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WAREHOUSING STRATEGY AT VOLKSWAGEN GROUP CANADA
INC. (VGCA)

op yo Adam Bortolussi wrote this case under the supervision of P. Fraser Johnson solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality.
Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation prohibits any form of reproduction, storage or transmittal without its written permission.
Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation, c/o Richard Ivey School of
Business, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7; phone (519) 661-3208; fax (519) 661-3882; email cases@ivey.uwo.ca.
Copyright © 2012, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation

Version: 2012-03-05

tC

It was Tuesday, January 18, 2011, and Kym Meisner, director of warehousing and logistics at Volkswagen
Group Canada Inc. (VGCA), was reviewing a presentation by the sales and marketing team regarding the five-year growth plan for both the Volkswagen and Audi vehicle brands in Canada. In her 20 years working for VGCA, Kym had never seen such aggressive growth targets attributed to new car launches, product facelifts and expected increases in year-over-year vehicle sales volume. She had already heard concerns from Dave Cook, the warehouse manager of VGCA’s parts distribution centre in Toronto,
Ontario, regarding the limited space available in the warehouse. She wondered to herself how they could possibly make room for the inventory of additional new parts needed to supply the growing network of dealerships across the country.

No

Kym had scheduled a meeting with Dave and the other members of the warehouse team the following afternoon to work on a plan for the distribution centre. She was particularly interested in the changes, if any, that would be needed to the size and layout of the warehouse to accommodate the company’s growth plans. Kym decided to do some quick analysis to prepare for the meeting on Wednesday.
VOLKSWAGEN GROUP1

Do

The Volkswagen Group, headquartered in Wolfsburg, Germany, was one of the world’s leading automobile manufacturers and the largest carmaker in Europe. The company represented nine brands from seven European countries: Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Skoda, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, Bentley,
Bugatti, Lamborghini and Scania. Each brand had its own character and operated as an independent entity on the market. The product range extended from low-consumption small cars to luxury-class vehicles. In the commercial vehicle sector, the product offering spanned pickups, buses and heavy trucks.
1

Source: Volkswagen Group Website. http://www.volkswagenag.com/content/vwcorp/content/en/the_group.html.
December 27, 2011.

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The Volkswagen Group was a global brand that sold and distributed vehicles in 153 countries, supported by 62 production plants in 15 European countries and a further seven countries in the Americas, Asia and
Africa. Around the world, nearly 400,000 employees produced approximately 30,000 vehicles per day or were involved in other vehicle-related services.

Growth Strategy2

op yo With its nine brands, the Volkswagen Group had a presence in all important automotive markets around the world. Key sales markets included western Europe, China, Brazil, the United States, Russia and
Mexico. The company had been able to increase its market share in 2010 despite a tough economic climate and competitive marketplace. In fiscal year 2010, the Volkswagen Group delivered 7,205,094 vehicles to customers worldwide, an increase of approximately 15 per cent from 2009, thus achieving a new record for the company. The delivery figures in each of the 12 months of the reporting period were higher than in the corresponding prior-year periods, when sales had, in some cases, been negatively affected by the consequences of the financial and economic crisis. Demand for Volkswagen Group models exceeded the previous year’s demand in all models and in almost all markets. Exhibit 1 provides an overview of the deliveries to customers by market and of the respective passenger-car market shares of the Volkswagen
Group in fiscal year 2010.

tC

Much of Volkswagen’s current and future expected growth was attributed to what was termed “Strategy
2016,” which was a global strategy that had originated at the corporate level and was pushed down to each group at the country level. The key element of Volkswagen’s Strategy 2016 was to position the
Volkswagen Group as a global, economic and environmental leader among automobile manufacturers. The company expected to achieve this objective by using intelligent product innovations and technologies; paying particular attention to an environmentally friendly orientation; and by promoting a continuous focus on improving productivity, quality and customer satisfaction. The Volkswagen Group’s aim was to be the most successful and fascinating automaker in the world by 2016.
Deliveries in North America3

No

Although the growth in the passenger car market in the United States had slowed somewhat in the second half of 2010, the Volkswagen Group’s sales figures had increased by 21 per cent in 2010 from 2009 as a whole. The car models that had recorded the highest growth rates were the new Beetle, Golf, Tiguan,
Passat CC, Audi A5, Audi A6, Audi A5 Coupe and Audi Q5 models (see Exhibit 2). In Canada, deliveries to customers had increased by 16 per cent year-over-year. Particularly strong demand was recorded for the
Golf, Tiguan, Audi 4 and Audi Q5 models.
VOLKSWAGEN GROUP CANADA INC.4

Do

Parts Distribution Network

VGCA operated one Parts Distribution Centre (PDC) located in Toronto, Ontario. The PDC was also part
2

Source: Internal documents, March 30, 2011.
Source: Volkswagen Group Website, Annual Report 2010. http://www.volkswagenag.com/content/vwcorp/info_center/en/themes/2011/03/Annual_Report_2010.html, December 27,
2011.
4
Source: Internal documents, March 30, 2011.
3

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9B12D002

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of a larger North American distribution network that included seven large PDCs situated across different regions of the United States. The PDCs were responsible for storing the inventory of spare parts for distribution to dealerships across the country. These parts were used for general maintenance and repair for vehicles owned by Volkswagen customers. The PDC was not responsible for the storage and distribution of new vehicles, which were transported directly to dealerships from the Port of Halifax.

VGCA 2016 Growth Plans

op yo Of the seven U.S. PDCs, the largest was located in Newark, New Jersey, where all parts for North
American markets were received from the German manufacturers. The Newark PDC was the only PDC referred to as a slow-moving PDC, which stocked 100 per cent of Volkswagen parts. The fast-moving
PDCs, such as the one in Toronto, carried 60 to 80 per cent of the most commonly ordered stock-keeping units (SKUs). Parts not stored at the Toronto PDC could be acquired by placing a special order to the
Newark PDC, for shipment first to Toronto and subsequently to the dealer.

In the previous year, VGCA sold approximately 69,000 vehicles in Canada across both the Volkswagen and Audi brands. The sale of spare parts shipped out of the Toronto PDC to Canadian dealerships amounted to $200 million in revenue.
VGCA had aggressive plans to grow the volume of new car sales annually by 10 per cent per year over the next five years. The growth of spare parts sold to dealerships was expected to increase at this same rate.
This increase included the ability to service the demand of an additional 17 new dealerships scheduled to open in new markets across the country during this period, primarily in Ontario and British Columbia.

tC

New Vehicle Launch and Facelifts

No

VGCA’s plan included four new vehicle model launches and four new facelifts to existing models each year for the next three years for a total of 12 new vehicles and 12 facelifts (see Exhibit 3). Approximately
75 per cent of all SKUs would be kept in inventory at the fast-moving Toronto PDC. Each new vehicle model would add 3,000 new SKUs, and each new facelift would add 1,000 new SKUs. The Toronto PDC already housed more than 80,000 total active SKUs.
TORONTO PDC5
Warehouse Size

Do

The Toronto PDC was a 160,000-square-foot facility that was 400 feet in length and 400 feet in width with a 30-foot ceiling (see Exhibit 4). Typically, 20 per cent of the warehouse space was occupied by racking that was stacked to the ceiling. Wide aisles enabled staff to pick product throughout the facility. The warehouse had an additional 40,000 cubic feet of unused space in the warehouse that could be installed with new racking to store more parts.
The Toronto PDC supplied parts to 122 Volkswagen and Audi car dealerships across Canada and, at any one time, held, on average, $20 million in inventory. VGCA had a master service level agreement with the
Canadian dealerships that committed the Toronto PDC to deliver parts within 24 hours of order receipt.
5

Internal documents, March 30, 2011.

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9B12D002

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The internal service level for filling orders accurately and within 24 hours was targeted at 95 per cent.
Current service levels were at 93 per cent.
Bin Storage Requirements

op yo The racking used for storing parts in the warehouse was made up of two bin sizes. Small bins, which represented 25 per cent of the total, had a capacity of 10 cubic feet, while the large bins had a capacity of
100 cubic feet. Typically, one bin was sufficient to store as many parts as were needed for each type of
SKU. The warehouse had 80,000 total bins available, of which 64,000 bins were utilized. Kym estimated that the warehouse had capacity for an additional 16,000 SKUs to fill the remaining empty bins, but was concerned that the warehouse might not be sufficient to handle the expected SKU growth over the next five years (see Exhibit 5).
THE DECISION

As a starting point for the meeting on Wednesday, Kym wanted to first identify the capacity constraints on the Toronto PDC using a five-year time horizon and then evaluate the possible options.
Expecting that expansion would be likely, Kym identified three alternatives: Expanding the existing warehouse, building and leasing a new warehouse in a different location and outsourcing all or part of the warehouse to a third party. Each option had advantages and disadvantages that needed to be weighed carefully (see Exhibit 6).

Do

No

tC

During the meeting the following day regarding alternatives for expansion, Kym wanted to consider at least four factors. First, timing was a consideration. Kym was concerned that a long delay would compromise the Toronto PDC’s service levels. Second, any expansion would need to minimize disruptions to the existing facility. Current service levels were slightly below target, and Kym did not want to negatively affect warehouse performance in this area. Third, the Toronto PDC serviced a vast geographic region, and Kym recognized that setting up a warehouse in Western Canada might provide opportunities to improve customer service. She was concerned, however, that opening a new PDC might lead to higher inventory levels. Lastly, the final decision needed to be cost-effective. The automotive industry globally was still in a difficult period, which meant that every capital expenditure would be thoroughly scrutinized.

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9B12D002

Exhibit 1

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VOLKSWAGEN DELIVERIES TO CUSTOMERS, BY MARKET, 2009–2010
Territory

2010

Deliveries (Units)
2009

3,599,951
2,902,948
1,038,596
381,175
270,527
246,125
242,732

3,492,438
2,917,888
1,246,571
341,888
260,799
224,692
237,760

Central and Eastern Europe
Russia
Czech Republic
Poland

429,485
133,503
81,932
81,639

385,320
95,208
77,952
79,120

267,518
87,434
72,279

Share of Passenger Car Market (%)
2010
2009

13.4%
7.1%
45.6%
22.8%

13.4%
6.5%
43.7%
22.4%

189,230
49,094
52,758

41.4%
78.1%
37.0%

11.9%
19.9%

10.3%
19.3%

467,769
297,973
118,391
51,405

17.5%
20.9%
9.4%
16.2%

3.9%
3.1%
15.7%
3.8%

3.7%
2.9%
15.6%
3.5%

825,851
697,279
103,445

9.9%
4.4%
31.1%

19.6%
22.9%
24.2%

21.7%
25.4%
26.9%

1,550,261
1,400,514
53,904
19,002

38.5%
37.4%
18.7%
181.8%

9.6%
16.8%
1.5%
2.5%

8.6%
16.5%
1.4%
1.1%

6,336,319
3,954,551
949,729
684,226
336,683
4,616
1,515
361,506
43,443
50

13.7%
13.9%
15.0%
11.5%
0.8%
10.9%
-14.1%
20.5%
46.7%
-20.0%

11.4%

11.2%

tC

Asia-Pacific
China
Japan
India

11.5%
40.2%
5.1%
3.2%

2,145,787
1,924,649
63,998
53,555

South America
Brazil
Argentina

20.9%
34.2%
16.1%
11.3%
23.2%
10.1%

907,778
727,790
135,628

North America
USA
Mexico
Canada

21.0%
35.1%
17.2%
11.2%
23.8%
11.5%

549,578
360,287
129,548
59,743

Remaining Markets
Turkey
South Africa

3.1%
-0.5%
-16.7%
11.5%
3.7%
9.5%
2.1%

op yo Europe/Remaining Markets
Western Europe
Germany
United Kingdom
France
Spain
Italy

Change (%)

No

Worldwide
VW Passenger Vehicles
Audi
Skoda
SEAT
Bentley
Lamborghini
VW Commercial Vehicles
Scanta
Bugatti

7,203,094
4,502,827
1,092,411
762,600
339,501
5,117
1,302
435,584
63,712
40

Do

Source: Volkswagen Group Website, Annual Report 2010. http://www.volkswagenag.com/content/vwcorp/info_center/en/publications/2011/03/Volkswagen_AG_Geschaeftsbericht_201 0.-bin.acq/qual-BinaryStorageItem.Single.File/GB_2010_e.pdf. December 27, 2011.

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9B12D002

Exhibit 2

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Do

No

tC

op yo 2011 VOLKSWAGEN AND AUDI VEHICLE MODELS IN CANADA

Source: Volkswagen Canada Website. http://www.vw.ca/en/models.html. December 27, 2011.
Source: Audi Canada Website. http://www.audi.ca/ca/brand/en/models.html. December 27, 2011.

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9B12D002

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Exhibit 3

NUMBER OF THE VOLKSWAGEN GROUPS’ NEW MODEL LAUNCHES AND FACELIFTS FOR THE
NEXT FIVE YEARS

Year 1
4
4

New Model Launches
Facelifts

Year 2
4
4

Year 3
4
4

op yo Source: Internal documents, March 30, 2011.

Year 4
0
0

Year 5
0
0

Exhibit 4

LAYOUT OF VOLKSWAGEN GROUP CANADA’S TORONTO PARTS DISTRIBUTION CENTRE

Width: 400 feet

AA

AB

AC

AH

AJ

AK

AL

AM

CA

CB

CC

DA

DB

DE

DF

DG

DH

DK

DL

DM

EB

EC

ED

EE

EF

EG

EH

FA

Large Bin
Racking

tC

DD

Production
Small Bin
Office
Racking

Misc.
Storage

Loading Dock

Do

Maintenance
Room

Height:
30 feet

Staging Area

>>>>>>>>
> > > >

No

Length: 400 feet

Small Bin
Racking

DC

Source: Internal documents, March 30, 2011.

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9B12D002

Exhibit 5

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VOLKSWAGEN GROUP CANADA’S CURRENT BIN INVENTORY

Large Bins
Small Bins
* 1 Bin = 1 SKU Type

Occupied
16,000
48,000

Empty
4,000
12,000

op yo Source: Internal documents, March 30, 2011.

Total
20,000
60,000

Size
100 ft3
10 ft3

Exhibit 6

TIME AND COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPANSION OPTIONS FOR VOLKSWAGEN GROUP
CANADA’S TORONTO PARTS DISTRIBUTION CENTRE

Cost

6–8 months
10-Year Extension
High

Leasing a New
Warehouse

$120 per square foot 2 years
20-Year Lease
High

Outsourcing all/part of the Warehouse to a 3rd Party
$120 per square foot
Immediate
10-Year Contract
Low

tC

Time
Lease Terms
Management Control

Expanding the
Existing
Warehouse
$80 per square foot

Do

No

Source: Internal documents, March 30, 2011.

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...Memory Systems Exam PSYCH 640 October 6, 2014 Gaston Weisz   Student Name: Class: Cognitive Psychology 640 [Memory Systems Test] Achieved Score: Possible High Score: 100 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. What type of memory stores information for about 30 seconds? A. Working Memory B. Long Term Memory C. Short Term Memory D. None of the Above E. All of the Above 2. What is the estimated amount of neurons in the human brain? F. 1 Trillion G. 450 Billion H. 100 billion I. 895 million J. 1,000 trillion 3. What is the correct explanation for encoding memory? A. Encoding in psychology is taking information into the mind and coding it with brain code and storing the information for later retrieval B. Encoding memory is when memory is recalled to working memory for use and access, then returned to long term memory when the information is no longer required C. Encoding in psychology is the transformation, as well as the transfer of information into a memory system that requires selective attention which is the focusing of awareness on a particular set of stimuli or events. D. Encoding memory is when your brain applies “1’s and 0’s” to information that is collected and placed in long term memory or discarded depending on if the memory is rehearsed or discarded • True or False questions: True False 1. Can a false memory seem real and be perceived as a genuine memory? True False 2. Is long term memory controlled by the hippocampus......

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...the criteria for acknowledging a placebo effect taken for this present paper are as follows: (1) A placebo had to be given. (2) The event had to be an effect of the placebo treatment, i.e., the event would not have happened without placebo administration. (3) The event had to be relevant for the disease or symptom, i.e., it had to be a therapeutic event. Besides these three criteria there were no other prede- G. S. Kienle and H. Kiene 1312 fined criteria for the analysis. Basic medical knowledge and common sense were the only scientific tools. RESULT For 14 out of the 15 trial publications [2–16] detailed analysis was possible. (One publication [4] did not give account of the study design.) The overall result was that for none of these trials was there any reason to assume the existence of the slightest placebo effect. These studies were placebocontrolled drug trials. Although they were not carried out in order to investigate placebo effects, Beecher retrospectively attributed the improvements in the placebo groups to effects of the placebo administration. However, on the basis of the published data, in all of these trials the reported outcome in the placebo groups can be fully, plausibly, and easily explained without presuming any therapeutic placebo effect. The published data of these trials make it quite obvious that there were a variety of reasons for the reported results, such as spontaneous improvements, additional treatments, methodological......

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...distant galaxies had the features in their spectral lines shifted to lower frequencies in a linear manner: that is, more distant galaxies exhibit greater redshifts. The only known mechanism for generating a spectral shift is the Doppler effect, which means that distant galaxies are receding from us. Another dominant idea connects the dots between the big bang theory and the universe we find today called inflation. The notion that during the first roughly 10 to the minus 34 s the universe underwent exponential expansion, doubling in size at least 90 times. The big bang theory leaves several major questions unanswered. One is the original cause of the big bang itself. Several answers have been proposed to address this fundamental question, but none has been proven—and even adequately testing them has proven to be a challenge. The big bang theory has various problems or weaknesses. The first weakness is that of the horizon. The horizon problem correlates with the cosmic microwave background issue. The microwave “background” makes more sense as the limiting temperature of space heated by starlight than as the remnant of a fireball. The expression “the temperature of space” is the title of chapter 13 of Sir Arthur Eddington’s famous 1926 work. He calculated the minimum temperature which any body in space would cool to, given that it is immersed in the radiation of distant starlight. With no adjustable parameters, he obtained 3°K (later refined to 2.8°K [[5]]), essentially......

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...with a reality that isn’t changeable. This world; which is contingent; is imperfect in an aesthetic moral way. This goes after reality, because it’s awesome and unique. This phase refers back to Plato, where’s the concept, that the world is “real” and more “factual”; plus, the fantasy world we live in, as of our embodied frame of mind. Our universe has many correct forms. With relations to this, it’s hard to explain correctly; so how they’re not both in common, be kin in any other way. How can you tell from the “really real”, and the “want to be real”? You can examine the perception, which will show the lines of metaphysics realness, and not the outcome of regular skills. With skills, we find objects and forces, that are perceptional, and none perceptional; that we can keep intake. We find a universe that’s always changing. Idols are conceived, breathed, and ended. The solar system is after an agenda course as everything in it. In life, we’re models of constellations, and goes after our fate. You know everything is different because it’s in a current. Within our sense skills, this is the knowledge of oue universe. B. Is The Physical World Real, More or Less Than The Spiritual or Psychological The physical universe is more realer than either, because the physical is concerned on seeing and observing things. With the spirit you doesn’t see it, it’s what embeds the soul, and believing by faith. The psychological is within your mentality, because it causes you to imagine......

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...clinical judgment were first discussed extensively between raters and operational descriptors anchoring rating points were developed. Using selected transcripts from 10% of the sample, we computed interrater reliability using Kendall’s tau b statistic for ordinal-level items and the kappa statistic for nominal-type coding items. Items below acceptable statistical levels of agreement were reviewed and operational scale points further refined. Where acceptable agreement could not be achieved after this second round, items were dropped. Outcome was assessed using a global measure and three specific measures (Lewis & Wallerstein, 1987). Brief Literature Review Although research on children in divorced families has grown from almost none when this study started to a full library, longitudinal studies that follow the course of divorce in children to adulthood are few. We briefly note findings from studies by Amato, Cherlin, and Hetherington. All are based on large-scale sample populations in the United States or the United Kingdom. They use standardized rating scales and symptom checklists, administered either over the phone or in person to parents, teachers, and, as the child grew up, the adult child, for their findings about psychological and social outcomes. Despite differences in particulars, these and other long-term studies using these methods largely agree that there were significant but relatively small differences between adults from divorced families......

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...can we look at? 1. Purpose: to predict what’s going to happen in the future 2. Look at recent performance, outlook, changes in the company, changes in the market(s) the company is in, and other indicators. b. Working on Bank of America, what was challenging about, for example, finding Weighted Cost of Capital? 1. It was difficult to find because of the many different markets and submarkets that each have their own cost of capital. 2. The percent of each of these that BoA has was difficult to find. III. Homework Problems a. 9-5 1. Part A: Find Total Debt i. Assets – Equity (Common Stock + Retained Earnings) – Accts. Payable = Total Debt Side note: Equity also includes preferred stock, but this company has none ii. $1,200,000 – $720,000 – $375,000 = $105,000 2. Part B: AFN = (A*/S0) ΔS – (L*/S0) ΔS -MS1 (RR) i. A* = Assets = $1,200,000 ii. S0 = Original sales (2009 sales in this case) 2,500,000 iii. S1 = 3,125,000 iv. M = 6% v. L* = Accounts Payable = 375,000 vi. RR = Retention Rate = 1-Dividend Payout = 1 – 0.4 = 0.6 vii. AFN = $93,750 viii. AFN – New Stock = AFN – $75,000 = $18,750 b. 9-9 1. 2009 GIVEN: Balance Sheet for 2009 2010 AFN Effects Cash 180000 0.05 198,000 Receivables 360,000 0.10 396,000 Inventories 720,000 0.20 792,000 Total current assets 1,260000 1,386,000 Fixed Assets 1,440,000 0.40 1,584,000 ______ Total......

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...Carl robins works as a recruiter at a new campus for ABC, Inc. However, even though his only worked there for six months his faces serious problems and has found himself in quite a predicament. After hiring fifteen new trainees for his operational supervisor, and scheduling an orientation for new hires to take place in mid-June. After assuring his supervisor Monica Carrolls that the work she ask would be done by the time she wanted, he stated noticing everything was going wrong and time was running out. Soon he realized that the paper work his supervisor asked for was not completed and files were missing. The missing files consisted of several missing applications that weren’t completed on the new trainee’s transcripts. Also he found out none of them had been sent to the clinic for a mandatory drug screen. At this point his frustration was through the roof but, the bad news did not end there only continued. Soon he found out, after reviewing the scheduling log for the training room he notice that there was yet another problem. The training room where he is to hold the orientation for the new trainees is booked up and reserved for the entire month. Alternatives Fighting procrastination is an increasing problem in today’s work forces. As Carl’s timeline was a big part of his problem, he putting work aside was a wrong step. In April he scheduled a new hire orientation to take place in June 15. On May 15 a month after he was contacted by his supervisor about the paper......

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