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Marketing

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What are 7 steps of price setting decision process? Did XL follow the steps?
There are 5 strategic pricing objectives, which option did XL choose? Was it a right choice? Why?
What methods can be used to determine the right price level? What methods did XL use? Why?
What are the objectives of designing distribution channels? What kind of institutions might be included in the design?
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Price Setting Decision Process * Set strategic pricing objective
Strategic pricing objective merupakan strategi yang dipilih perusahaan sebagai basis penentuan harga produk yang ditawarkan, yang merefleksikan apa yang perusahaan harapkan untuk dapat dicapai dari program pemasaran produk pada target pasar yang ingin dijangkau. Dengan strategi bisnis, target pasar, dan strategi positioning terhadap produk yang jelas, maka perumusan tujuan dan aturan penetapan elemen-elemen dari program pemasaran, yang meliputi biaya, iklan, dan sebagainya menjadi lebih sederhana. Terdapat beberapa klasifikasi strategic pricing objectives berdasarkan keadaan pasar dan situasi yang bersaing, yaitu sebagai berikut:
(1) Maximize sales growth, yaitu ketika perusahaan atau produk yang ditawarkan tergolong baru di pasaran, target pembeli sensitif tehadap harga, dan memiliki tujuan untuk meningkatkan penjualan produk. Dalam situasi ini, harga rendah mungkin akan mampu menarik perhatian customer baru sekaligus memperluas jangkauan pasar.
(2) Maintain quality or service differentiation, yaitu ketika perusahaan atau produk yang ditawarkan telah berada dalam level yang lebih stabil atau mature. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai lebih kepada mempertahankan imej tentang kualitas produk atau untuk memperoleh penghasilan yang cukup demi menjaga kualitas tersebut. Dalam situasi ini, yang biasa dilakukan adalah menetapkan harga premium pada produk.
(3) Maximize current profit, terbagi dua yaitu skimming dan harvesting. Skimming adalah ketika terdapat produk baru dengan hak paten, dimana semakin tinggi harga akan meningkatkan kesan superior dari produk tersebut. Strategi ini baik digunakan untuk target pasar yang terbatas. Harvesting, dipilih untuk memaksimalkan profit jangka pendek dari suatu produk sebelum demand terhadap produk itu berkurang bahkan berhenti. Biasanya digunakan untuk produk-produk yang telah berada di late maturity atau bahkan yang sedang menurun.
(4) Survival, terdapat pada kondisi dimana suatu produk berada pada posisi rendah dalam persaingan dan sedang berusaha membuat langkah strategi untuk memperbaiki kondisinya, sehingga yang dibutuhkan adalah tetap menjaga keberlangsungan produk tersebut. Biasanya langkah yang diambil adalah dengan menurunkan harga produk.
(5) Social Objectives, pada perusahaan non profit, menawarkan harga rendah untuk suatu produk demi tujuan sosial.

* Estimate demand, price elasticity of demand, and perceived value
Demand atau tuntutan pasar turut mempengaruhi harga maksimum dari range harga yang ditetapkan untuk suatu produk tertentu. Bahkan sebelum mencapai harga maksimum pun, jumlah customer yang bersedia membeli suatu produk dalam suatu periode tertentu akan bergantung pada harga yang ditetapkan untuk produk tersebut. Pada umumnya, semakin tinggi atau mahal harga produk, maka semakin sedikit orang yang bersedia membeli. Di sisi lain beberap customer menggunakan harga sebagai indikator prestige atau kualitas suatu produk, sehingga mereka akan membeli semakin banyak sering dengan meningkatnya harga produk tersebut. Thomas Nagle mengidentifikasi beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi sensitivitas customer terhadap harga, diantaranya: 1. Buyer’s perceptions and preferences, bahwa customer cenderung less price-sensitive ketika: * Ada persepsi bahwa suatu produk memiliki karakteristik unik yang tidak tergantikan ole produk lain (unique-value effect) * Ada persepsi bahwa suatu produk memiliki kualitas, perceive, atau eksklusivitas tinggi (price-quality effect) 2. Buyer’s awareness of and attitude toward alternatives, bahwa customer cenderung less price-sensitive ketika: * Mereka tidak aware terhadap produk kompetitor atau produk lain yang dapat menjadi substitusinya (substitute awareness effect) * Mereka kesulitan untuk membandingkan secara objektif kualitas dari produk alternative atau substitusi (difficult comparison effect) * Mereka tidak aware terhadap produk kompetitor atau produk lain yang bisa menjadi substitusinya (substitute awareness effect) * Pembelian produk tersebut dianggap penting untuk memperoleh keuntungan penuh dari aset yang telah dibeli sebelumnya (sunk investment effect) 3. Buyer’s ability to pay: bahwa customer cenderung less price-sensitive ketika: * Pembelanjaan produk tersebut proporsinya kecil dibandingkan total pendapatan (total expenditure effect) * Pembelanjaan produk tersebut proporsinya kecil dibandingkan total biaya produksi (end benefit effect) * Bagian dari biaya penyediaan produk tersebut ditanggung oleh pihak ketiga (shared cost effect) * Mereka tidak dapat menyimpan produk dalam jumlah besar sebagai usaha menghindari kenaikan harga di masa yang akan datang (inventory effect)
Semaki besar proporsi customer yang sensitive terhadap harga, maka semakin sensitif pula demand untuk mengubah harga produk. Derajat responsivitas suatu demand terhadap perubahan harga disebut price elasticity of demand (E).
E = percentage change in quantity demanded percent change in price

* Determine costs and volume
Biaya yang digunakan suatu perusahaan terbagi 2, yaitu: (1) fixed costs yaitu yang bersifat konstan dalam jangka waktu pendek terlepas dari volume produk atau pendapatan dari penjualan, meliputi biaya sewa, gaji eksekutif, dan departemen fungsional. (2) variable cost, yaitu biaya yang yang bervariasi dan secara langsung mempengaruhi level produksi namun, meliputi biaya packaging, material, tenaga kerja. Perusahaan biasanya mengevaluasi biaya yang dialokasikan dengan mengobservasi setiap level dari berbagai aktivitas fungsional,seperti shipping, penerimaan, penjualan, dll. Informasi ini akan berguna untuk penentuan strategi pemasaran produk dan penentuan harga. Average cost produk per unit bervariasi dipengaruhi oleh kuantitas produk yang diproduksi, semakin sedikit jumlah produk yang diproduksi maka semakin tinggi average costnya.

* Examine competitors prices & costs
Supaya produk yang ditawarkan dapat mencapai posisi yang strategik dalam persaingan di pasaran, maka perusahaan harus mengetahui biaya produksi, harga jual, serta kualitas produk kompetitor.

* Select a method for calculating price to determine an appropriate price level (5&6)
Terdapat 3 kategori metode pricing yang dapat digunakan, diantaranya: * Cost oriented pricing, dalam metode ini salah satu yang dilakukan adalah menambahkan standard markup ke dalam biaya produksi dari suatu produk. Pendekatan ini tidak sejalan dengan price sensitivity. Biasanya produk dengan standard markup terendah memiliki frekuensi pembelian yang tinggi. * Competition oriented pricing, dalam beberapa perusahaan (biasanya perusahaan yang mature dengan tingkat diferensiasi produk yang rendah), yang menjadi kunci dari strategi pricing produknya adalah bagaimana kompetitor memasang harga untuk produk mereka. Biasanya perusahaan akan berusaha menyamakan harga dengan beberapa competitor yang terbaik (going rate or competitive strategy), dimana perusahaan yang memiliki variasi produk/brand yang lebih banyak justru memilih untuk menetapkan harga di bawah atau di atas produk kompetitornya (discount or premium price policies. * Demand or customer oriented pricing, potential customer mengembangkan persepsi dengan membandingkan harga yang dipasang oleh suatu perusahaan dengan para kompetitornya terhadap benefit atau value yang mereka pikir akan didapatkan dari pembelanjaan suatu produk. Oleh karena itu, tujuan esensial dari perusahaan adalah bagaimana cara mengcapture value dari suatu produk sesuai dengan yang dipersepsikan dalam pikiran customer.

* Adapt price structure
Tahap akhir dari pricing process adalah mengembangkan prices structure, yang mengadaptasi harga ke dalam beberapa variasi dalam biaya dan demand yang terkait beberapa kondisi sebagai berikut: * Geographic adjustments, terkait dengan penyesuaian transportation cost, yang mencakup FOB origin pricing, freight absorption pricing, uniform delivered pricing, zone pricing. * Global adjustments, jika dalam prakteknya melibatkan Negara lain, selain transportation cost juga melibatkan global pricing policy, exchange rates, variasi kompetisi dengan produk-produk lain, serta government & legal policies. * Discounts and allowances, mencakup trade discounts (dengan retailer atau wholeseller), quantity discounts (untuk customer khusus dan channel member), cash discounts (potongan harga untuk customer), allowances (trade in allowances dan promotional allowances), price off promotions (pengurangan harga temporer), coupon, rebates and refunds, “deal a day” website coupons, rebates, and premiums (menurunkan harga atau menggratiskan suatu produk untuk mengencourage customer membeli produk lain). * Differential pricing, yaitu ketika perusahaan menerapkan diferensiasi harga untuk dua atau lebih produk yang sama sebagai penyesuaian terhadap perbedaan price sensitivity atau preferensi produk yang dimiliki consumer dari berbagai sekmen. Differential pricing mencakup: time pricing (berdasarkan waktu/periode/musim penjualan), location pricing (berdasarkan lokasi penjualan), dan customer segment pricing (berdasarkan keinginan atau kemampuan untuk membeli). * Product line pricing adjustments, membahas mengenai cross elasticity, yaitu persentase perubahan dalam penjualan suatu produk yang dipengaruhi oleh setiap 1 persen perubahan harga produk lain dapat dijadikan substitusi, dan bundle, di mana penjual menerapkan strategi penjualan produk secara terpaketd dengan harga lebih murah dibandingkan jika customer membeli produk secara terpisah atau eceran.…...

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