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Marketing Research Review

In: Business and Management

Submitted By allison93
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1. Types of Marketing Research

2. Research symptoms and problems
3. Research objectives
Task 2: Define Research Objectives
• Research objectives state specifically what information must be gathered.
Research Problem
• Asks what the decision maker needs to do
• Action oriented
Research Objective
• Asks what information is needed and how it should be obtained
• Information oriented
Task 2: Define Research Objectives
• The objectives should specify:
• From Whom is the information is to be gathered: the researcher must choose carefully the population that should be studied.
• Objectives should also describe how respondents are going to be included in the sample.
• What information is needed: the researcher must determine the construct (concept) to be measured.
• For example: memorable, relevant, understandable likeable, attitude, purchase intention, etc.
• The objectives should specify:
• What is the unit of measurement: objective should describe the operationalization of the construct to be measured... in other words the specific measures for each concept to be researched.
• Worded using the respondent’s frame of reference
• What format should be used: the researcher will need to determine what type of study to design (qual or quant and which data collection format?)

4. Constructs and operational definitions and the applications of each
Constructs & Operational Definitions
Construct
• Brand Awareness
• Advertising Recall &
Recognition
• Knowledge of Product Features
• Brand Familiarity
Operational Definition
• % of respondents that have heard of Brand A
• % of respondents that recall (recognize) seeing an advertising for Brand A
• % of respondents that know about a product feature
• % of respondents that are “unfamiliar,” “somewhat familiar,” or “very familiar with Brand A

5. Research hypotheses
Task 3: Formulate Research Hypotheses
• A hypothesis is an unproven statement or proposition about the factor or phenomenon of interest.
• A hypothesis can be a:
• Possible answer to the research question
• Statement about the expected difference between groups of respondents • Tentative statement about relationships among constructs

6. Data sources and types (primary vs. secondary and applications of each)
• Secondary Data: information that has already been collected for some other purpose other than the research at hand.
• Primary Data: information that has been gathered specifically for the research objectives at hand.

7. Different research designs and their applications
Types of Research Design
I. Exploratory II. Descriptive III. Causal
I. Exploratory Research Design
• Unstructured and informal process of gathering information
• Objectives:
• Gain current background information • Define terms
• Clarify problems and hypotheses
• Establish research priorities
• Advantages: • Fast
• Inexpensive(lowercosts) • Disadvantages:
• Subjectiveinterpretation
• Does not provide conclusive evidence
Exploratory Research Design Methods
1. Experience Surveys
2. CaseAnalysis
3. SecondaryDataAnalysis
II. Descriptive Research Design
• Descriptive Research: undertaken to describe answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how?
• Who purchases/uses/complains about a certain product/brand?
• What brands customers are aware of/consider/prefer /purchase/ repurchase?
• Where are our brands searched/ purchased/used?
• When consumers shop?
• How (often) consumers purchase/use?
• Types of Descriptive Research Design
• • Cross Sectional Studies: Measure units from a sample of the population at one point in time. Referred to as “snap-shots” of the population
• • SampleSurveys:cross-sectionalstudieswhosesamplesaredrawninsuchawayastobe representative of a specific population
• • Longitudinal Studies: Repeatedly measure the same sample units of a population overaperiodoftime. Referredtoas“moviesofthepopulation”
• • Unitscouldbepeople,retailstores,restaurantsetc.
• Oftenuseapanel,whichrepresentssampleunitswhohaveagreedtoanswerquestionsat
• periodic intervals over time
• Manylargeresearchfirmsmaintainpanelsofconsumers
• • Panel example: American Consumer Opinion
Types of Marketing Research Panels
• • Continuous Panels: ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement
• • Discontinuous Panels: vary questions from one panel measurement to the next and are sometimes referred to as omnibus panels
• • Omnibusmeans“includingorcoveringmanythingsorclasses”.Thesepanelsmaybeusedfor a variety or purposes, and the information collected by a discontinuous panel varies from one panel measurement to the next III. Causal Research Design
• Causality may be thought as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form “if X, then Y”
• Establishes cause-and-effect relationships
• This type of research can only be done using experiments • An experiment is a design in which the causal or independent variables are manipulated in a relatively controlled environment

8. Data collection methods (qual vs. quant)

9. Response formats and their applications
10. Measurement scales and their applications
11. Questionnaire design/ flow
12. Steps for Designing a Sample Plan
13. Different types of Marketing Research and the applications of each
14. Mean, median, and mode
15. Central Tendency
16. Variability / Range
17. Probabilistic and Non-probabilitic Sampling Plans (different types of each & when to use them) 18. Methods to Obtain and/or Calculate Variances
19. Common Response Errors (and how to spot them in a data file) 20. Basic Theory of Standard Deviation
21. Inferential Statistics
22. Standard Error
23. Confidence Levels
24. Confidence Intervals
25. Hypothesis Testing
A Note about Formulas: You wi…...

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