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Naturalism

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NATURALISM
INTRODUCTION
Naturalism is considered as the oldest philosophy in the western world. Naturalism is a philosophical position adopted by the naturalists, whose approach to philosophy is purely from scientific point of view. Naturalists believe that nature alone represents the entire reality and is there beyond or behind other than nature. For naturalists, nature is everything and nothing exists superior than nature. So they separate nature from God and allot no space for supernaturalism and spiritualism. They also believe that all our activities are initiated by our instincts. Naturalism stresses the need to return to nature from artificiality. It is also concerned with natural self and believes that reality and nature are identical and beyond nature there is no reality .With the help of physical and chemical laws, naturalism explains the universe, the physical world, life and mind. This nature is governed by its own laws and man is regarded as the child of nature. It considers matter as superior to spirit and gives importance to scientific methods of observation and verification.
MEANING OF NATURALISM
The term naturalism, by its ordinary meaning, means ism laying emphasis nature in every field of education. Naturalism is a system which follows exclusion of whatever is spiritual, or indeed whatever is transcendental of experience from our philosophy of nature and man. Naturalism is a doctrine that separates nature from god, subordinates sprit to matter and setup unchangeable laws as supreme. According to naturalism, ‘material world is the real world”. Naturalism is concerned with ‘natural self’ or ‘real self’. According to naturalists, human life is a part of nature; it is a self-sufficient entity having its own natural matter, natural forces and natural laws. It emphasis on ‘matter and physical world’. It does not believe in spirituality and supernaturalism.
HISTORY OF NATURALISM
In the history of philosophy of education naturalism is also as old as idealism. The most ancient form of naturalism was presented by Democritus (460 – 360 BC) in the form of atomistic naturalism. In Greece, Democritus explained the composition of universe in terms of innumerable, individual and indestructible atoms. This materialistic explanation of the world was the ground of naturalism in eductation.This theory was partly amended by Epicurus (341-270BC) this atomistic naturalism in the West. But it is not the basis of modern naturalism as a philosophy of education.
On training the development of Naturalism from earliest times, the material elements of nature inspired man from the very beginning to trunk. Thailles thought water as the original source of all the world. Anaksimader accepted fire, water and air as immortal elements. Vedas also thought these immortal elements very seriously Indian people began to workship as divine these elements of fire,earth,water,air and sky and in this way, Greek and Indian philosophy reflects in more or less degree the fundamentals of Naturalism.
Though Naturalism is a very old philosophy, it had been introduced into realm of education during the eighteenth century, people began to realize that man is essentially free and his ultimate good lay in the lap of nature. Hence, revolutionary fire began to spread in whole Europe to free the common man strange hold of dictatorship and absolutism. These revolutionary ideas took their roots from the thirteenth and fourteenth century as movements of reformation and renaissance which often took the shape of other reformatory movements.
Thomas Hobbs in seventeenth century described nature as an aggregate of things moving from one place to another.
The revolution broke out in France was in its full fury and its main actors were Voltaire and Rousseau. This philosophical thinker raised a banner of revolt against Louis xiv.Voltarie raised his voice against intellectual repression and imposed discipline whereas Rousseau inspired people’s cry of liberty, equality and fraternity in the field of political rights.
Voltaire’s rationalism eventually turned into the formal movements.
J.J.Rousseau in his Emile describes the education of a child is close to nature. Nature yields all the good things, but the society of man grasps them and prevents them to evil ends.
Later in 19th century Herbert Spencer used the word ‘force’ to describe the reality.
CHEIF EXPONENTS OF NATURALISM * Democritus (460 -360 BC) * Epicurus (435-355 BC) * Bacon(1562 -1626AD) * J.A.Comenius(1529 -1670AD) * Rousseau(1712-1778 AD) * Herbert Spencer(1820 -1903 AD) * Huxley(1825 -1895 AD)
The other exponents are Bernard Shaw, George Hayward, Jay Ce, James Ward, Ralph Barton Perry, Darwin, MC Dougall, Lamarck, Thomas Hobbs, and Tagore.
DEFINITION
Naturalism is a system whose salient characteristic is the exclusion of whatever is spiritual or indeed, whatever is transcendental (supernatural) of experience from our philosophy of nature and man. - George Hayward Joyce

Naturalism is the doctrine that separates nature from God, subordinates spirit to matter and sets up unchangeable laws as supreme. - James Ward
It is a philosophical generalization of science; the application of the theories of science to the problems of philosophy. –Ralph Barton Perry Naturalism is an attitude rather than a specific system of philosophy. -Dr Premnath
Naturalism is not science but an assertion about science .More specifically it is the assertion that scientific knowledge is final, leaving no room for extra-scientific or philosophical knowledge. –R B Perry Naturalism is a term loosely applied in educational theory to systems of training that are not dependent on schools but on the manipulation of actual life of the educated. -JS Ross
PRINCIPLES OF NATURALISM * Child centered education
In naturalist point of view, prime importance has to be given to the child than the teachers and others. This is the major contribution of naturalism to the education system. The present day education system is neither teacher centered nor subject matter centered but child centered only. Today, teacher’s role is limited to a facilitator of learning. * Education as the natural development of the child’s power and capacities
Education pattern should coincide with the natural development and learning capacity of the child. To achieve this, education has to be planned accordingly to the laws of growth and development. * Negative education in early childhood
In the early life of a child, simple persuasion is enough to initiate learning instead of forcing him to learn. This simple persuasive way of initiating learning instead of using force is known as negative education. * Education should be based on child’s psychology
This principle the needs for considering individual differences among the students. Individual differences is there is there in intelligence, tempertandrums and emotions among the students should be identified and taken in to account while implementing the educative process. The principle is very much appreciated by the modern edcationists.In these present days the validity of the educative process is determined it meets the needs of the students. * The role of teacher should be that of a guide
This principle is somewhat similar to the child centered education. Instead of passively transferring knowledge, the teacher has to arrange an environment with necessary opportunities and materials required for the personnel development of the child and guide the child as and when needed. Qualities like love, sympathy and understanding for the child and essential for good teaching .Thus the child should take an active role in the teaching-learning process than the teacher.

The fundamental principles that explain the nature and scope and implications are:

*According to naturalism, material world is the real world * Mind is subordinate to matter.
*Values are created in terms of specific needs.
*Nature alone is the source of all knowledge.
*All real values exist in nature –in living close to nature.
*There is no possibility of any ‘supernatural being’
*The individual is always given precedence.
*Man creates societies only to meet some of his needs.
*All the capacities of an individual human being are delimited by his nature.
*The ultimate reality is of matter. God, Soul, Mind.
*The heaven and hell, freedom of will, moral values, prayers and superhuman wonders are all illusions.
*Thoughts depend on physical circumstances. They are activated only when some external stimuli affect the body organ of an individual.
*The true explanations of reality can be done in terms of physical sciences.

CONCEPTS AND CHARACTERSTICS OF NATURALISM

CONCEPTS OF NATURALISM

Naturalism is a distinct philosophy according to which reality and nature are identical and that beyond nature there is no reality. According to naturalism ’material world is the real world’.
It emphasizes ‘matter’ as the physical world. It is absolute and real. It does not believe in sentimentalism, spiritualism and supernaturalism. Naturalism believes that nature alone contains normal and the only final answers to all philosophical problems. The changes in the life of man and his physical conditions are due to scientific discoveries and inventions of machines and mechanical devices which promote all sorts of comforts. Naturalism is concerned with ‘natural self or real self’. They also believe that nature is governed by its own laws and man is regarded as child of nature.

CHARACTERSTICS OF NATURALISM

* Nature is the ultimate reality. * No distinction between mind and body. * It follows inductive method. * It works on scientific knowledge. * Values are resident in nature. * Man is an offspring of nature. * Senses are the gateways of knowledge. * Laws of nature are unchangeable and the whole universe is governed by them.

FORMS OF NATURALISM

Naturalism as a philosophic doctrine has three distinct forms: 1. Physical naturalism 2. Mechanical naturalism 3. Biological naturalism

PHYSICAL NATURALISM

This form believes that the laws of physical nature govern the laws of human life. Reality does not exist within the individual. It is rather outside him, in the natural universe. Tagore calls ‘nature’ as the manuscript of the god .Since human life is molded and controlled by external nature, it should be in accordance with the natural laws. Such a philosophy throws man in to the background and as such, it had not influenced educational theory and practice. MECHANICAL NATURALISM

This form regards man as a mere machine .There is no sprit or soul. Only matter is everything. Mind is also a matter. Matter keeps on moving and changing and this change is governed by the laws of physical science. Man is also matter. He is mere machine, governed by mechanical laws. He has no creative capacity, purpose, or direction. This philosophy, therefore aims at training man as a good machine and keeping it in good working conditions.

BIOLOGICAL NATURALISM

This form of the lower form of life from which he has evolved. According to this philosophy, body which he has is common with other animals, is the real man.Man’s natural endowments, including his instinct emotions and temperanment are the real springs of his behavior. Education should try to sublimate these natural impulses for socially desirable ends. In this form of naturalism which has made the most significant contribution to the development of educational theory and practice.

NATURALISM AND EDUCATION CHARACTERSTICS OF NATURALISTIC EDUCATION

The following are the characteristics of naturalistic education:

* Back to nature
Out of the three essential factors of education namely nature, man and objects. Naturalism gives prime importance to nature. To develop the child according to his natural environment. In the eighteenth century, the environment of educational institutions was very much artificial. Hence Rousseau decided to educate his imaginary child ‘Emile’in the lap of nature. And Rousseau empathetically declares “All things are good as they come from the hands of the author of nature, everywhere they generate in the hands of man” as the first sentence of his famous book Emile and Education. * Opposition to bookish knowledge
Naturalistic education is its opposition to mere academic knowledge and verbalism of books. Naturalists opposed this education calling it artificiality, snowberry and mere show. They emphasized real education to be according to the nature of child through natural interests and activities. To the education, even the early childhood should be self-learning or learning by doing. * Progressive The third characteristic of Naturalistic education is that education should be progressive. As such, more a more knowledge used to be forced down into the mind of child to prepare him to face the problems of adult life; this was thought as cruel and unjust behavior towards child by the Naturalist. They believe that as a child, he is a dynamic individual and develops gradually. Education should meet the needs and develop the capacity to solve the children should be children should be children before they are men. If we seek to pervert the order, we shall produce fruits without ripeness and flavor.

* Negative Education The fourth characteristic is negative education.J.S.Ross says that a negative education does not mean a time of idleness far from it.It does not inculcate truth, it protects from error. It disposes the child to take the path that will lead him to truth when he has reached to understand it, and goodness, when he had acquired the faculty of recognizing and loving it.

* Central Position of child
The fifth characteristic of naturalistic education is to put the child at the center of educational process. Naturalists believe that education is for child, so it should be so organized that child learns by his own activities, observations and experiences. * Freedom of the child
The sixth characteristic of naturalistic education is to allow full freedom to the child to develop himself according to his natural tendencies. The child should be put under no restraints, no interferences, no difficulties and no confusions. * Emphasizes on the training of senses Naturalistic education emphasizes the training of senses. Nothing is acquired by force from outside senses are the gate way of knowledge, and this needs training to discharge their function with efficiency. According to Rousseau education should prepare the way for reason by the proper exercise of senses.

CONTRIBUTION OF NATURALISM TO EDUCATION

1. Naturalism and aims of education

The aims of education, as advocated by different naturalist are: * Self-expression While idealism has emphasized ‘self-realization’ as the main aims of education, naturalism lays stress on self-expression and self-perseveration. Education should acquaint of a person with law of health, enable him to earn living and train him to preserve and maintain life. * Redirection and sublimation of instincts
In man, instincts are the guiding force and the basis of all human contact. It is therefore that the aim of education should be redirected and submission of these instincts, towards socially useful work. Fulfillment of individual and social needs through nature is the main aim of education. Since instincts being the guarding force behind all human conduct, if developed improperly the child becomes self-directed. Hence through education the instincts are to be redirected for achieving socially desirable results.

* Self-preservation:
In naturalistic point of view self-security or self-preservation is an unavoidable aspect in life and education should enable the child to develop these qualities, self-preservation is the power to be ourselves but, it is not self-centered. Self-preservation involves a sense of direction and helps us to identify the right direction in life. * Struggle for existence:
Naturalistic say that individual child may have to face several painful and stress laden situation in the world. Hence education must equip the individual to struggle for existence and ensure his survival should help children to adjust themselves, physically and mentally to their environment and to the changing circumstances of life. * Education according to nature:
While educating the child, his whole nature i.e. tendencies developmental status, capacities, instincts, like and dislikes should be considered. Education should aim in providing full opportunity for the development of natural endowments of the child. The outen of physical nature supplies the laws of learning. * Prefect development of individuality:
According to some naturalists, prefect development of individual is the supreme aim of education. It should aim at developing the child into joyous, rational balanced, useful and mature person.
Though most of the aim matches with the aims of modern education. It ignores the spiritual side of the child’s personality by omitting the development of his will, conscience and mortality. 2. Naturalism and curriculum: Naturalists maintain a unique view regarding the curriculum. They do not advocate a fixed curriculum. Every child has the right to determine his own curriculum. He is expected to learn directly from nature through personal experiences. They believe that subjects like physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, geography, history, mathematics should be taught to children with special importance to experiences. These subjects should be correlated with the life around the child so that he can acquire most of the knowledge from the natural setting itself. Rousseau’s curriculum for Emile, is based on the principle of negative education which demands the greatest possible freedom for the child in his movements and activities, when applied to intellectual education, it means the absence of verbal lesson, bookish knowledge or any other positive studies. 3. Naturalism and methods of teaching:
Naturalism supports child centered teaching method. Learning takes places by doing. Teaching methods are chosen according to the age, intelligence, interest and activity of the learning. * Learning by doing
Naturalist is not in favour of direct teaching through lecture or textbooks. They advocate the direct experience of things and believe in principle of ‘learning by doing’. Rousseau says ‘Give to your pupil no verbal lesson’. They should be taught experience alone. Book knowledge should be as little as possible. * Play way method
The naturalist’s advocates play way as another important method of imparting education. Its underlying principle is that all learning should takes place in spirit and by methods of creative education. The main features of play are spontaneous effort and free interest. This approach enhances the quality of teaching by offering elements of freedom, interest, reality and spontaneity. * Observation and experimentation
Observation is regarded as a direct experience and yielding method when employed by a talented teacher. Observation simplifies the learning process and helps the student in retaining the learned skills and facts. As naturalism believes in conducting experiments children has to be provided with practical experience. * Self-education and self-effort
This is the classical contribution of naturalism. They also emphasis open air schools, self-governments in schools and the establishment of co-education in educational institutions. Self-government gives direct experience of social life while coeducation helps in development of right type of family and community life. This concept of self-education has motivated the modern educationists to consider education as a lifelong process. 4. Naturalism and discipline
Naturalism favours total freedom and oppose punishment or external discipline. Rousseau believes that child should be allowed to face the natural consequences of his actions and this exposure to consequences will naturally result in the development of self-discipline. The extreme or external discipline is not desirable as it stands in the way of the child’s natural development .Free discipline may be applicable, as naturalists give utmost freedom to the child to do and learn whatever he likes, they do not advocate any sort of punishment for the child expect that he is allowed to support the natural consequences of his actions .For regulating the conduct of students, naturalists have evolved the concept of student self-government in tune with the demand of a democrative society. 5. Naturalism and Teacher In naturalism, the teachers place is “behind the scene,’. He is a spectator or an observer of the child’s development rather than a giver of information, ideals, ideas and will power or a molder of character .He is not to interfere with the activities of his pupils or to dictate to them what they have to do. According to naturalistic concept a teacher is only ‘a setter of the stage, a supplier of materials conditions conducive to the natural development of pupils’ and when needed by the teacher is adopts the role of director or facilitator. This exactly the role of a teacher that has been advocated in almost all the modern schemes of education although we know that under no system of education ,we can dispense with this services.

WEAKNESS OF NATURALISM IN EDUCATION * Naturalism in its extreme form neglects books and other media. It is very difficult to assume that we neglect the vast quantities of printed materials. * Physical nature alone is not sufficient to provide education, since it is not the power which can be used to control and direct education since it is not the power which can be used to control and direct education or any other human endeavor. * The simplicity of naturalistic educational practices may not be possible in urban areas, since it is difficult to find naturalistic surroundings for locating educational institutions. * Absolute freedom to child is a myth. It cannot exist. Child cannot be allowed the freedom to hang himself. * Naturalism ignores the higher ends of educational process since no constructive suggestions to offer regarding a goal for educative effort. * Naturalism assigns very little importance to the teaching in the educative process.

NATURALIST –TENDENCIES IN EDUCATION * Naturalism has been a great force in bringing about ‘renaissance’ in education. As a protest against the rigidity and formality of school education. Naturalistic form of education presents a refreshing humanistic attitude for learning and methods of instruction. * The naturalistic movement in education brings to forefront the importance of the recognition of the child in the process of education. This gave the child a place of ‘hero’ in the drama of education. * Madam Montessori AS Neill’s school at summer hills, Froebel’s kinder garden and Tagore’s santinikethan follows the naturalistic philosophy and principles of naturalism. * Psychologists like Stanly Hall, Piaget and others have emphasized the child’s dynamic nature which grows and develops in distinct stages, with each stage having its own characteristics. * Naturalism ushered in the psychological movements and formed the basis of child centered education, stressing freedom, initiative, spirituality and self-expression in learning.

CRITICISM OF NATURALISM

The contribution that naturalism made to education is evident but there is certain element that was difficult to accept, all such difficulties were used to criticize naturalism on following grounds: * Confused conception of the aims of education Most educationalists find it difficult to accept the aims of education by naturalism.Evolutioists believe that the aims of education are biological development, while Spencer specifies it as self-preservation. Some evolutionists have ascribed more comprehensive aims to education but even this do not include everything. * Too much emphasis upon the present
The evolutionists places more emphasizes upon the present than upon the future. Though infancy plays a significant period in life , the same individual in later life have to face the responsibility of earning his livelihood, creating a family, supporting it can be made desirable only if he is educated and prepared for it .To become a useful citizen of society, he should be taught his responsibilities and to fulfill them. The present has its importance but up to a certain extent it is definitely a preparation for future.

* Many explanations of Nature The concept of Nature differs from one naturalist to another. Some interpret it in sense of physical nature while other take it to mean human nature .Very few evolutionists have placed emphasis upon spiritual nature ,and for that reason realism separates itself so much from idealism, although both want education to conform to human nature. * Defects in the theory of instincts
Evolutionists believe that the child is possessed of some instincts, and they want education to aim at the development of these, but modern psychology does not accept the theory of instinct and specifies that it is well-nigh impossible to understand human nature after abstracting it from cultural environment. Consequently it is not easy to interpret what meant by an education according to instinct. * Isolation of man from environment
Whenever the evolutionist or naturalist talk of adjustment of maturity, his argument often implies a total isolation from the physical or natural environment, as it has no influence upon man without an interaction with the environment no development is possible besides, as soon as the human being reacts with the environment, the later itself undergoes the immediate change .

* Adaptation requires man’s subordination to environment
It is accepted that man can change in his environment to a very great extent, but he cannot be believed to be independent of it while interacting with it. Such an interaction demands some subordination from the individual. On the other hand, when adaptation is accepted as the aim by the evolutionists, it is often forgotten that struggle has its own significance and value in process of growth * Defects in the conception of evolution The naturalist is an evolutionist but he often forgets that it is difficult to accept man’s evolution from the animal stage. Evolutionists also failed to explain the fact of mutation the biological explanation of evolution cannot be applied to the social and spiritual development this is what the evolutionists have frequently attempted. Social evolution differs from biological evolution in that it combines conflict with co-operation * Limits of free development of the individuals Naturalist believes in the free development of the individual but the question of is man independent and can be exist when completely independent of nature and society? In certain situations, much can be gained by becoming one’s own individuality. In order to rise above the conflict between the individual and society, it is necessary to believe that man is not only individual, but also universal to very great extent * Defects of hedonism The application of naturalistic principles to ethics leads to the creation of hedonism .Spencer established the school of evolutionary Hedonism, according to which the aim of life is not maximum good of the maximum number, but the preservation of life and of social health, implying social balance. Right and wrong are measured by the extend of happiness. Many arguments have been given to refute this Hedonistic principle. Since the biological and moral worlds differ from the each other, the rules of conduct cannot be derived from the history of social conduct .Happiness does not always promote health, neither does misery invariably destroy it.In ethics a concept is defined not by its origin but by its objective, synthesis is not based on ideals. Morality, to be not an adventitious element of moral consciousness. Many evolutionists have themselves refuted Hedonism as an ethical philosophy. As Rusk puts it “According to this doctrine there is no moral law, no place for duty sake: self-sacrifice would be utter foolishness; one’s own selfish satisfaction is the greatest good.” * Defects in education through natural Consequences
Naturalism wants to leave the child to the natural consequences of education, on the presumptions that he will naturally learn the consequences of his own actions. It is neither proper nor very human to accept this principle of natural consequences. According to T.H.Huxley, Nature’s discipline is not even a word and a blow, and the blow first; but the blow without the word. It is left to you to find out why you ears are boxed .People commit mistakes without ever being punished for them. Hence, the child cannot be educated merely by natural results. He also cannot be allowed to completely take the initiative. it is desirable to explain certain causal relationship in order to prevent mistakes. * Negative principle In fact the evolutionist or naturalist theory is negative because it admits the propriety of an action as long as one can evade the consequences of that action. If this principle is applied to social activity then it will negate the possibility of achieving any ideal * Negative of all human characteristics
Influenced by the concept of evolution, naturalists believe that man possesses many qualities that animals do not possess. Man is not merely conscious but self-conscious. Recall is a quality found in human beings many characteristics of the human mind differ from the nervous system of animals. Man is a rational animal, the only living being capable of thinking * Many interpretations of naturalism
The term naturalism has been open to several interpretations. It is often accepted to be a reaction against dogmatism and artificiality but it is also transformed into positivism, which has faith in science and later in to the hedonism. The naturalists themselves differ in each other in their ideas to a greater extent. Ideas put forth by Rousseau are also not palatable to the naturalists.

COMPARISON OF NATURALISM WITH IDEALISM AND PRAGMATISM | NATURALISMFundamental Principles1. Nature alone is entire reality, it is readymade.2. The outlook of the naturalist is naturalistic. 3. They do not believe in existence of God.4. Ultimate reality is physical.5. Universe is natural creation.6. They do not believe in value, soul, God, religion and divine spirit.7. Physical and natural laws are universal.Educational Principles8. Nature is the base. “Follow nature” is the slogan.Aims of Education9. The aim of education according to naturalism is self-expression.10. It emphasizes the autonomous development of the individuality.11. Adjustment to environment.Curriculum12. Emphasis is on sciences.13. Curriculum is based on the need, ability, and aptitude and on the nature of child.Discipline14. Uncontrolled freedom discipline through natural consequences.Teacher’s Role15. Teacher role is from behind the scene.16. Teacher is not to interfere in the child’s activities. | IDEALISM1. Mind and thought are real.2. The outlook of idealist is spiritual.3. Believe in the existence of God. 4. Ultimate reality is spiritual.5. Universe has been created by God.6. Eternal spiritual values never change. Truth goodness and beauty are eternal values.7. Spiritual laws are universal.8. Spirituality is the base Emphasis is on the spiritual and moral environment.9. The aim of education according to idealism is self-realization.10. It aims at spiritual development.11. Presentation and enrichment of cultural environment.12. Emphasis is on ethics and study of humanity.13. Based on moral, spiritual and intellectual values.14. Emphasis on regulated freedom and self-discipline.15. Teacher’s position is very high. They have high expectations.16Teacher guides, directs, suggest and controls the situation. | PRAGMATATISM1. Reality lies in its process; it is still in making, not ready made.2. The outlook of a pragmatist is social.3. Pragmatist believes in existence of God to an extent.4. Ultimate reality is utility.5. Universe has been created by man.6. According to them values are changeable and are created by man.It is relative to time, place and circumstance.7. No laws are universal.8. Society is the base. Emphasis is on physical and social environment.9. The aim of education according to pragmatism is dynamic in nature.10. It aims at social efficiency.11. Adjustment with present and to change the present.12. Emphasis is on practical utilarian subjects.13. Based on the principle of utility, integration and child’s natural interests and experience.14. Restricted freedom and social discipline.15. Teacher occupies an important place in education.16. Teacher puts the pupil in the position of a discover or experimenter. |

CONCLUSION Naturalism, as a philosophy of education, advocates maximum freedom for the child and further stresses in freeing the child from a rigid, interference and strict environment. They believe that children’s learning should originate from direct sensory experience in their immediate environment rather than with verbalism such as lectures, preaching and books. Naturalism is “the idea or belief” that only natural laws and forces operates in world; the idea and belief that nothing exists beyond the natural world. The naturalists assert these natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Books * Pramila.R.Nursing Communication and Educational Technology,1st edn.Bengalure:Jaypee brothers,2010 P 145 -147 * Neeraja K.P.Textbook of Nursing Education.1stedn.Newdelhi:Jaypee brothers pvt.Ltd;2003 P 19-23 * Sankararanarayanan. B .Learning and Teaching Nursing.4thedn.Newdelhi:Jaypee brothers pvt Ltd;2012 P 25 -28 * Aggarwal J C.Theory and Principles of Education.13edn.Newdelhi:Vikas publishers 2010 P 67 -69 * Shrivastava K K.Philosophical Foundation of Education.1stedn.Newdelhi:Kanishka publishers;2005 P 67 -98 * Sharma R N Philosophy and Sociology of Education.1stedn.Newdelhi:Surjeet publishers 66 – 94 * I Clement.Textbook on communication and educational technology.1stedn.Banglore:Emmess Medical Publishers;2008 P 128 -129

Journals * Willem A de Vries,Naturalism the Autonomy of Reason and Pictures.International Journal of Philosophical studies.2010,vol 18(3) P 395 -413 * Geoff Childers.What’s wrong with the evolutionary argument against Naturalism.International Journal of Philosophy of Religion.2011.vol69(3) P 193-204 * Collin W.Evers.Naturalism and Philosophy of Education.International Journal of Philosophical studies.1987.vol 9 P 11 -21.…...

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Naturalism

...Thomas Dobson Professor Perez Literature 221 25 August 2013 Naturalism When must people think of naturalism they think of nature, and people who love the nature. That is not what naturalism is when it comes to literature. Naturalism is where the character in a story are caught in the forces of nature, and they have no control of their situation. Both Stephen Crane and Jack London did a great job with their short stories when portraying the writing style of naturalism. “The Open Boat” by Stephen Crane four men are on a boat when bad weather approaches them. They have to work together in order to survive this. In “To Build a Fire” by Jack London a man is at war with everything that the nature is putting in his path. He has no control at what is being thrown at him. The short story “To Build a Fire” by Jack London is about a man trying to escape death. The man is in Alaska, and decides to go on a walk with his dog. He is new to the area, and does not understand how bad the conditions really are. The man is supposed to meet up with a few friends at six o’clock. It starts getting colder, and the conditions are starting to worsen. The man falls down, and the snow gets him wet all the way up to his knees. So, he starts a fire to dry himself off, but the ice falls from a tree and kills the fire. He is not able to build another fire. By this point he is beginning to become frostbitten. He has a plan to kill his dog, and stuff his hands inside the dog to rebuild his......

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Naturalism

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