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Nutrition Study Guide

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HELENAS Study guide for Nutrition * The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) considers the concern of providing nutrient requirements necessary to prevent deficiencies and toxicity from overdoses and accounting for the value of nutrient intake as a means of reducing disease risk.1 Recommendations within the DRI documents include the use of fortified foods or supplements for particular nutrients, such as folic acid for women of childbearing age to ensure proper neural tube formation of the fetus during pregnancy. * Vitamin D is the only vitamin created by the human body. * The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for carbohydrate is 45% to 65% of kcal intake per day as primarily complex carbohydrates * Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. * The body's health is based on the nutrients available to support growth, maintenance, and energy needs. * Physical health begins with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as the first step to maintain body functioning; * Vitamins are organic molecules that are required in very small amounts * Food in the mouth stimulates chemical and mechanical digestion. Chemical digestion occurs through the action of saliva that not only moistens the foods we chew but also contains amylase, an enzyme that begins the digestive process of starches. * Portions of the pulverized or masticated food are formed into the shape of a ball called a bolus. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that closes over the trachea to prevent the bolus from entering the lungs. * Gastric secretions occur in three phases: cephalic, gastric, and intestinal. * Glucose, fructose, and galactose are monosaccharides. * Starch and fiber are food sources of polysaccharides, whereas glycogen is a storage form in the liver and muscles. * This service of carbohydrates is called the…...

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