Free Essay

Organizational Behaviour

In: Business and Management

Submitted By smitha27
Words 1465
Pages 6
Use open systems theory to explain what occurred at Napanee Beer Co. Begin with a brief description of open systems theory as it applies to both the external and internal environments.

There are various types of theories that people may look at to describe how business organizations work. In this text, a main theory that is used is the open systems perspective. This theory helps companies and consumers understand how open systems depend on resources such as raw materials, equipment and job applicants in order to transform inputs to outputs (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 5). The external environment is a place where companies may come up with particular laws and regulations, which determine how companies are run. Resources are also used to create the output, which is then used, in the external environment. Internal environment consists of various teams and departments also known as subsystems. An example presented in the book is the Canadian Tire store. The store in Smiths Falls is a subsystem of the Canadian tire chain but the store itself has various subsystems as well (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 6).

In this particular case, Napanee Beer Co. operates with dependence on the beer production department. This is a prime example of an open systems perspective. An open system relies on other environments for necessary materials to run a business. Napanee Beer Co. had a great marketing plan but did not know how to thoroughly execute it. Their main resource is the production department who supplies the company with the amount of beer and the quality of beer. Without informing the production department of their plan, their business was hurt very badly. There are also rules and expectations that might need to be discussed regarding exports or number of outputs (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 6). Since all this was not thought of ahead of time, the company had to find a way to compromise. Due to selling lower priced beer, many customers were faced with disappointment and dissatisfaction.

1) The sales office of a large industrial products wholesale company has an increasing problem: salespeople are arriving late at the office each morning. Some sales reps go directly to visit clients rather than showing up at the office as required by company policy. Others arrive several minutes after their appointed start time. The vice-president of sales doesn't want to introduce time clocks, but this may be necessary if the lateness problem isn't corrected.

Using the MARS model of individual behaviour, diagnose the possible reasons salespeople may be engaging in this “lateness” behaviour. Begin with a brief description of the MARS model. Use your own words (paraphrase) and remember to cite all sources using APA style.

The MARS model is a representation of all the influences on an individual’s behavior and their level of performance in a particular workforce. The acronym MARS stands for motivation, ability, role perceptions and situational factors. After researching for the past century, these four variables represented how behavior and performance are affected. Motivation is a force found within a person, which guides the individual’s direction (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 29). Many people are motivated by different ideas. For example, people can be motivated by peers or family, or by an incentive offered at work. Employee motivation can be seen in three ways: the direction or path they choose to focus on, the intensity of focus on work and, an employee’s level of persistence (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 29). Ability is an individual’s learned capability that one requires to complete a task at work (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 30). This may vary from person to person depending on how quick an individual is capable of picking up on new tasks. Some of the focuses on ability are seen in physical and mental aptitudes of people as well as the learned capabilities (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 30). Competent individuals usually show great success in their work performance. When going in for interviews, most jobs try to match job descriptions to the person’s competencies to choose the right candidate (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 31). This can be done either by putting them to small tests, training workers or giving them responsibilities that are suitable to their current capabilities (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 31). Last but not least, role perception represents how well a person understands the duties assigned to them. Situational factors are those that affect an employee regardless of how motivated or capable the person is when it comes to their job. Their level of performance is dependent on the situation. Many factors such as inconsistent warnings across the workplace or unclear situations at work settings can affect an employee’s behavior (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 32).

MARS model applies in this case because many of these employees are not disciplined or engaged in their job. One of the main reasons for employees to get into work late may be their lack of motivation to achieve success in their position. This may also be caused by situational factors due to lack of interest the company shows to their employees. These employees may be competent but the workplace may not be giving them clear instructions of what needs to be done around the place. The company may also need to take the time out to better understand why employees are engaging in this “lateness” behavior.
When the Royal Ontario Bank (ROB) acquired a major investment firm, senior executives noticed hostilities forming between the financial analysts in the investment company and the bank's marketing people who provide marketing expertise for the investment firm's mutual funds and other investment vehicles. The marketing staff say that the finance types wouldn't know a customer if they stepped on one. They partly attribute this to the poor marketing expertise in the investment firm before the bank bought it. The finance types, many of whom have graduate degrees from top universities, privately complain that the marketing types don't have enough brainpower to turn on a light switch. Use what you know about social identity and the processes of categorization, homogenization, and differentiation to explain why these hostilities might exist. Start with a brief definition of Social Identity Theory.

Every individual has their own identity and may see themselves in a different way in comparison to others. At the same time, in greater social groups, individuals take on a social identity, which categorizes them into particular groups. This is what we call a social identity theory. People begin to define themselves by making a connection with an emotional attachment or a group they belong in. For example, we are usually easily identified by our gender, age and ethnicity in a large social setting. (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 68). Many of us may also identify ourselves depending on where we work or by an occupation title. People with higher status occupations usually define themselves by what they do such as a doctor or a lawyer. Others may refer to the place they work for if the company has a reputable name (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 68). How the world perceives people have become more important to individuals than how they perceive themselves. Those who focus on self-identity tend to speak out against the majority and have a harder time working with teams (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 69).

In this case, there are already two distinct groups that are being mentioned. The marketing staffs are the ones who provide marketing expertise for the investment firm and the financial analysts are the ones who play a big role in choosing the right investments. There is a stereotype that is linked to both the analysts and marketers. It is believed that the marketers feel as if the analysts are only focused on making money and don’t see the people aspect of it. The analysts believe they are more logical and have more brainpower to run this investment firm. This stereotyping leads to categorization where the two groups begin to compare each other and represent distinct groups. The marketing staffs categorize themselves as marketers and have a group identity just as the financial analysts. Due to this, when other people take a look at the marketing staff and financial analysts, they assume these people within each group have similar characteristics. Homogenization is when we think all people in one group collectively have the same attitudes and characteristics. (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 73) Differentiation comes into play when groups tend to think their group has more favourable characteristics than another groups. By attaching negative stereotypes to other groups, it motivates people within the group to stick to their social identity and believe they are better than others. Differentiation is seen in this case where marketers put down financial analysts by stereotyping everyone in that job role and vise versa. (McShane & Steen, 2012, pp. 73)…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Organizational Behaviour Book Notes Chapter 1 Learning Objectives: 1. Define organizations and describe their basic characteristics. Organization – social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. * Social inventions – coordinated presence of people or a group of people * Goal accomplishment * Group effort – organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals. * Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group efforts. 2. Explain the concept of organizational behaviour and describe the goals of the field. Organizational Behaviour – the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. * The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. * The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change. i. Certain behaviours are necessary for survival and adaptation: 1. they have to be motivated to join and remain in the organization; 2. carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality, and service; 3. be flexible to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills; and 4. be flexible and innovative. * The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to......

Words: 8763 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR “Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Robbins, Judge, Sanghi 2009, 13th edition, Prentice Hall) . From the above statement we can say that, organization behavior shows how people behave in an organization and how their behavior affects the working of the organization. To understand organizational behavior we first need to know what an organization is. According to Robbins (2006), an organization is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals. Now we can clearly state that organization behavior is a distinct area of expertise which studies - individuals, groups and structure. It puts in these studies gained, in order to make organizations work more effectively and efficiently. Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.......

Words: 3714 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Organizational Behavior Overview Organizational behavior seeks to explain the function of complex organizations and predict the outcomes of changes to their components or underlying dynamics. It is most often applied to private-sector businesses, but it can also be used to describe the dynamics of government agencies, religious organizations and even municipalities. The study of organizational behavior requires a multi-disciplinary approach that draws upon decades’ worth of sociological and psychological research. As opposed to human resource management and its related field of study, which focuses on recognizing individual actors’ motivations and controlling their behavior accordingly, the academics and business professionals who explore the science of organizational behavior seek to explain the broader outcomes that these actors produce. Organizational behavior can be broken into two broad categories: “micro-level” dynamics and “macro-level” outcomes. The former concerns the interactions of individuals within small groups tied to a larger organization while the latter concerns the interplay of entire organizations within a sector or industry. Organisational Behaviour: What You Need to Know The study of organizational behavior is a by-product of the Industrial Revolution. Although nominal theories of efficiency have existed since ancient times, early-modern economist Adam Smith is generally considered to be the grandfather of organizational behavior. His seminal work on...

Words: 12212 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Helps Coca-Cola Executives ... www.mhhe.com/business/management/updates/mcshane/.../ch18.mhtml‎ * * ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR by Steven L. ... One of Douglas Daft's first tasks asCoca-Cola's new CEO was to cut one-fifth of the workforce. The goal wasn't ... 2. Coca Cola Organizational Behaviour Free Essays 1 - 20 www.studymode.com/.../coca-cola-organizational-behaviour-page1.html‎ * 20+ items - Free Essays on Coca Cola Organizational Behaviour for ... Coca Cola Organizational Theory subsequent paper contains a ... Coca- Cola Organizational And General Issue have been overlooked by ... 3. Organizational Behavior Coca Cola Free Essays 1 - 20 www.studymode.com/.../organizational-behavior-coca-cola-page1.html‎ * 20+ items - Free Essays on Organizational Behavior Coca Cola for students ... its part, archrival PepsiCo has a 31.6 percent market share. (Vault 2002) The ... very thankful to you as you Assigned us this report on ROLE OF THE FORCES ... 4. Coca Cola Organizational Theory - Scribd www.scribd.com/doc/20200601/Coca-Cola-Organizational-Theory‎ * * Sep 25, 2009 - Coca Cola Organizational Theory - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text ... Is behavior in the organization very standardized, or does mutual ... 5. Organizational Structure of The Coca-Cola Company - Scribd www.scribd.com/.../Organizational-Structure-of-The-Coca-Cola-Compan...‎ * * Sep 15, 2010 - The Coca-Cola Company 2010......

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Organization Structure Diagram 2.1 Organizational Chart : Business Process & Product Development Section ISD - Maybank ISD Consumer Banking Consumer Banking Computer BPPDS Security and WAN Info Data Application Application Operations QA Management CIF Electronic Banking Current Account Savings Account Fixed Deposit & Loans Remittances ATM Personal/CA Autophone Islamic CA E-Pos Corporate CA Maybank2U.com Diagram 3.2 Below Illustrates The Critical Interdependency Mr. Praveen Entails. INTERNAL INTERACTORS EXTERNAL INTERACTORS MR. PRAVEEN T-System AT&T The......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

... | | |Learning Outcome 1 |Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture |Report | |AC 1.1 |Compare and contrast different organisational structures and cultures | | |AC 1.2 |Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture| | | |can impact on the performance of the business. | | |AC 1.3 |Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work. | | |  |  |  |  | | | | | | |Learning Outcome 2 |Understand different approaches to management and leadership |Report | |AC 2.1 | Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different | | | |organizations ...

Words: 3296 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Organizational Cynicism Q-1) Why organizational cynicism prevails in most of the organization? Cynicism Is On the Rise Research over indicates that cynicism is on the rise which affects society as well as business. As one research depicts that Cynicism not only affects society at large, but also is widespread among organizations in the United States (Dean, Brandes, & Dharwadkar, 1998; Kanter & Mirvis, 1989), Europe, and Asia (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Research reports that cynicism in organisation hurts the competitiveness and ability to accommodate today's needed organizational change. Paul J. Rosen (Hendrick, 1993, p. E1:2), President of the American Institute of Stress, indicates that recent, dizzying changes in technology and the economy are causing unprecedented burnout, cynicism, sickness and absenteeism. About Cynicism Cynicism is an attitude characterized by hopelessness, frustration and disillusionment. It is also related to contempt, disgust, and distrust (Andersson, 1996; Andersson & Bateman, 1997). The central belief associated with cynicism is that principles of honesty, fairness, and sincerity are sacrificed to further the individual's self-interest. This underlying self-centered purpose is believed to lead to actions based on hidden agendas and deception (Abraham, 2000). This strong negative attitude permeates America’s corporations and is currently blamed for a multitude of unfavourable organizational outcomes. Thus, cynicism is recognized as a growing......

Words: 3504 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...According to Max Weber (1947) organizational behaviour is a network of human interactions, where all behaviour could be understood by looking at cause and effect. Organizational behaviour is the study of how individuals and groups perform together within an organization. It focuses on the best way to manage individuals, groups, organizations, and processes. In layman language, the action and attitude of people in organization. Toyota Motor Corporation has often been referred to as the gold standard of the automotive industry. In the first quarter of 2007, Toyota overtook General Motors Corporation in sales for the first time as the top automotive manufacturer in the world. Toyota reached success in part because of its exceptional reputation for quality and customer care. Despite the global recession and the tough economic times that American auto companies such as General Motors and Chrysler faced in 2009, Toyota enjoyed profits of $16.7 billion and sales growth of 6% that year. However, late 2009 and early 2010 witnessed Toyota’s recall of 8 million vehicles due to unintended acceleration. How could this happen to a company known for quality and structured to solve problems as soon as they arise? To examine this further, one has to understand about the Toyota Production System (TPS). TPS is built on the principles of “just-in-time” production. In other words, raw materials and supplies are delivered to the assembly line exactly at the time they are to be used. This system......

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...serving a client. Open systems: Organizations and other entities with interdependent parts that work together to continually monitor and transact with the external environment. Organization: A group of people who work interdependently towards some purpose. Organizational behavior (OB): The study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. Organizational learning: An organization's capacity to acquire, disseminate, and apply knowledge for its survival and success. Organizational memory: The storage and preservation of the organization's knowledge (i.e., its intellectual capital). Organizations: Groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose. Scientific method: A set of principles and procedures that help researchers to systematically understand previously unexplained events and conditions. Stakeholders: Shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments, and any other groups with a vested interest in the organization. Telecommuting: Working from home or another location away from the office, usually with a computer connection to the office. (also called teleworking) Virtual teams: Cross-functional teams that operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries with members who communicate mainly through electronic technologies. CHAPTER 2: 360-degree feedback: Performance feedback is received from a full circle of people around the employee. Ability: The natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required......

Words: 1105 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Organizational Behaviour (BAM – 317) Assignment Topic: * Group Dynamics with example. * Current trends in the field of organizational behaviour. Submitted to - Mr P. S. Lakhawat Submission date -: 18th March’2015 Submitted by -: Himanshu Sharan P.Id -: 12BTCSE052 Stream -: B.Tech CSE 6th Sem. * Group Dynamics with example Kurt Lewin a social psychologist and change management expert, is credited with coining the term "group dynamics" in the early 1940s. He noted that people often take on distinct roles and behaviours when they work in a group. "Group dynamics" describes the effects of these roles and behaviours on other group members, and on the group as a whole. The phrase "Group Dynamics" contains two words -: I. Group- a social unit of two or more individuals who have in common a set of beliefs and values, follow the same norms and work for an establishable common aim. The members of the group share a set of common purpose, tasks or goals. II.  Dynamics- the flow of, coherent activities which as envisaged, will lead the group towards the establishment of its set goals. Group dynamics deals with the attitudes and behavioural patterns of a group. Group dynamics concern how......

Words: 3913 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...Organizational Behavior As part of an organization, employers and employees are constantly posed with challenges of making the rational decisions so as to reach an optimal outcome for the business. However, research has repeatedly demonstrated that in the real world, most decision making in organizations are not completely rational. Person perception is the main issue in organizational behavior and decision making for the fact that based on M.J. Martinko et al.’s (2007) assertion the limited information or immediate impressions of employee performance could result in an inaccurate perceptual judgment made by the employers. In an attempt to explain the ways in which people form perceptions about each other, this essay will examine the influence of the attribution theory towards decision-making and illustrate three common biases and errors that distort the attribution formation through the application of three mini-case. This essay will also discuss the importance of attribution theory in relation to organizational behavior as well as decision-makers in organizations. Attribution theory is concerned with how individuals perceive and infer causality (Robert E. Ployhart and Crystal M. Harold, 2004). Johns et al. (2007) also state that the attribution theory is an attempt when individuals observe behavior to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Internally caused behaviors refer to the behaviors which are under individual control while externally......

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...works has increased competitiveness and resultant work stress. Management of human behaviour and chanalizing it into correct direction has become important. Application of motivational theories, art of leadership and skill of redesigning jobs and modification to organisational structure is an on going process that facilitates positive work environment leading to increased job satisfaction of employees, greater productivity and organizational growth. Due to scientific advancement managing human resources is more challenging. It has been observed that everybody wants to catch up with next higher strata of life style. Social obligations have increased and so has increased the purchasing power, thanks to financial institutions who are doing a tremendous business of financing individuals. This situation has led to designing an appropriate situational model of managing human behaviour in varying conditions. There is no specific model for this purpose. There are however standard models of behaviour that can be modified depending upon the situation and applied in work settings. The traditional ways of managing organizations infact have fast diminished. New ways have emerged. The work is now being accomplished by work teams and work groups. Participative decision making, delegation, empowerment, TQM, flexible work time and many more such concepts have emerged. Redesigning of work and organizational structure, regrouping, mergers have become the order of the day. This......

Words: 149242 - Pages: 597

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...IDP Unit 3: Introduction to Organisational Behaviour Learning Outcomes You should be able to explain at least two of the following at the end of the session: • Define organizational behavior (OB). • Explain why managers require knowledge of OB. • Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB. What is organisational behaviour? • It examines the impact individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within the organisation, and how that knowledge can be applied in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the organisation (Robbins 2009) ! • An interdisciplinary body of knowledge and field of research which examines how organisations, behaviour of people within organisations, and salient features of their context and environment, evolve and take shape, why all these things happen the way they do, and what purposes they serve (Buchanan and Huczynski 2010) What is an Organisation? • A social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals (Robbins 2009) Features of an organisation • Social arrangements : organisations are often classified as social arrangement with a clear set of objectives of achieving controlled performance in pursuit of collective goals ! • Controlled performance: Organisations must set standards, be able to measure performance, compare actual with standard, and take collective......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...MASTER OF BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATION 2015 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Student’s Name : Amira Nadia Raup Lecturer’s Name : Assoc. Prof Dr Fatima M Lawal Student’s Name : Amira Nadia Raup Lecturer’s Name : Assoc. Prof Dr Fatima M Lawal 1. Describe how the field of organizational behaviour today is being shaped by the global economic, increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the workforce, and advances in technology Due to economic globalization, many organizations are now operating around the world. It adds a new dimension to multinational operations because it involves the distinction environments, social, political and economic. Therefore, communication and control becomes more difficult. The global economic, increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the workplace, and advances in technology are major driving forces creating and shaping changes on organisational behaviour field today. These factors were equally important and can affect the performance and the company's workforce. Changes in an organization will involve "3P" test performance, productivity and profitability of the organization. Generally people are difficult to accept any changes and more reactive and not responsive. Callan(1992) says that during the time of great change in strategy and organization structure, employees can experience high levels of stress affecting their work and the...

Words: 2535 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour

...“Coming together is a beginning, keeping together is progress, working together is success” (Ford 2011). Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups perform in organizations. As a part of our course we are required to work in groups so as to understand and practically implement the organizational behaviour theories. The whole class was divided into groups of 15. After long hours of discussion we came up with a balanced group comprising of 5 people on the basis of Belbin and MBTI test results. We carefully examined the personality traits of each of the group members in order to facilitate proper functioning of the group and to keep the conflicts to a minimum. This helped us in knowing the behaviour, thinking, knowledge, strengths and weaknesses of each other. Our first task as a group was to design an effective poster for ‘Kingfisher Beer’ representing various buyer behaviour theories. It was a great opportunity for us to work as a group since none of us is as smart as all of us together. Finally all the information was shared among the group at regular intervals and other members were free to comment on the specified topic. The arguments with effective justification were given more importance. Thus individual needs were satisfied. “If a man has the talent and cannot use it, he has failed. If he has talent and uses only half of it, he has partly failed. If he has the talent and learns somehow to use......

Words: 1137 - Pages: 5

Aquarion Logos English Subbed | Pantalones vaqueros | Kayla Itsines Bikini Body Guide - BBG all updated guides - instant response!