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Motivation and Discrmination Research Paper

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Name: Hasham Tariq
Reg no: 12882

Subject: Research Proposal 1 (Rp1)

Class: Tuesday 6 to 9

Assignment: Abstract/References of 10 research papers (Motivation/Discrimination)

Submitted to: Dr Akif Hussain / Dr Imtiaz Subhani

1. When Searching Hurts: The Role of Information Search in Reactions to Gender Discrimination
Abstract
Two laboratory studies conducted with Dutch students explored women’s motivation to search for evidence of gender discrimination and its effects on psychological well-being. Study 1 (N = 161) considered situational self-relevance of one’s personal outcomes (personal failure or success) on women’s motivation to collect information about gender discrimination. Study 2 (N = 106) manipulated information search and studied its effects on well-being when information contains evidence of gender discrimination or personal failure. Results revealed that women are motivated to search for evidence of discrimination when outcomes are highly self-relevant (Study 1) or the need to search is high (Study 2). Furthermore women suffer from evidence of prejudice, but only when they are personally affected by this prejudice and evidence suggests it is pervasive.
References
-When Searching Hurts: The Role of Information Search in Reactions to Gender Discrimination
Katherine Stroebe, Manuela Barreto and Naomi Ellemers
SEX ROLES, Volume 62, Numbers 1-2 (2010), 60-76, DOI: 10.1007/s11199-009-9700-y
Published online: 24 September 2009
# Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009
Stable url : http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-009-9700-y?null

2. Explanation and Intergroup Emotion: Social Explanations as a Foundation of Prejudice-Related Compunction

Abstract
Two studies examined whether social explanations—causal frameworks used to make sense of a group’s status and behavior—are associated with prejudice-related compunction. In Study 1, based on Devine, Monteith, Zuwerink, & Elliott, (1991), participants who endorsed external explanations (e.g. low socioeconomic status of Blacks stems from historical maltreatment) showed a particularly strong tendency to experience compunction in response to prejudice-related discrepancies. Study 2 involved a novel paradigm. Participants were induced to admit that they would discriminate against Black males. Conceptually replicating Study 1, endorsement of external explanations was positively associated with compunction in response to this imagined discrimination. Across both studies, there was also evidence that the effects of external explanations are not explicable in terms of internal motivation to avoid prejudice, global prejudice, or global positive evaluation of African Americans. Discussion centers on the importance of explanations in shaping intergroup emotions and how the concept of explanation links the intergroup emotion literature to other emotion literatures.

References :
Explanation and Intergroup Emotion: Social Explanations as a Foundation of Prejudice-Related Compunction
Michael J. Gill, Michael R. Andreychik
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations January 2007 10: 87-106,
Stable url : http://gpi.sagepub.com/content/10/1/87.abstract

3. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY LINE PRICE DISCRIMINATION MOTIVATIONS

Abstract

The prohibition of secondary line price discrimination stated in the Robinson-Patman Act probably still affects more business decisions than any other antitrust law. This article applies a new methodology, developed in the study, of systematic content analysis of all court decisions of Robinson-Patman cases published from 1990 to 2000 (inclusive), traced using the lexis.com database, in order to expand our knowledge regarding such discrimination. I present two empirical claims concerning the act. First, I analyze the preliminary procedures conducted in secondary line private complaints, showing that the procedures themselves can harm competition among suppliers, encourage collusion, and increase monopoly prices. Second, I fill in the factual background to show how the act harms consumers and competition, and, by contrast, how the use of secondary line discrimination can encourage competition. The results help to understand the reasons why suppliers employ such discrimination and its affect on business behavior and competition. They also help to explain the motivations of those discriminated purchasers to file a complaint for such discrimination. The results show empirically why the Robinson-Patman Act should be repealed in its entirety and why it would not be sufficient to dismiss private complaints filed to courts, or to interpret it in keeping with broader antitrust policies.

References
-AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY LINE PRICE DISCRIMINATION MOTIVATIONS
Jnl of Competition Law & Economics (2012) 8 (2): 361-397. doi: 10.1093/joclec/nhs006
First published online: April 23, 2012
Stable url : http://jcle.oxfordjournals.org/content/8/2/361.full.pdf

4. The Roles of Social Acceptance and Discrimination in Shaping the Academic Motivations of Latino Youth in the U.S. Southeast.

ABSTRACT
An emerging literature suggests that high academic aspirations contribute to academic achievement. Yet, few researchers have studied the specific academic values and beliefs that lay behind students’ aspirations or how the social contexts of schools can affect these academic values and beliefs. Using data on 459 Latino 9th graders from the LA-SIAA and the NC-SIAA studies, we evaluate the specific educational values and beliefs that motivate the academic achievement of Latino youth and contrast the school experiences of Latino youth in an emerging Latino community, North Carolina, with the school experiences of youth living in a traditional settlement community, Los Angeles. Despite their greater fears of discrimination in North Carolina, we find that Latino youth in North Carolina are more academically motivated than their peers in Los Angeles. This is partially because they are more likely to be immigrants. Being an immigrant, having a stronger sense of ethnic identification, and having a stronger sense of family obligation were each linked to a more positive view of the school environments. Therefore, these factors each partially explained the immigrant advantage in motivation and helped to counter the potentially harmful effects of discrimination.

REFERENCES

-The Roles of Social Acceptance and Discrimination in Shaping the Academic Motivations of Latino Youth in the U.S. Southeast.

Krista M. Perreira, Andrew Fuligni, and Stephanie Potochnick

Paper prepared for the Journal of Social Issues, Special Issue on Latinos and Latino Immigrants in the U.S. 6/8/2008
Stable url: http://paa2009.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=90114

5. A healthy mistrust: how world view relates to attitudes about breast cancer screening in a cross-sectional survey of low-income women
Abstract
Perceived racial discrimination is one factor which may discourage ethnic minorities from using health care. However, existing research only partially explains why some persons do accept health promotion messages and use preventive care, while others do not. This analysis explores 1) the psychosocial characteristics of those, within disadvantaged groups, who identify their previous experiences as racially discriminatory, 2) the extent to which perceived racism is associated with broader perspectives on societal racism and powerlessness, and 3) how these views relate to disadvantaged groups' expectation of mistreatment in health care, feelings of mistrust, and motivation to use care.

References:

A healthy mistrust: how world view relates to attitudes about breast cancer screening in a cross-sectional survey of low-income women
Ann Carroll Klassen , Katherine C Smith, Salma Shariff-Marco, Hee-Soon Juon International Journal for Equity in Health January 2008, 7:5,
Stable url : http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/1475-9276-7-5

6. Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice

Abstract:
Social psychologists have addressed stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination for nearly a century. Everyday prejudices first seemed to lodge in abnormal personalities, pathological bigots who were exceptional (“bad apples”), but Freudian explanations proved inadequate. Purely cognitive explanations took their place, arguing that bias inevitably results from normal processes of categorization and association, often automatic. But this so-called cognitive miser account denies the role of intent, which does influence the activation and use of stereotypes and prejudices. People are more realistically “motivated tacticians” who display more cognitive bias under particular social motivations. The author's continuum of impression formation, proceeding from initial categorization to possible moderation by motives, illustrates this view. Plausible social motives include belonging, understanding, controlling, self-enhancing, and trusting, all known to influence ordinary bias. Social neuroscience is beginning to show that Motivation and cognition mix at the earliest stages of ordinary bias.

References

- Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice
Susan T. Fiske , Social Justice Research June 2004, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 117-127
Stable url : http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1023/B%3ASORE.0000027405.94966.23

7. Can Intergroup Behaviors Be Emitted Out of Self-Determined Reasons? Testing the Role of Group Norms and Behavioral Congruence in the Internalization of Discrimination and Parity Behaviors/

Abstract

Bringing self-determination theory to understand why intergroup behaviors are emitted, two studies were conducted to investigate how group norms and individuals’ congruence with these norms predicted self-determination to pursue two types of intergroup behaviors (parity and discrimination). Experiment 1 (N 97) manipulated in group norms in favor of parity versus of discrimination and assessed the behavior participants displayed (congruent or incongruent with the norm) and their motivations for emitting this behavior. The manipulated norms significantly influenced group members’ behaviors. When the in group norm was parity, participants whose behavior was congruent with this norm reported more self-determination to emit this behavior. When the in group norm was pro discrimination, participants whose behavior was congruent with this norm were less self-determined. Experiment 2 (N 139) replicated and extended these findings in a more conflicting intergroup setting. Results are discussed in light of motivational and intergroup theories

REFERENCES:
-Can Intergroup Behaviors Be Emitted Out of Self-Determined Reasons? Testing the Role of Group Norms and Behavioral Congruence in the Internalization of Discrimination and Parity Behaviors/
Catherine E. Amiot, Sophie Sansfaçon, Winnifred R. Louis and Martin Yelle
Pers Soc Psychol Bull published online 22 November 2011. Stable url : http://psp.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/11/22/0146167211429804.full.pdf

8. Why Are Attributions to Discrimination Interpersonally Costly? A Test of System- and Group-Justifying Motivations.

Abstract

In two studies, Whites’ endorsement of system-justifying beliefs predicted increased negativity toward Blacks who blamed negative events on discrimination. Whites’ system-justifying beliefs were not associated with negativity toward Blacks who blamed negative events on other internal causes, external causes, or non-discriminatory unfairness. These negative reactions toward discrimination claimants were mediated by perceptions that the claimant held dissimilar values and failed to take personal responsibility for outcomes. In both studies, participants’ White Identification did not moderate the relationship between the Black target’s attribution for failure and subsequent negative perceptions of that individual, thus providing evidence against a group-justification explanation of these findings.

REFERENCES

Why Are Attributions to Discrimination Interpersonally Costly? A Test of System- and Group-Justifying Motivations.
Kaiser CR, Dyrenforth PS, Hagiwara N.
Pers Soc Psycho Bull. 2006 Nov; 32(11):1523-536
Stable url : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17030885

9. Racial Discrimination by Low-Prejudiced Whites: Facial Movements as Implicit Measures of Attitudes Related to Behavior
Abstract

We investigated the relationship of implicit racial prejudice to discriminatory behavior. White university students chose the best of three applicants (two were White and one was Black) for a prestigious teaching fellowship. They then completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a measure of implicit racial bias. Three weeks later, participants completed a second implicit measure of racial bias by viewing photos of Whites and Blacks while facial electromyography (EMG) was recorded from sites corresponding to the muscles used in smiling and frowning. Analyses revealed that bias in cheek EMG activity was related to the race of the chosen applicant, whereas bias on the IAT was not. Motivations to control prejudiced reactions were not related to EMG activity or the race of the applicant chosen, but were related to IAT bias. The findings indicate that facial EMG can be used as an implicit measure of prejudice related to discrimination.

References
-Racial Discrimination by Low-Prejudiced Whites: Facial Movements as Implicit Measures of Attitudes Related to Behavior
Vanman EJ, Saltz JL, Nathan LR, Warren JA,
Psychol Sci. 2004 Nov;15(11):711-4
Stable url : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15482441

10. The Adaptation Challenges and Strategies of Adolescent Aboriginal Athletes Competing Off Reserve.
ABSTRACT:
Within the motivation literature, it has been indicated that athletes respond more effectively to sport’s contextual challenges through effective adaptation skills. Fiske identified five core motives as facilitators of the adaptation process across cultures: belonging, understanding, controlling, self-enhancement, and trusting. Through a cultural sport psychology approach, the adaptation challenges and strategies of Canadian Aboriginal adolescent athletes from one community (Wikwemikong) are described as they traveled off reserve to compete in mainstream sporting events. Concurrently, Fiske’s core motives are considered in relation to youth sport participants from the aforementioned Aboriginal community. Culture sensitive research methods among the Wikwemikong, including community meetings, talking circles (TCs), indigenous coding, and coauthoring, were employed in this article. Data are reflected in three themes: (a) challenges pursuing sport outside of the Aboriginal community in advance of bicultural encounters, (b) challenging bicultural encounters in Canadian mainstream sport contexts, and (c) specific responses to racism and discrimination.

References:
The Adaptation Challenges and Strategies of Adolescent Aboriginal Athletes Competing Off Reserve.
Danielle Recollet-Saikonnen Battochio, Mary Jo Wabano, Duke Peltier, Stephen Ritchie, Patricia Pickard and Robert J. Schinke, Amy T. Blodgett, Hope E. Yungblut, Mark A. Eys, Randy C. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 2010 34: 438
Stable url : http://jss.sagepub.com/content/34/4/438.full.pdf+html…...

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