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Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Criminal Behavior

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder and criminal behavior
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According to the DSM-5, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) refers to a pattern of irritable/angry behavior, or malevolence that lasts for not less than six months. Often, these traits are exhibited during the course of interaction with more than one person who is not a sibling. To be diagnosed with ODD, a person must portray at least four symptoms from either of the following classifications: defiant/argumentative behavior, irritable/angry mood, or vindictiveness (Matthys et al., 2012). The symptoms listed in DSM-5 for a child to satisfy the diagnostic threshold for ODD include frequent arguing, loss of temper, anger or resentfulness, deliberate attempts to infuriate others, defiance from consensus-supported rules or the majority’s request, vengeance, the tendency to pass blame to others and touchy feelings. The precise causes of ODD remain unknown, but a blend of biological, genetic and environmental factors is believed to contribute significantly to the issue. Biological factors that can cause the disorder include injury to certain areas of the brain. Moreover, ODD has been associated with the atypical functioning of neurotransmitters, thus, messages are wrongly passed through the brain. It has also been perceived that majority of children with ODD tend to have immediate family members with various mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders and/or personality disorders. Therefore, the susceptibility to develop ODD may be genetically inherited. Environmental factors erratic discipline by parents or guardians and a family past of substance abuse and/or mental illnesses may also result in the development of ODD (Becker et al., 2013). The DSM-5 states that ODD can be a likely precursor to Conduct Disorder (CD). CD is a severe form of ODD.…...

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...bnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm CHECKPOINT CASE ATTRITION CJS 2202/15/2012 Rick JacksonTami Machleit | Case attrition can best be described as “half or more of all arrests made for serious crimes end without convictions” (Feeney, Dill, Weit, 1983). This could be because the offender is a juvenile, the prime witness would not testify, or there was not enough evidence to convict at trial. Regardless there are times when a felony may be lowered to a misdemeanor, depending on the severity of the crime. There are crimes committed everyday but they are not all reported which leads to crimes not ever making it to the criminal justice process. Victims can sometimes become scared to report the crime and some people do not even know that they are a victim so the crime goes unreported. There are some cases where the victim is aware of what happened but are scared of retaliation. “The use of certain drugs such as Rohypnol, to render sexual assault victims helpless can sometimes cause amnesia effects that interfere with the victim’s ability to determine exactly what occurred, thus making reporting the crime less likely in some cases (Fitzgerald and Riley, 2000). Most crimes are reported by citizens in our society rather than the police discovering the crime on their own. When this happens the police must then determine whether it is a crime......

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