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Maududi's Contribution

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Sheikh Maududi: Ulama’ tajdid dalam kenangan - Imran Mohd Rasid

SEPTEMBER 22, 2013
LATEST UPDATE: SEPTEMBER 22, 2013 10:52 PM

Hari ini, tanggal 22 September, telah selesailah sudah 34 tahun berlalu sejak perginya seorang tokoh Islam agung kelahiran India yang telah mencurahkan segenap titik peluhnya untuk membangunkan pemikiran Ummah. Beliau adalah Sheikh Abu A’la Maududi (1903-1979), anak kelahiran Hyderabad dan pengasas gerakan Jamaat-i-Islami pada tahun 1941. Sheikh Maududi bisa dikatakan sebagai antara pembawa obor tajdid pada era pasca kejatuhan sistem kekhilafan Islam Uthmaniya pada tahun 1924.

Sheikh Maududi mempunyai jalur pendidikan yang unik berbanding dengan kebanyakan ilmuan moden. Beliau bermula secara “home schooling” di bawah seliaan ayahnya dan menyambung pelajaran sehingga ke pusat pengajian Darool Ulum namun gagal menamatkannya kerana terganggu tumpuan selepas kematian ayah beliau. Sungguhpun begitu beliau menguasai dengan baik bahasa urdu,Arab dan Inggeris serta selok belok hukum agama dan politik India dan Barat.

Beliau yang bergiat aktif dalam bidang jurnalisme telah menghasilkan banyak buku dan tulisan yang bertemakan pemikiran Islam serta fungsinya dalam melancarkan jihad menentang kolonialisme British ketika itu yang telah bertapak seawal era 1800an.

Penulisan beliau berjaya merungkai pelbagai aspek kehidupan termasuklah soal ekonomi,masalah taqlid,masalah sosial,serta isu-isu penindasan wanita. Namun antara subjek yang paling penting yang Sheikh Maududi Berjaya sumbangkan pada dunia Islam ialah berkaitan dengan teori sistem politik: Theo-Democracy yang cuba mengadunkan konsep Kekuasaan Mutlak Tuhan dan demokrasi.

Sheikh Maududi berpendapat bahawa dalam keadaan kebangkitan semula kegemilangan islam pembentukan identiti Muslim adalah penting dan perlu didasarkan ke arah mendirikan agama di atas muka bumi. Berdasarkan ide ini,beliau berpandangan bahawa ksemua institusi sivil dan politik mesti tertakluk di bawah peraturan Islam seperti yang termaktub dalam Quran dan hadis.

Dalam bukunya The Islamic Law and Constitution yang didekasikan kepada delegasi penggubal perlembagaan pertama Pakistan (selesai 1956) beliau mengembangkan ide ini dengan menggariskan beberapa dasar agama yang patut dijadikan batu asas pembentukan sesebuah model sistem politik:

Sesungguhnya Kekuasaan Mutlak adalah milik Tuhan (Sovereignty of God) berdasarkan ayat Quran: (12:40), (3:154), (16:116), (5:44) dan (6:50). Maka beliau menyimpulkan bahawa tiada sesiapa,mahupun mana-mana kumpulan yang boleh mengambil alih kekuasaan ini .

Allah adalah penggubal undang-undang mutlak maka setiap individu ataupun mana-mana kumpulan tidak punya hak untuk mengubah atau menggubal mana-mana undang lain yang bercanggah dengan undang-undang Islam.

Maka negara Islam mestilah berfungsi untuk merealisasikan perkara di atas. Beliau menyandarkan hujah ide pada ayat Quran: (57:25) dan (22:41) Hanya kerajaan yang menjalankan tanggungjawab ini sahaja berhak mendapat ketaatan daripada kaum Muslimin.

Pada sekali imbas, kita seakan mendapat gambaran bahawa Sheikh Maududi seakan mengangkat model politik yang autoritarian kerana apabila kesemua undang-undang sudah termaktub,maka tiada guna demokrasi.

Namun beliau berhujah bahawa terdapat satu sudut yang boleh disadurkan elemen-elemen tertentu dalam sistem demokrasi ke dalam kerangka politik Islam berdasarkan konsep “Khalifah” yang diperkenalkan di dalam Quran. Berbeza dengan gerakan tradisionalis sezamannya beliau tidak melihat Khalifah sebagai model pemerintahan Kerajaan Uthmaniyah yang memusatkan kuasa pada satu figur tertentu. Maksud Khalifah mempunyai esensi yang demokratis kerana kekuasaan sesebuah Khalifah tertanggung oleh semua masyarakat Islam dan bukan monopoli sesiapa sahaja berdasarkan ayat Quran:

“Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them, after their fear, security, [for] they worship Me, not associating anything with Me. But whoever disbelieves after that – then those are the defiantly disobedient.” (24:55)

Melalui ayat ini,jelas bahawa kekuasaan ke atas muka bumi ini adalah diberikan kepada seluruh masyarakat Islam. Sheikh Maududi menyebut lagi:

“The Caliphate granted by God to the Faithful is the Popular vigerency and not a limited one. There is no reservation in favour of family, class or race. Every believer is a Caliph of God in his individual capacity”

Maka di dalam masyarakat dan suasana demokrasi,perkara ini direalisasikan dengan meletakkan kepentingan pandangan majoriti masyarakat Muslim yang diberi hak yang sama tanpa mengira darjat, keturunan, kaum dan kelas (non-Muslim tidak termasuk) dalam menentukan pentadbiran masyarakat mereka.

Namun seakan wujud suatu kontradiksi antara usul Kekuasaan Mutlak Tuhan dan prinsip demokrasi yang menjunjung Kekuasaan rakyat (Sovereignty of the people). Melihat pertembungan ini beliau gagaskan satu model demokrasi yang baru: Theo-Democracy, yang mengahwinkan elemen Kekuasaan Mutlak Tuhan yang biasanya terdapat dalam sebuah negara teokrasi dengan pendekatan demokratis.

Melalui model ini, beliau menyarankan segala persoalan yang tidak ada disebut dalam Shari’a akan diselesaikan mengikut kesepakatan majoriti masyarakat Muslim melalui pilihanraya dan parlimen. Maka dalam proposal cadangan beliau tentang pembentukan perlembagaan Pakistan,beliau menyarankan Quran dan Sunnah dimasukkan sebagai undang-undang tertinggi dan Bahagian Kehakiman, terdiri daripada ulama dan pakar hukum,merupakan pentafsir undang-undang yang berhak menolak sebarang cadangan daripada dewan Legislatif yang wakilnya dipilih secara pilihanraya.

Benar, beliau bukanlah yang pertama yang mengusulkan pandangan bahawa demokrasi tidak haram di sisi Islam. Kedapatan ulama’ sebelumnya seperti Sheikh Rifa’a Tahtawi, Khairuddin at Tunisi, Muhammad Abduh, Sheikh Abdul Rahman al Kawakibi, dan ramai lagi namun kebanyakan menanggapi demokrasi secara esensinya sahaja. Berbeza dengan Sheikh Maududi yang memperdalam perbahasan ini dengan menyusun model demokrasi tersendiri yang lebih tampak praktikal dan tersusun.

Malah, membaca setiap saranan perlembagaan beliau kita bisa mendapati akan sebuah konstruksi negara Islam yang moden: Pembahagian kuasa kepada Eksekutif, Legislatif dan Kehakiman, undang-undang pilihanraya pada sudut pandang Islam,proses perlaksanaan hukum-hukum serta institusi-institusi pentadbiran yang perlu diwujudkan, kesemuanya diterangkan dengan cara terperinci dan tersendiri di dalam bukunya bagi merealisasikan visi sebuah negara Islam, pada sudut pandang Sheikh Maududi.

Namun kedapatan juga beberapa pandangan beliau yang masih terikat dalam suasana tradisi pada zamannya. Misalnya soal kerakyatan masyarakat bukan Muslim dibezakan dengan masyarakat Muslim. Beliau juga menolak ide politik kepartian dan melarang diadakan praktis pencalonan diri sendiri dalam pilihan raya.

Malah pada aras teoretikal juga gagasan Theo-Democracy Sheikh Maududi ini bukanlah sepi tanpa kritikan,malah tidak ada pun yang diamalkan pada konteks kenegaraan hari ini. Namun keberanian beliau dan pendekatan kreatif dalam ijtihad ini menyediakan satu batu loncatan kepada pengkritik-pengkritik beliau untuk mengembangkan lagi ide ini dengan lebih luas.

Sheikh Rachid Ghannouchi misalnya dalam tulisan beliau Al Hurriyat al Ammah Fil Dawlah al Islamiyah (Public Liberties in an Islamic State) merungkaikan persoalan berkaitan dengan percanggahan Kekuasaan Mutlak Tuhan dan Kekuasaan Rakyat dengan satu perspektif yang berbeza. Di samping mengiktiraf bahawa Allah merupakan pemegang Kuasa yang Mutlak dan batu asas akidah beliau juga menegaskan bahawa Allah telah mengurniakan kepada manusia hak kebebasan sebagai hak yang paling asas .Disebut di dalam Quran dalam ayat: (2:256), (10:99) dan (88:22) bahawa manusia punya kebebasan untuk memilih tanpa sebarang paksaan agar beliau dapat menjalani kehidupan ini dengan pemanifestasian agama yang benar-benar tulen.

Kebebasan yang difahami oleh Ghanouchi juga berbeza dengan apa yang difahami filasuf Barat. Selain daripada dikotomi Kebebasan Negatif dan Positif yang diperkenalkan Isaah Berlin,beliau melihat manusia juga secara spiritual dilahirkan belum bebas dan perlu menggunakan segala ruang lingkup di dunia ini untuk menjadi manusia yang bebas, yakni tiada keterikatan kepada segala makhluk lain dan hanya taat kepada Allah. Maknanya semakin tinggi manusia mentauhidkan Allah dalam kehidupan seharian maka semakin bebas beliau dari pengaruh dunia dan harta. Maka dalam proses ini, mengikut Ghannouchi, penting manusia tidak dipaksakan kepada mereka peraturan-peraturan agama agar manusia itu bebas meneruskan perjalanan spiritualnya ke arah kebebasan hakiki.

Ghannouchi juga berpandangan bahawa manusia adalah makhluk yang istimewa kerana dikurniakan hak kemanusiaan (dignity of man) yang seiring dengan deklarasi universal hak-hak asasi Manusia (Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Maka baik Muslim atau bukan Muslim hak ini secara langsungnya menjadi milik semua manusia apabila beliau lahir. Seperti kata Saidina Umar kepada salah seorang Kristian koptik yang mengadu ditindas oleh pemimpin wilayahnya:

“Bagaimana seorang manusia itu diperhambakan sedangkan dia lahir dalam keadaan dia bebas?”

Selain itu sikap menghormati kepelbagaian politik (political Pluralism) juga merupakan aspirasi Islam yang asas yang turut diangkat dalam sistem demokrasi. Beliau yang membahagikan masyarakat kepada dua ruang lingkup utama: Ruang peribadi dan Ruang Umum, berpandangan pada peringkat Ruang Umum perlunya institusi yang “neutral” yang bertindak mengurus kepelbagaian pandangan yang muncul. Demokrasi tidak sewajarnya dilihat sebagai satu metodologi epistemologi, yakni bermakna tidak bermaksud bahawa setiap keputusan majoriti itu adalah benar seperti yang didakwa sebahagian pengkritik demokrasi. Sebaliknya pandangan kita kekal tidak berubah dan kekal berada di wilayah Ruang Peribadi. Namun pada Ruang Umum kita seharusnya menghormati keputusan dan kesepakatan yang dicapai selagi mana prosesnya telus,adil,terbuka dan mnghormati hak-hak asasi manusia.

Maka tidak timbul lagi soal percanggahan antara Kekuasaan Mutlak Tuhan ( Sovereignty of God) dan Kekuasaan rakyat ( Sovereignty of men) kerana di tengah-tengahnya terhubung dengan hak kebebasan dalam diri manusia yang dikurniakan sendiri oleh Tuhan. Malah Ghannouchi berpandangan bahawa demokrasi merupakan jalan yang paling dekat dengan aspirasi Islam dan menguntungkan agama dan masyarakat Islam seisinya.

Sungguhpun demikian sumbangan Sheikh Maududi teramatlah besar dalam membangunkan pemikiran ummah. Pada hari ini sahaja kita melihat semakin ramai kalangan ulama’ yang memanfaatkan teks dan tulisannya dalam mengembangkan lagi ide demokrasi. Tokoh seperti Sheikh Yusuf Qaradawi, Sheikh Taha Jabir Alwani, Sheikh Tahir al Qudri, Sheikh Imarah dan ramai lagi yang kini sudah mula mendukung dan mempopularkan ide demokrasi dalam kalangan masyarakat Muslim. Malahan pemikiran beliau sangat terkehadapan berbanding rakan-rakan sezamannya yang masih dibelengu dengan pergaduhan Fiqh yang lapuk dan tidak menguntungkan masyarakat.

Benarlah kata pepatah: Harimau mati meninggalkan belang,manusia mati meninggalkan nama, ulama’ pergi meninggalkan pemikirannya.

Sheikh Maududi,pembawa obor tajdid,api pemikirannya akan sentiasa bernyala.…...

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...understanding of different business models. Also, I began my career overseas but have worked in US for half the time of my career. This helps me to connect and bring in perspectives from both markets. I have developed a good business knowledge about consulting, IT, manufacturing, banking and education domain which will enrich my participation in studies from various domains. With a diverse learning from architecture to planning to programming and an uncommon career path from lecturer to programmer to IT project manager and business analyst, I have acquired skills like collaborative focus, planning, defining problem statements, creative architecting of solution, conflict resolution etc. I strongly believe that these skills will enhance my contribution to case study and class room discussions. I will bring in rich diversity in terms of upbringing, culture, career and economy. I am well-versed with in both Occidental and Oriental cultures, which gives me the understanding of the defining nuances of culture in the global business place. I have lived in both developing and developed economies. I will be able to contribute to any strategy or business case discussion from either economy. Starting from a very humble beginning, I have journeyed quite a far. I would not have been able to get here without the support of family and friends, self motivation and self discipline. As the horizon of learning expanded, my goals became more and more demanding and I supported......

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Achinese Contribution

...any other ancient culture. They have contributed to our world civilization’s achievements in the fields of agriculture, shipping, astronomy, printing, oil, martial arts, ammunition and mathematics. Ancient Chinese inventions such as gunpowder, silk, paper, printing, tea, wheel barrow, iron plows, deep drilling, porcelain, toilet paper and the compass were and still are important pieces of Chinese and global life. These inventions were major blocks in the building of the world as we know today. The four main innovations which I consider to be essential aspects of our contemporary lives are paper, printing, gun powder, and compass. Certainly the most important invention of Chinese culture is paper. The invention of paper was a great contribution to both the Chinese and the world civilization. According to Sayre, it was in the year 105 A.D during the Han dynasty, that the invention of the paper was first reported by Cai Lun. Paper made of hemp had been used by the Han for over 200 years, but Cai Lun improved both the techniques and the quality of the paper by using verity of materials such as, tree bark, hemp and rags. The basic principles of papermaking invented by Cai Lun are still in use today (Sayre, 2012, p.226). Before the invention of paper, characters were written on animal bones, turtle backs, bamboo or stones. The storage of great ideas and paintings were a difficult task. Paper made it easy to express people’s thought in writing and educateing the people (Bellis,......

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Contribution Analysis

...Contribution margin analysis is another tool managers use for decision making, expenses are categorized as either fixed or variable. The variable costs are deducted from sales to obtain the contribution margin. Fixed costs are then subtracted from contribution margin to obtain net income. This information helps the manager to (1) decide whether to drop or push a product line, (2) evaluate alternatives arising from production, special advertising, and so on, (3) decide on pricing strategy and products or services to emphasize, and (4) appraise performance. For example, contribution analysis involves how to formulate a bid price on a contract, and whether to accept an order even if it is below the normal selling price. Gross margin, found in the conventional income statement, which is sales minus the cost of goods sold, is not useful for this type of decision analysis. Contribution analysis recognises that it takes time to achieve an impact and does not seek to prove an impact before it could be achieved. It provides information on whether a program is likely to achieve an impact. In terms of accountability for outcomes, contribution analysis asks if everything possible has been done to effect the achievement of the intended results and what lessons have been learnt (Mayne, 1999) Break Even Analysis According to Kerin & Petersen 2010, one of the simplest applications of contribution analysis is the break even analysis. A breakeven analysis is used to determine how......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

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