Premium Essay

Neuroscience

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By aiciny
Words 624
Pages 3
Name: Mandique, Ynicia Rancy M.
Date: August 20, 2012.

Thinking About Thinking: Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions:

1. Describe some of the evidence regarding the phenomena of priming and preconscious perception. Answer: Priming does not have to be visual. Priming effects ca ne demonstrated using aural material as well. Experiments exploring auditory priming reveal the same behavioral effects as visual priming. Using neuroimaging methods, investigators have discovered that similar brain areas are involved in both types of priming.

2. Why are habituation and dishabituation of particular interest to cognitive psychology? Answer: Dishabituation is the recovery of responding to a change in the environment (e.g., you may no longer wake to the sound of traffic outside your room, but if an accident occurs outside your window you'll likely get up). Habituation and dishabituation allow researchers to assess how much the infant understands about her/his world. Recall that habituation is a very simple type of learning that refers to the gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetition (e.g., after a few sleepless nights of living near a busy intersection, you probably will no longer wake up to noisy traffic).
3. Compare and contrast the theories of visual search described in this chapter. Choose one of the theories of attention and explain how the evidence from signal detection, selective attention, or divided attention supports or challenges the theory.

Answer: Feature-integration theory explains the relatives ease of conducting feature searches and the relative difficulty of conducting conjunction searches. Consider Treisman’s (1986) model of how our minds conduct visual searches. For each possible feature of a stimulus, each of us has a mental map for representing the given feature…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Psychology Chapter 2: Neuroscience & Behavior

...Chapter 2: Neuroscience & Behavior * Neurons * Nervous system cells * Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form * Types: * Motor- signals muscles to relax and contract * Sensory- conveys information to the brain * Interneurons- communicates information from one neuron to the next * Parts of Neurons * Dendrite- receives information from other cells * Soma (Cell Body)- contains the nucleus * Axon: carries information * Glial Cells * Another cells in the nervous system * Outnumber Neurons * Provide Nutrition * Structural Support * Aid in Neural Transmission * Remove Waste * Produce Myelin Sheath * Myelin Sheath * A white fatty covering wrapped around axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed * Damage to the Myelin related to Multiple Sclerosis * Node of Ranvier * The “naked” portion of the axon between myelin sheaths * Communication within Neurons * Action Potential- a brief electrical impulse transmitting information along the axon of a neuron * Action potential travels along axon of presynaptic neuron; triggers release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles * Axon membrane is semi-permeable * The axon membrane opens and closes ion channels that allow ions to flow into and out of the axon * Ions-......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Neuroscience

...Neuroscience Leadership Aleksander Varga USASMA Abstract In the last decade scientists have made huge progress in the neuroscience field, which has had a tremendous impact on leadership development studies. Knowledge gained through brain observation helps us to understand how the brain responds during certain activities and how some processes in the brain are connected to each other. One important part of our brain is the limbic system, a primitive system responsible for our long term memory, how we build relationships, and how we create patterns based on experiences. Another important part is the prefrontal cortex, which is evolutionarily younger than the limbic system and responsible for more sophisticated processes in our brain, such as our working memory with which we plan, react and judge. Connection between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex determines our response to certain situations. If we know that the brain cannot use both with the same power in certain situations, and that our brain is plastic and has the ability to change if influenced by certain exercises, this could be very useful information for leaders. We can use this knowledge to improve many fields from how to build empathy to how to change our and others’ behavior in accordance to make better organization, which will consequently make us better leaders. Neuroscience Leadership Leadership is probably as old as humanity. As a matter of fact, we can find some sort of leadership also......

Words: 2101 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Behavioral Neuroscience Notes Usc

...Lecture 6 70% = lecture 30% = book Medial temporal lobe/medial temporal cortex Divided into two parts = cortex and subcortex Cortex • Perirhinal cortex o Peri means next to or surrounding o Colatoral sulcus = humans. Rinal sulcus = rats • Enorhinal cortex • Parahippocampal cortex o Para = next to. Thus next to hippocampus Subcortical • Hipocampus • Amygdala In textbooks etc. they sometimes use the more general term vs. specific i.e. say medial temporal cortex when they mean perirhinal cortex. Medial diencephalon • Thalamus • Hypothalamus Sense of smell goes to parahippocampal and enorhinal cortex Wilder Penfield To do experiment = only remove a little bit of a tissue. Permanent window = remove bone forever. Or bone flaps, cut 3 sides and crack a hinge so that they can see under. Tissue is already damaged Bone has an arterial structure in it. Arrest response = stopping response = then you know you want to stay away from this area, i.e. when the patient stops talking etc. Stimulating parts of the brain: 1/3 sensory reports 1/3 dejavu like experiences 1/3 actual memories you can stimulate any part of the cortex and evoke a memory. Also makes a difference of where it was Area especially rich for evoking memories was in the temporal lobe This is also where epileptic fits happened in many people. Where neurons fired rapidly and incoherently. Then eventually starts spreading. Locus/loci spontaneously causing epileptic......

Words: 1971 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Fluidity of Nueroscience

...The Fluidity of Neuroscience Gender Norms & Racial Bias in the Study of the Modern "Neuroscience" Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine and allied disciplines, philosophy, physics, and psychology. The term neurobiology is usually used interchangeably with the term neuroscience, although the former refers specifically to the biology of the nervous system, whereas the latter refers to the entire science of the nervous system. The scope of neuroscience has broadened to include different approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, and medical aspects of the nervous system. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual nerve cells to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks. Given the increasing number of scientists who study the nervous system, several prominent neuroscience organizations have been formed to provide a forum to all neuroscientists and educators. For example, the International Brain Research Organization was founded in 1960, the International......

Words: 2664 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Cognitive Psychology

...Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience Evolutionary Psychology – ISSN 1474-7049 – Volume 5(1). 2007. -233- Keywords: evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, modularity, evolved cognitive adaptations ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ Introduction Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience (ECN) integrates comparative neuroscience, archeology, physical anthropology, paleoneurology, cognitive primatology, evolutionary psychology, and cognitive, social and affective neuroscience in an effort to identify and describe the neural mechanisms that have been forged by selection pressures during human evolutionary history that define the human mind, as well as identify comparative neural mechanisms for cognition. In its simplest form, evolutionary cognitive neuroscience is the merging of the fields of evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience using methodology from both disciplines and guidance from evolutionary meta-theory. In this coalescence, the identification of neural substrates of psychological adaptations is paramount. A recent volume (Platek, Keenan, and Shackelford, 2007) presents the first comprehensive overview of this emerging discipline, which is briefly reviewed here (see also Platek and Shackelford, under contract). This article consists of three major sections: 1) historical antecedents to and current state of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, 2) a brief introduction to methods available to the......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Docx

...known as behaviorism, focusing on the observation of people's behaviors. * Humanistic psychology, led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, countered behaviorism during this period by focusing on the personal growth and well-being of people. * In the 1960's, psychology shifted back towards a focus on how the brain approaches information. Recently, cognitive neuroscience studies how brain activity causes mental activity. * To combine the study of both the internal mental activities and observable human behaviors, psychology became the science of behavior and mental processes. TERMS * ------------------------------------------------- cognitive neuroscience  An academic field concerned with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates of mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modelling. * ------------------------------------------------- behaviorism  An approach to psychology focusing on behavior, denying any independent significance for the mind, and assuming that behavior is determined by theenvironment. *......

Words: 2537 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Perceptions of Brain Based Learning

...Running Head: PERCEPTIONS OF BRAIN-BASED LEARNING 2 Brain-based learning theory has devised a new discipline known by some as educational neuroscience, or by others as mind, brain, and education science (Duman, 2010). It is a broad and comprehensive approach to instruction using current research from neuroscience. Brain-based education emphasizes the manner in which the brain learns naturally and is based on what is currently known about the structure and function of the human brain. This theory is a concept that includes an eclectic mix of teaching techniques. BBL practices call for teachers to connect learning to students’ real lives and emotional experiences, as well as combining strategies like problem based and mastery learning and considers learning styles of individual students. Opponents of brain-based learning strategies argue that neuroscience alone cannot provide usable knowledge that translates into positive teaching strategies (Clement & Lovat, 2008). However, teachers and researchers who are implementing, and testing BBL strategies, contend that a working knowledge of neural functioning is paramount as educators look for successful ways to address individual learning needs. Balil Duman ((2010) shares that several educators and brain researchers have conducted and produced research that reveals that individuals learn in different ways thus multi-dimensional teaching models should be used to transmit information to students. Caine and......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Neuroscience Is the Study of the Human Nervous

...Neuroscience is the study of the human nervous system, the brain, and the biological basis of consciousness, perception, memory, and learning. The nervous system and the brain are the physical foundation of the human learning process. Each of our brain cells can grow up to 20 dendrites, which store millions of pieces of information. These dendrites also affect our acquisition and loss of behaviors. Neuroscience links our observations about cognitive behavior with the actual physical processes that support such behavior. It is currently theorized that the cortex of the human brain is made up of two sides: the left "scholastic brain"; and the right "creative brain". Each side is joined by a corpus callous which sends millions of messages between the left and right sides. The more you use both sides together, the easier it is to learn. These messages make up the construct we call learning, and when engaging in reading, a students' brain uses both sides. Counselors who can find a way to stimulate these cortexes can help facilitate Therapy in clients. Cognitive neuroscience is a relatively new field of research, and as it is further explored, more educational implications of this field will certainly develop. At its most basic, learning is the process of acquiring memory, but complex neurological processes must take place to transfer newly acquired information to the long-term memory bank, where it can be stored for later use in novel ways. The brain actually has multiple memory......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Brains Neuroscience

...eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Neuroscience

...1. Why are MeCP2 mutations always sporadic rather than hereditary? (2 marks) The mutations of the MeCP2 gene are sporadic rather than hereditary because a female child with Rett syndrome will usually die at a very young age, however, if they also have a normal gene they may live longer but no family history has been found to be connected to RTT. The rare male who has RTT will die before or shortly after birth; therefore this disorder cannot be hereditary. Add notes from last weeks lecture 2. Contrast the genetic cause of Rett syndrome as compared to schizophrenia. Explain your answer in general terms, address the relative involvement of genes and environment. RTT is caused by the lack of expression of MeCP2 and is sporadic. There is some evidence that schizophrenia is hereditary, and researchers have only established a few gene candidates for its cause. Another difference between RTT and schizophrenia is that RTT has an has a specific etiology, whereas schizophrenia receives a psychological diagnosis. If an individual is exposed to a mutation of the MeCP2 gene leading to RTT, they will develop this syndrome regardless of positive or negative environmental influences, on the other hand, schizophrenia appears highly influenced by environment, including stress, poor family environment and the use of marijuana. Several susceptibility genes have been indicated that may interact with environmental influences to produce schizophrenia. Add notes from last weeks......

Words: 1980 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Neuroscience: Reward Mechanisms

...Initial Market Reaction to the Deal After the deal announcement on July 28th, 1993, the market obviously reacted to both side of the acquisition. Merck Side At the announcement of the deal, the stock price of Merck fell from $17.39 to $13.06 (see graph below). At the time, the deal was not supposed to be easily digested by Merck investors. The main reason for this market reaction was the risk of antitrust review. With $9.7 billion in 1992 revenues, Merck has about 10% of the fragmented American drug market. Medco, with $1.8 billion in sales in the fiscal year that ended June 30, 1992, has about half of the mail-order drug business and 22% of those eligible for employer-financed drug benefits. Medco indeed virtually counted every major drugmaker among its suppliers, among which several were likely to object to Merck’s influence, as a matter of conflict of interest. Even if that matter would be cleared up by Merck, some of its competitors privately already took the decision to drop or cut back their dealings with Medco in case the deal was settled and thus look for alternative retailers, either as clients or as potential targets to perform vertical integration. As Wygod (Medco’s Chairman at the time) said, “some manufacturers are going to look at this as a strong competitive move, and they will perhaps tie up with other pharmacy management companies." Moreover, drug industry specialists insisted on the fact that the customer base of Medco would not be......

Words: 1069 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Neuroscience and Behavior

...PSY 102: Psychology in the Modern World Your Name: Dahiana Then Instructor: Bob Melara Your Section: C3 Fall 2015 Your TA’s Name: ** Answer the questions in your own words, Type you answers, make sure you answer all parts, print the answered homework and take it with you to your next recitation! Only the two lowest homework grades can be dropped ** Homework #2 (Neuroscience and Behavior) 1. a) What are the parts of a neuron? b) How are neural impulses generated? c) How does one nerve cell communicate with another? The human body is composed of countless cells, all obtaining a specific purpose in our bodies. One of the most important elements that contribute to the make up of the human body are neurons. A neuron is a nervous system cell, responsible for transmitting pieces of information throughout our bodies by creating messages that are relayed throughout the body. There are two main components that make up a nerve cell (neuron), those of which include the axon and dendrites. The axon of a neuron is the specific fragment (that can be long or short) of the nerve cell that is in charge of transferring messages through its branches to other parts of the human body (other nerve cells, muscles, glands). The dendrites of a neuron are the specific fragments (short fragments) that are in charge of accepting messages that are sent from other parts of the human body. The dendrites are also in charge of relaying electrical signals to......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Politics

...background of Neuroscience has encouraged me to pursue a degree in this field. The debate between the schools of philosophy and neuroscience is exceptionally interesting as it has opened up an awareness of what it means to be human. Difficulties in describing the conscience using natural sciences is perhaps the most heated of debates and research into neurotheology such as the existence of the ‘god spot’ shows how vast the subject is. The subject encompasses many of the life sciences and would allow me to gain knowledge of several different disciplines. Combining knowledge of physiology from biology and with the structure of substances learnt in chemistry provides me the rigorous scientific background that is crucial in the neuroscience course. My understanding of molecules and chemical concepts developed in ‘A’ Level Chemistry will prepare me for this degree as the same knowledge can be applied to understand how simple neurotransmitters can impact on human behaviour. In class, we undertook a module called “What’s in a medicine?” where we learnt about the importance of medicines in curing diseases. This entire unit focuses on the mechanisms of action and the clinical significance of drugs such as aspirin or penicillin. This unit links well with the pharmacology aspects of the neuroscience degree as I believe that the knowledge I have gained thus far in this topic will prepare for the concepts introduced at university level. The human biology aspect of the neuroscience......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Neuroscience Creativity

...Running head: Neuroscience of Creativity Neuroscience of Creativity Tarun Vij Woodbury University, Burbank CA. Abstract Human Brain is the most elegant gift evolution has given to life on this planet. Philosophers and scientists alike have always been curious to have an understanding of the intricacies of the human Mind . Creativity of human mind has been the key for our species progress and survival. Neuroscience is rapidly advancing to a stage where researchers can now observe the biology of our brain in detail .Decades worth of research in this field has lead scientists to now begin to map and understand inner workings of the biological circuitry of human brain . This paper presents some of the latest research findings on above. Based on these scientifically validated findings an effort is then made to get some insight into how innovative ideas originate and form businesses of the future and how that impacts our society. Running head: Neuroscience of Creativity Historically speaking creative solutions conceived and executed by human mind has resulted in exponential progress of human condition .From invention of wheel to creation of airplanes , from abacus to machines that can do logical deductions and automate tedious tasks all were a conceptual idea of this complex mass of jelly called our Brain . We can say that we are our brains , our body is just hanging along for the ride . At the dawn of twenty first century......

Words: 2685 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Behavioural Neuroscience

...BACKGROUND Biological psychology, also known as behavioral neuroscience, is defined as the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human animals. It usually looks in at the level of nerves, neurotransmitters, brain circuitry, and the basic biological processes that run hand in hand with the body's normal and abnormal instincts. Most of the time, experiments in this field of work involve non-human animal models such as rats, mice, and primates which contributes to evidence-based practice, which i suppose is somewhat rare in the general title of psychology. Biological psychology also has a strong history of contributing to the understanding of medical disorders including those that fall under the category of clinical psychology, and abnormal psychology. This certain field has contributed important therapeutic data on a variety of conditions such as parkinson's disease, huntington's disease, alzheimer's disease, clinical depression, schizophrenia, autism, and anxiety. CAREER INFORMATION: Studies in genetics, depth psychology, sociology, or environmental science may all contribute to a fundamental preparation of the field. Those hoping to enter the career should begin training at the undergraduate level, pursuing an associates or bachelors degree in any number of related fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, psychology, or pre med. Graduates of these programs may find...

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

High School Musical Trilogy DVDRip | Baixar toque para celular | Uncle Teddy season 04 episode 14