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Maintenance

In: Business and Management

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Maintenance

(Lady Dawn Bartolo)
Introduction
The fifth function of personnel is maintenance that which has been established, that is, an effective workforce with the ability and willingness to perform organizational task.
(Junette Bacus)
Communicating and counseling
One must face the task of maintaining the effective work force that has been assembled. Two features of this workforce that must be maintained (1) attitudes and (2) physical condition. The number of factors affecting the development and maintenance of employee is limitless, but verbal and nonverbal communication process is involved in all stages. In our report we will examine the nature of communication processes, channels and structures through which the flow and means through which blockages and filters can be minimized.
Nature & Importance of Communication
Communication – the act of inducing others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer. communist (Latin word) – “common”
Managing – getting things done through others, a task which requires the manager to communicate with other people.
Channels & Structure
Communication Networks 1. Similar to the formal structure of a firm (four persons able to communicate with only a central fifth person – the manager. 2. Representative of the behaviorally free-flow concept (everyone can communicate with each other). 3. Each person can communicate only with his or her two neighbors, somewhat reminiscent of an assembly line.

Upward Channels of Communication: * It originates from lower level of employment hierarchy. This communication focus that everybody is capable of generating thoughts and ideas resulting into organizational progress. It increases motivation and make employees feel valued.
Downward Channels of Communication: * It is passing information to the subordinate. It increases efficiency by synchronizing organizational procedures and can ensure that all are working towards the same goal.
Communication Filters
Filtering is a process of allowing external factors to affect the message sent through business communication.
Filtering may occur when a message travels through an intermediary or one individual explains a message to several other employees.
This filtering process allows an individual other than the original sender to add additional information to the message.
Additional information may be unnecessary or distort the meaning of the original message
The most important approach toward the filter problem is the development of leadership skills among all supervisors.
If supervisors can acquire the skills of openness and receptiveness, the thickness of the authority filters can be reduced.
Johari’s Window
The Johari Window is a communication model that is used to improve understanding between individuals. The word "Johari" is taken from the names of Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, who developed the model in 1955.
There are two key ideas behind the tool: * That you can build trust with others by disclosing information about yourself. * That, with the help of feedback from others, you can learn about yourself and come to terms with personal issues.
The Johari Window is a communication model that is used to improve understanding between individuals. The word "Johari" is taken from the names of Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, who developed the model in 1955.
There are two key ideas behind the tool: * That you can build trust with others by disclosing information about yourself. * That, with the help of feedback from others, you can learn about yourself and come to terms with personal issues.

The Johari Window is shown as a four-quadrant grid, which you can see in the diagram below.

(Joshpert Cadayday Garrido)
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The three basic elements of the communication process 1. The sender of the signal 2. The media by means of which the signal is sent 3. The receiver
The major symbols of communication 1. Words 1. Actions 2. Pictures 3. Numbers
Communication Symbols: Words
Words constitute the most important symbols used in the communication
Can be transmitted orally and be received by listening, or may be given in written form and be received by reading * A manager must recognize the fact that he/she communicates by actions as well as by words. * All observable acts communicate something to the observer whether intended or not by the supervisor. * The location of one’s desk can communicate formality and dominance, or openness and equality. * Body language communicates * Comic pages, motion pictures, and television have demonstrated the power of pictures in conveying meaning and understanding to other people. * The reports, organized in conformance with the exception principle and supplemented by summarizing graphs, charts, and pictures, conveys more meaning in less time. * Pictorial illustration is especially effective in communicating with groups of people. * People are greatly impressed with data that consist largely of figures and statistics. * Words may flow around them and pictures appear interesting, but when a few figures are tossed into a presentation, acceptance and belief tend to rise. * Skillful use of numbers and statistics can be applied to lead or mislead. * It is important for communicator to use data properly and admit the deficiency of statistics when necessary. * Sending is only a part of the process of communication. Some attention must be directed to the problem of receiving. * “The biggest block to personal communication is a man’s inability to listen intelligently, understandingly, and skillfully to another person
Listening
Various types of listening 1. Marginal 2. Evaluative 3. Projective
Marginal listening * A process giving the speaker a small degree of one’s attention. * This dangerous type of listening can lead to misunderstanding of the speaker and even insult to the person
Evaluative listening * Attentive rather than marginal * We approve or disapprove of what he/she says from our own point of view.
Projective listening * We attempt to project ourselves into the mind of the speaker and really try to understand his/her viewpoint without evaluation at this time. Evaluation of the content of a speaker’s remarks must come in any communication process, but should not come until the listener has heard, studied, and understood the meaning of the remarks.

(Jacqueline Tongko)
What is counseling?
Counseling is the means by which one person helps another through purposeful conversation.
It is a method of identifying practical solution to an identified problem.
Counseling for stress
Stress is any experience that creates a physiological imbalance within the individual. It is often defined as the body’s response to the demands of life. It has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings.
Sources of Stress:
On-the-Job
Role Ambiguity
Role Conflict
Role Overload
Time Pressure
Coercive supervision
Inadequate performance feedback
Off-the-Job
Unemployment
Marital problems
Children problems
Physical difficulties
Financial concerns
Change in residence
Job Hazards
Responsibility for people/things
Career goal discrepancy
Changes of any type

How Can I Manage Stress Better

1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions.
2. Recognize what you can change.
3. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress
4. Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress.
5. Build your physical reserves.
6. Maintain your emotional reserves.

Direct Counseling
This is widely practiced by most managers, rest on the philosophy that the manager can best understand both the situation and the individual problems arising there from.
Nondirective Counseling
Rest on the belief that the individual can best understand his or her own emotional problems and work out an effective solution to them. This is done with the aid of a nondirective counselor whose major contribution is that of active and empathetic listening.
Supervisor can only hope to improve a basically directive approach with greater initial attempts to listen, to display openness, and to encourage feedback.
The goal is to facilitate development of self-insight.
Organization for counseling
This address individuals and employee groups who may be suffering from a variety of interpersonal problems, and behaviors, which in turn affect the larger group or department within which they work.
It is designed to improve overall organizational health and effectiveness, which in turn improve the working conditions of individual employees.

(Rial Abad)
Background on Safety and Health Programs
Modern Safety Movement (1912) – First Cooperative Safety Congress and organization of National Safety Council
Article III (Bill of Rights) Sec. 1: Life “Life, means something more than mere animal existence.”

Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) The approach in OSHA is one of the setting comprehensive and specific standards, governmental policing of company practices and workplaces, and enforcement through citations, fines and other penalties.
Safety Procedures
Four fundamental types of inspections that OSHA personnel will make: 1. General “surprise” inspections (71%) 2. Follow-up inspections to check on corrections (19%) 3. Inspections in response to specific employee complaints (8%) 4. Inspections of major accidents that have occurred (2%)
HEALTH
Estimated chemical compounds are approximately 2 million in existence, but scientists have developed information of the toxicity of only about 100,000.
A number of Supreme Court decisions in recent years have dealt with the issue of costs versus safety. The general conclusion has been that the law as written places benefits to worker health above.
WORKERS’ COMPENSATION LAWS * To retain their services over an extended period of time.
Schedule rating – means of obtaining reduced premiums through the establishment and maintenance of a safe physical plant
Experience rating – means of obtaining reduced premises through having a low accident record
Two types of benefits for injured employees:
*Substitute compensation for regular pay
*Medical benefits Four main types of injuries: 1. Temporary total disability (95%), occur when employees are totally of the job for a restricted number of days. 2. Permanent total disability occurs when the employee lives but will never work again. 3. Permanent partial disability occurs when the employee is permanently disabled but can return to work. 4. Death

Labor Code of the Philippines stands as the law governing employment practices and labor relations in the Philippines. It was enacted on Labor Day of 1974 by President Ferdinand Marcos, in the exercise of his then extant legislative powers. * Art. 83. Normal hours of work. The normal hours of work of any employee shall not exceed eight (8) hours a day. * Book IV. Health, Safety, and Social Welfare Benefits

(Carlo Lopez & Lady Dawn Bartolo)
The Safety Program
The Safety Program
Effective action in any field calls for advance planning. Once management’s interest in safety has been stimulated, there remains mapping out the program.
Elements:
1. Support by top Management As in every other area, top management must lend a safety program its active support in order for it to survive and be effective. Management must give more than just lip service.
2. A safety Director To get any program off the ground, someone must be given primary responsibility for its installation and maintenance. If the company is too small to justify staff differentiation of the function and the line, it is still important to assign someone the additional duty of promoting the safety effort. In a larger firm, a staff safety director, often entitled “safety engineer”, is usually appointed.
3. Engineering Sound and forward-looking engineering must certainly be an essential requirement of any safety effort. Workplaces should be clean, well lit, and properly ventilated. Mechanical devices for material handling should be provided.
4. Education A large part of the safety program must be devoted to the process of educating the employee to act, think, and work safely. There are many avenues that this education can take, among which are the following: * Induction of new employees * Emphasis of safety points during training sessions, particularly in on-the-job training * Special efforts made by the first-level supervisor * Establishment of employee safety committees * Holding of special employee safety meetings * Charts, posters, and displays emphasizing the need to act safely
5. Record Keeping One requirements of OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) is that the employer should keep accurate records with respect to the number of accidents, occupational illnesses, and lost workdays.
6. Accident Analysis An accident is an unplanned incident and should be analyzed in terms of both costs and causes. If insurance premiums under workers compensation laws can be termed a direct cost, it is estimated that the indirect costs of an accident are four times as great. Among these indirect costs are the following: * Cost of damage to equipment, materials, and plant * Cost of wages paid for time lost by workers not injured * Costs of wages paid to injured workers over and above compensation required by law * Costs of supervisors and staff in investigating, recording, and reporting * Costs of replacing the injured employee * Miscellaneous Costs
As employers become fully educated in regard to the true costs of an accident, they become more highly concerned with accident analysis and prevention. The causes of accidents can be separated into two categories, technical and human. Technical causes are connected with deficiencies in plant, equipment, tools, materials, and general work environment. Human causes are connected with deficiencies in the individual, such as improper attitudes, carelessness, recklessness, inability to perform the job, daydreaming, alcoholism, and the use of drugs on the job.
7. Safety Contests Safety contests could be considered as one form of employee education, but they are sufficiently different in approach to merit separate discussion. There is a good deal of controversy over the merits of the safety contests. It usually happens that the accident level drops during the period of the contest, only to rise again after it has ended. It is to be hoped, however, that the habit of acting safely, gained during the contest period, will remain to some degree.
8. Enforcement Undoubtedly the fundamental approach to a safety program must be positive in nature; but it is naïve to argue that disciplinary action has no place. Individuals differ, and for some only the negative approach will stimulate the desired behavior. Reprimands, fines, layoffs, and discharge have their proper place in an effective safety program.
(Christian Angelo Eran)
Health Program
Physical Health
There is considerably more industrial activity in the field of safety than there is in the field of health. When health and medical programs are provided, it has been customary in too many firms to attach this function to the safety unit. The health portion of the program consists solely of a group of medical personnel, who administer physical examinations in the hiring process.
In order to have a properly organized health program, these are the following requirements: * A stated health and medical policy * The performance of periodic physical examinations on all employees exposed to health hazards * The availability of facilities for voluntary periodic physical examinations for all employees * A competent medical consulting staff * Systematic attention to sanitation, safety precautions, and industrial hygiene * A chief medical officer who reports to a responsible member of management * A well-equipped dispensary for emergency cases and physical examinations * Properly qualified medical and nursing personnel

Industrial Hygienist * Firms made an effort to elevate the hygienist to an organization position superior to that of the safety director. * The industrial hygienist is trained to adopt the preventive approach, to spot obvious and incipient dangers, and to request the appropriate specialty to eliminate those dangers. * A well-qualified industrial hygienist must undergo 1 or 2 years of college training in such subjects as physiology, psychology, air analysis, toxicology, and radiological aspects of industrial health.

Occupational Stress
Occupational stresses result in certain strains being placed upon the human body and mind. When stress is too great, the human body or mind breaks down. Thus, the emphasis is upon the elimination or control of the sources of occupational stress. Measures for the prevention and control of occupational stress can be applied to the following: * Source of the stress * The media of stress transmission * The individual subjected to the stress
Mental Health
Mental difficulties of various types are reflected in the firm’s productivity and profit records. Mental illness takes its toll through alcoholism, high accident rates, high tardiness rates, high labor turnover, and poor human relationships. Studies have shown that the emotionally ill have more accidents and safety violations, file more grievances and are discharged more often than healthy workers.
The recommended procedure for dealing with the alcoholic employee is as follows: * The supervisor maintains accurate records on employee performance, such as productivity, absenteeism, lateness, leaving the workplace, warnings, innovative excuses, and so on. * Through suspecting an alcoholic source the supervisor talks with the employee only about his or her objective record of performance. * If performance does not change, it is suggested that the employee join the supervisor in meeting with a counselor in the personnel unit. * During the initial phases of this meeting, the supervisor presents the objective performance record and then withdraws. * The counselor “lays it on the line” and suggests that a discharge is imminent if the performance is not improved. * If the employee indicates that alcohol is the source of the performance difficulties, he/she is retained on the payroll and referred to an appropriate outside agency, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, a psychologist, or a hospital specializing in alcoholism treatment. * The counselor follows the case for 1 year after referral to determine the extent of rehabilitation

Absenteeism
- is the title given to a condition that exists when a person fails to come to work when properly scheduled to work.
Insight into the problem can be provided by classifying each absence as to basic characteristics. Such characteristics and emerging patterns as the following have been discovered: * Name of the employee * Reasons given * Projected reason * Age * Sex…...

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...MAINTENANCE TOPIC A. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. INTRODUCTION CHILD MAINTENANCE What rights to support do children have? Who has a duty to support (maintain) children? What is the maintenance system? What do maintenance officers at court do? How is the amount of maintenance calculated? Why pay maintenance? What happens at the maintenance enquiry? What happens if the other person does not arrive at the maintenance enquiry? How is maintenance paid? Must I still pay maintenance if the other parent: What if I have other children? What happens if a child is born outside of marriage and paternity is contested? What happens if a parent fails to pay maintenance? How can I enforce a maintenance order that has been issued in South Africa where the maintenance defaulter has moved to another country? How can I enforce a maintenance order that has been issued in a foreign country in South Africa? What happens if I need to change the maintenance amount? What happens if I change my address? What happens if one of the child’s parents has passed away? When does the duty to maintain end? What can I do to protect the best interests of children when it comes to maintenance? What happens if none of the child’s relatives can support him/her? PARTNERS/SURVIVING SPOUSES ASSISTANCE IN MAINTENANCE MATTERS PAGE 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. B. C. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Black Sash FAMSA......

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... Home Maintenance PRG/211 Team Project Travis Beasley Problems with home maintenance can become harmful if not taken care of in a timely manner. The most cost-effective way to protect your home is with ongoing and preventive maintenance. Spending time and money now can help avoid costly repairs and improve your home’s ability to with stand natural hazards. Ongoing maintenance goes a long way toward avoiding costly repairs, improving energy efficiency, prolonging the life of major systems and appliances and preserving your home’s value. A regular schedule of seasonal maintenance is the best way to protect your home and stop the most common and costly problems, before they occur. Establishing a routine, you will find the work is easier to accomplish and not as time-consuming. There are simple solutions to keeping the maintenance on the house done. There are some things that can be done during the Spring and others during the Winter. This proposal will go over the problems that occur within a home and when to fix those problems. There will be inputs and outputs of data that will help in the process of taking care of the home maintenance. First here are the inputs and outputs of data within the program to ensure everything works as it should when it comes to the home maintenance. START Input Data Module: 1.      Input the current season of the year as “CurrentSeason” numbered 1-4. 2.      Insert For loop to ensure only a valid input (1-4) is entered a.       If not – kick......

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