenance program. Down time for any business can have......

Words: 1295 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Chapter 5 Types of Maintenance Programs � 5.1 Introduction What is maintenance and why is it performed? Past and current maintenance practices in both the private and government sectors would imply that maintenance is the actions associated with equipment repair after it is broken. The dictionary defines maintenance as follows: “the work of keeping something in proper condition; upkeep.” This would imply that maintenance should be actions taken to prevent a device or component from failing or to repair normal equipment degradation experienced with the operation of the device to keep it in proper working order. Unfortunately, data obtained in many studies over the past decade indicates that most private and government facilities do not expend the necessary resources to maintain equipment in proper working order. Rather, they wait for equipment failure to occur and then take whatever actions are necessary to repair or replace the equipment. Nothing lasts forever and all equipment has associated with it some predefined life expectancy or operational life. For example, equipment may be designed to operate at full design load for 5,000 hours and may be designed to go through 15,000 start and stop cycles. The need for maintenance is predicated on actual or impending failure – ideally, maintenance is performed to keep equipment and systems running efficiently for at least design life of the component(s). As such, the practical operation of a component is time-based function.......

Words: 2164 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Illinois Maintenance

...Illinois Maintenance Guidelines and Formula Valerie Hiller Kaplan University CM107 Professor Snchieder June, 23, 2015 MEMO TO: Letisha Luecking Orlet P.C., Tom Speedie Attorney at Law, and Dennis Hatch Attorney at Law FROM: Valerie Hiller, P.C. SUBJECT: New maintenance guidelines and formula DATE: December 16. 2015 According ISBA (Mathewson, 2014), the new law, P.A. 98-0961, was crafted by ISBA Family Law Section Council, creates a formula for calculating maintenance based on the gross income of the parties and the length of marriage. Before this law was established, judges relied on a list of factors that appear in sections 504 and 505 of the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act. Spousal maintenance is determined for divorcing couples whose combined gross income is less than $250,000.  With the new formula, a maintenance award should equal 30 percent of the payor’s gross income minus 20 percent of the payee’s income, not to exceed 40 percent of the couples combined income when added to the payee’s gross. There are two formulas in this guideline. The maintenance that the payee has to pay and the length of payment to the payor, with this formula, it will establish the durations of the maintenance award. The payee will have to continue paying award for 20 percent of the span of marriage. Or it may be permanent or last the whole length of marriage for a couple that has been married 20 years or......

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Effective Maintenance

...Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Istanbul, Turkey, July 3 – 6, 2012 Effective Preventive Maintenance Scheduling: A Case Study Hasnida Ab-Samat, Livendran Nair Jeikumar, Ernnie Illyani Basri, Nurul Aida Harun and Shahrul Kamaruddin School of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia Abstract Maintenance is an important system in operation. In an era where industries are focusing on 24 hours operation to maximize production, machines are pushed to its absolute limits to cope with this demand. As utilization increases, the rate at which the machine parts get worn out increases thus the frequency of failure increases rapidly. To combat this problem and ensure that machines continue to operate at its optimum, maintenance work is carried out. One of the branches of maintenance technique which is carried out to prevent occurrences of failure before it happen is known as Preventive Maintenance (PM). However, performing PM may not be as easy as it requires great cooperation from the maintenance, production and management departments. This paper is written to study the aspects of effective PM and to analyze the causes of inefficient PM activity in a case study company and its implications. Another important approach taken is to investigate the causes of machine downtime by performing a root cause analysis. Affinity diagram was formed to......

Words: 4634 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay


...has undergone dramatic structural changes over the past few decades, with the rise of the biotechnology sector, substantial growth in demand driven by demographics and substitution away from other therapeutic modalities such as surgery, and increased competition from globally active generic manufacturers. The pharmaceutical industry is under mounting scrutiny because of rapidly increasing expenditures for drugs in the United States. Drug expenditures are now the fastest-growing component of health care costs, increasing at the rate of about 15 percent per year. They account for about eight percent of health care spending, and at their current rate of increase, they will soon surpass spending for physicians' services and, for many health maintenance organizations (HMOs), the costs of hospitalization. Aruvian's R'search brings you a complete analysis of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the United States. The report covers a brief profile of the global pharmaceutical industry, the TRIPS agreement and the effect of the agreement on the US pharmaceutical industry, offshoring in the pharmaceutical industry, economic trends in the industry, competition in the industry, and key trends in the pharmaceutical supply chain in the United States. The report also analyzes the US pharmaceutical industry through two frameworks - a PEST analysis and a Porters Five Forces Business Strategy analysis. The report also looks at strategies for market entry, impact of the Hatch-Waxman Act, and the role......

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...MAINTENANCE TOPIC A. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. INTRODUCTION CHILD MAINTENANCE What rights to support do children have? Who has a duty to support (maintain) children? What is the maintenance system? What do maintenance officers at court do? How is the amount of maintenance calculated? Why pay maintenance? What happens at the maintenance enquiry? What happens if the other person does not arrive at the maintenance enquiry? How is maintenance paid? Must I still pay maintenance if the other parent: What if I have other children? What happens if a child is born outside of marriage and paternity is contested? What happens if a parent fails to pay maintenance? How can I enforce a maintenance order that has been issued in South Africa where the maintenance defaulter has moved to another country? How can I enforce a maintenance order that has been issued in a foreign country in South Africa? What happens if I need to change the maintenance amount? What happens if I change my address? What happens if one of the child’s parents has passed away? When does the duty to maintain end? What can I do to protect the best interests of children when it comes to maintenance? What happens if none of the child’s relatives can support him/her? PARTNERS/SURVIVING SPOUSES ASSISTANCE IN MAINTENANCE MATTERS PAGE 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. B. C. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Black Sash FAMSA......

Words: 5026 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Home Maintenance

... Home Maintenance PRG/211 Team Project Travis Beasley Problems with home maintenance can become harmful if not taken care of in a timely manner. The most cost-effective way to protect your home is with ongoing and preventive maintenance. Spending time and money now can help avoid costly repairs and improve your home’s ability to with stand natural hazards. Ongoing maintenance goes a long way toward avoiding costly repairs, improving energy efficiency, prolonging the life of major systems and appliances and preserving your home’s value. A regular schedule of seasonal maintenance is the best way to protect your home and stop the most common and costly problems, before they occur. Establishing a routine, you will find the work is easier to accomplish and not as time-consuming. There are simple solutions to keeping the maintenance on the house done. There are some things that can be done during the Spring and others during the Winter. This proposal will go over the problems that occur within a home and when to fix those problems. There will be inputs and outputs of data that will help in the process of taking care of the home maintenance. First here are the inputs and outputs of data within the program to ensure everything works as it should when it comes to the home maintenance. START Input Data Module: 1.      Input the current season of the year as “CurrentSeason” numbered 1-4. 2.      Insert For loop to ensure only a valid input (1-4) is entered a.       If not – kick......

Words: 1058 - Pages: 5

Wannarot Sonthichai | IMDb: 5 HD Secret Santa | Raumlufttechnik