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Organizational Issues

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND DEVELOPMENT
Semester I Session 2013/2014

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT EXPLORE THE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR/ISSUES FACING YOUR ORGANIZATION AND SUGGEST SOLUTIONS.
“WORKING INDOOR BUT THE SUN IS JUST ABOVE YOUR HEAD”

NAME : NUR RAHIDA BINTI RAHMAN
MATRIC’S NO. : MR131002
LECTURER’S NAME : DR. BATIAH MAHADI

“WORKING INDOOR BUT THE SUN IS JUST ABOVE YOUR HEAD”
Introduction
A work environment can be identified as the place that one works, which means the milieus around a person. The work environment has a significant impact upon employee performance and productivity. By work environment we mean those processes, systems, structures, tools or conditions in the workplace that impact favourably or unfavourably individual perform. The work environment also includes policies, rules, culture, resources, working relationships, work location, and internal and external environmental factors, all of which influence the ways those employees perform their job functions. It is the quality of the employee’s workplace environment that most impacts on the level of employee’s motivation and subsequent performance. How well they engage with the organization, especially with their immediate environment, influences to a great extent their error rate, level of innovation and collaboration with other employees, absenteeism and, ultimately, how long they stay in the job. The environment that people are required to work in can have a significant impact on their ability to undertake the tasks that they have been asked to do. This can affect productivity and employee health and well-being.

People spend almost as much time in the office as they do at home, sometimes even more. The average American spends about 8.7 hours a day working and doing work related activities. That is more time than they spend doing anything else on an average day. A work environment affects the productivity that takes place during these long hours.
Of course depending on the organization, culture, location and its nature business, each of them have a different working environment. Same goes to Smiths Detection Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. where the organisational issues begin with the uncomfortable working temperature.

Background of organization
Smiths Detection is one of five operating divisions of Smiths Group private limited company, a global technology company listed on the London Stock Exchange. Since 1997, Smiths Detection has brought together global technology leaders in many key markets, creating a world leading business. In August 2003, it became a separate operating division of Smiths Group.
Smiths Detection are the world’s leading experts in safeguarding society, the military and borders from constantly evolving CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives) threats. Smiths Detection owned globally for the advanced technological solutions in explosives, illegal weapons, contraband, toxic materials and narcotics detection.
In 2012, Smiths Detections changed its marketing strategy by expanding the manufacturing to Malaysia, to cover Asian market. Malaysia manufacturing plant is only focus on the production of conventional X-ray machine, which usually use in the airport for scanning of baggage or cargo.
Up to September 2013, Smiths Detection Malaysia is consists of 43 employees from different departments and half of them are from the production. The production activities include assembly of machines and commissioning process which is doing the reliability test. All activities are done manually, hence required a very skilful technician. The chances of error are high due to manual work, so the technicians need to perform the job carefully.
The main office is fully air-conditioned, where all the managers are sitting, but the production area is vice versa. This is the common practise for other plants of Smiths Detection all over the world. But none has realized the differences of the climate could have such a great impact.

The Heat
Many of the global directors mainly from Germany and London came to the new plant for a visit. They had just realized things are not the same as they expected like the other plants. The humidity in Malaysia was too much. The temperature is always high, which is still acceptable, but many could not stand the sweat caused by the humidity itself. Most visitors are not used to Malaysian tropical climate, and keep addressing the humidity issues. They know that this will have huge impact to them, directly and indirectly.
There are many points contributing to the high temperature observed. First of all, the new plant, which is situated in SiLC, Nusajaya, Johor is about fifteen kilometre from Singapore Strait or twenty minutes drive. The geographical area which is near to the straits has a strong effect on the wind and temperature to the rural area. Furthermore, the industrial area is newly opened, and not much trees are grown in that area.
Even though employees are working in the building, perhaps there are also many internal factors which are affecting as well. The structure and concept of the production area is not an open space but there is no good ventilation to regulate the hot air inside the building. The production area is a non air-conditioned area, and everyone who is stepping in the area will easily sweat within five minutes.
The temperature and humidity monitoring was done in July 2013 taken at two different points in production area which consist of assembly area and commissioning area as per Exhibit 1. From the data, it can be concluded that at most times, the commissioning area having higher temperature than assembly. This is probably due to electrical test takes place in this area, and the heat from the electrical consumption does produce some heat which explains on the differences. The temperature usually at the maximum from 12.00 pm to 2.00 pm as the external heat from the sun contributes to this figure. But sometimes the temperature is lower for example in 17th or 19th July 2013 as it was raining in the afternoon. The maximum temperature recorded was in 5th July 2013 which is 32.7 degree Celsius. Humidity usually effects employee by sweating a lot, but usually have impact to the product itself. Relative humidity levels below 20% can cause discomfort through drying of the mucous membranes and skin. Relative humidity levels above 70% may lead to the development of condensation on surfaces and within the interior of equipment and building structures. Left alone, these areas may develop mould and fungi.
Many complaints were observed from the employees itself and outsiders such as suppliers and contractors who are working directly and indirectly in the area. Surprisingly, many of the outsiders are also working in a non air-conditioned area at their workplace. However, many claim that the heat is totally different.
Azrul Ismail, Production Supervisor said that he was surprised when he first join the company as it is too hot working in such environment. “I tend to feel exhausted almost every day after reaching home as compared to the previous company. It is not easy to work here, as you will not feel comfortable doing the work and the technicians are easy to be demotivated.”
Badrulamin, Commissioning Technician feels that the heat always makes him feel uneasy, hence easily gets irritated. He is always in bad mood and shouts to others when others make mistakes but he claimed that he is not such type of person before.
Mohd Nirafiq, a local supplier was in Smiths Detection Malaysia starting from July 2013 up to September 2013 for standby mode or monitoring of their first mass production lot. There are many quality issues happened which requires him to perform immediate rework on site. He almost give up during the first week spent in Smiths Detection Malaysia, and will let his colleague to continue the monitoring, but since others were also busy with their own project, he had to come again and again. “Smiths is too hot. I rather perform the rework at our plant, how can all of you handle the heat?”
The problem was highlighted about thousands time to the management, but there is no positive respond received.
Pragash Sopromanen, the Quality Manager aware on the problem but said that “Everything is decided by the global. We need to spend more money for the renovation. The headquarters have no air-conditioned in their production line so why should we?”

The Facilities
Even though the production line is equipped with fans, but the facilities are not enough for the whole line. And since the assembly process requires a lot of manual job and skills, the technicians are not static in one place, so usage of fans is not that suitable. Fans tend to get rusty and the motor easily spoiled due to the humidity. Replacement for the spoiled fan has a strict procedure, which causing the lead time for such replacement takes longer time. So at times, there are certain stations working without any fan or air cooler due to this.
Fans are using kinetic energy to produce the air rotation, but the kinetic movement is too near to the user. In other words, fans rotation has a lot of energy to move things, as they may blow light things easily which sometimes interrupting the job.
As Smiths Detection Malaysia is producing x-ray machine, it involves radiation during the testing. The machine tunnel which supposes to scan the luggage is protected by two layers of lead curtain. When x-ray is turned on, the tunnel area will have huge radiation activity, and lead curtain will shield the radiation from coming out so as to protect the users. That is the reason of the prohibition of using the fan during commissioning or testing. The fan will blow the lead curtain, and the radiation will be exposed to the technicians.
Nabil Fikri, Commissioning Technician said that “It is too hot, and I sweat every second, the fan is available, but I cannot use it during the testing as it is a safety procedure which I need to follow for my own good. What choice do I have since then? It is the worst during the fasting month. Not eating is still acceptable, but it is almost impossible not to drink with this kind of weather.”
Kunaseelan, Manufacturing Engineering Engineer informed that “To install a fully air-conditioned area, they need to get the license for cooling tower and it cost a lot of money for the maintenance. The process too is complicated.”

The Smell
Just next to the plant is a chemical factory. The factory will mix some chemicals and store them before send them to the customers. The neighbouring activity is producing smells which irritates Smiths Detection Malaysia employees. At times, the smells are too bad until it became difficult to breath. Breathing apparatus or mask, are not commonly used except during the haze that struck Malaysia in June 2013.
It was reported to the Safety Officer regarding the smell and chemical hazards, and some observations were made due to these complaints, but in the end there is no action plan to protect the employees. The Overall Effects
The issues have a huge impact to the employees especially job dissatisfaction. The employees became less motivated each day and affect the attendance. The employee turnover is also high in percentage. Exhibit 2 shows the data of the attendance for production technician. The data showed that the attendance have not achieved 90% since April 2013 up to September 2013. The number of person taking medical leave is increasing from each month. This shows that the employees became less healthy and tend to get sick. The heat stress causing lots of dehydration, fever, flu, migraine and cough. Fever is almost commonly happened and still the figure has not opened the management team eyes. As the environment warms-up, the body tends to warm-up as well. The body's internal "thermostat" maintains a constant inner body temperature by pumping more blood to the skin and by increasing sweat production. In this way, the body increases the rate of heat loss to balance the heat burden created by the environment. In a very hot environment, the rate of heat gain exceeds the rate of heat loss and the body temperature begins to rise. A rise in the body temperature results in heat illnesses. Apart from the heat, it is also possible that the chemical vapour is affecting the employees’ health.
"Heat stress" is the net (overall) heat burden on the body from the combination of the body heat generated while working, environmental sources (air temperature, humidity, air movement, radiation from the sun or hot surfaces/sources) and clothing requirements. [Reference: 2008 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, Ohio: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2008. p. 217.].
The CSA Standard CAN/CSA Z412-00 (R2011) - "Office Ergonomics" gives acceptable ranges of temperature and relative humidity for offices in Canada. These values are the same as recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55 - 2010 "Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy". The recommended temperature ranges have been found to meet the needs of at least 80% of individuals. Some people may feel uncomfortable even if these values are met. Additional measures may be required. Exhibit 4 shows the temperature and humidity ranges for comfort adapted from ASHRAE 55-2010. The study shows that if the humidity is 60% and above, then the acceptable operating temperature is 23.0 - 25.5 degree Celsius.
Furthermore, the humidity and temperature have a huge impact to the product. Many defects and quality issues related to humidity were found which causing a lot of time required for reworking or repairing. As for example, some components being assembled in the machines include detector boards and other electronic parts which are sensitive to temperature and water vapour. But since there is no overall control on the temperature and humidity, the defects are highly observed. Rusty is also observed for metal parts which has no coating protection on the external layer after a week of storage.
This event resulted in additional redundant process in the production. Employees keep changing the defect to a new part. The machine is big and the components to assemble are mostly heavy, requires a lot of energy for the process. And reworking will consume a lot of time and energy as the technicians need to dismantle and assemble the components again. This situation is not only affecting the productivity but also contributes to employee job dissatisfaction. They have to repeat the process again and again. The total number of production technician from March 2013 to September 2013 is 24, with 4 technicians already resigned. The turnover percentage is 16% which is considered as high. From the exit interview done by the Production Supervisor confirmed that job dissatisfaction is one of cause.
Zulkarnain, Assembly Technician keeps on complaining of doing the same rework almost every day. “I am tired. The conveyor is heavy and a lot of wiring is done during the assembly. The process took 1 hour. When there is reject found later, it will need half an hour to unload the conveyor and another 1 hour to assemble a new one. Seriously I am tired of this job.”

Recommendation and Solution
One of the recommendations for Smiths Detection Malaysia is by using Engineering Controls. Engineering controls are the most effective means of reducing heat exposure. The workplace of production area is too hot, so it is advisable for the management to consider in installing a fully air-conditioned floor. Of course it cost lot money along the way, but the return of investment could be worth it. Someone needs to calculate and look forward to this matter.
The other way is to improve the air ventilation and circulation in the production area as the condition is bad and everyone noticed on this problem. Even the global directors know and outsiders give comments on the problem. These comments should be taken into count for improvement. But, air ventilation will not solve humidity issues as the humidity from external will still be coming into the area. So air-conditioned is preferable.
In fact, the air-conditioned will help the employees in commissioning area to be more comfortable and safe at the same time. Usage of fan is prohibited, but air kinetic energy is indirect and will not have any effect on the process. Air-conditioned is using convection concept in for overall areas which are being covered, hence even the technicians move at any points, they will still feel comfortable.
Installation of air-conditioned will not only solve the employees comfort, but increase job satisfaction as the reworking process will also reduce since the material were all protected from uncontrolled temperature and humidity.
Secondly, it is recommended to use Administrative Control. Administrative control means the direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations.
The management should encourage the employees to drink more fluids especially waters as much as 8 ounces every 15 minutes, to keep from getting dehydrated by providing cool drinking water near to production area and encourage them to drink even if not feeling thirsty. This will decrease the level of dehydration; hence decrease the number of employees taking medical leave. Most of the employees are not drinking during the working hours, since the water is not within reach.
Other administrative control is to provide workers with accurate written and verbal instructions, frequent training programs and other information on heat stress and how to deal with the situations. For example not all employees know that they should not increase the amount of salt that being put in food; the amount of salt in a regular diet is typically enough to replace the salt lost during hot conditions. More salt content in the body will contribute to dehydration as well.
The management should make more study on the facilities and difficulties having by the employees in performing their job. They should be more aware and alert especially when the data already showed the attendance are getting worse and employee turnover is high. The figure showed that there is something wrong with the organisation that needs action. If the management keep on avoiding this problem, there will lost lots of potential and skilful employees. It is a waste also to keep training a new staff each time someone resigns.
The other way, encourage the employees to give suggestions and write down the complaint in an appropriate channel such as Employee Complaint Form.
When the management team of Smiths Detection Malaysia does not take any action or look forward through this matter, the global management of Smiths Detection should interfere in decision making. At certain level or case for example related to cost and money, only people with higher authority can make the decision. If the local management have problem to invest in such facilities, they have to make the proposal and speak on behalf of the employees to the global level as Smiths Detection is a big, multinational organisation. Of course, with clear study and proposal, the issues can be solved easily.
The third way is to use Personal Protective Equipment especially the plant is located next to a chemical factory. The chemical hazards are observed; hence employees need to be provided with mask to protect them from the smells of the chemicals which affecting their concentration on the job and health problems. If the activity is too extreme, the Safety Officer should make a report to Departmental of Environment.
The fourth or other solution than above, the employees can also join the Union, which is the right channel for the employees to voice out on their needs and rights when discussing with the employers do not listen to their rights.

Conclusion
It was a mistake to open a new plant without taking environmental measures into count. Employer in this case Smiths Detection Group should do a proper study before making the decision to set up a new plant in future. It is employer responsibility to provide a good working environment to the employees to prevent health hazards. Employer who takes care of employees’ need will result a win-win situation to both. The productivity will increase, less error was made, job satisfaction will increase, attendance and product quality will improve, less employee turnover, hence employer will get more revenue in sales and high reputation.

Exhibit 1: Temperature and humidity data | | Assembly Area | Commissioning Area | Date | Hour | Temperature
(deg C) | Humidity
(% RH) | Temperature
(deg C) | Humidity
(% RH) | 1st July 2013 | 8.30am | NA | NA | NA | NA | | 10.00am | NA | NA | NA | NA | | 12.30pm | 30.3 | 77.6 | 31.4 | 67.1 | | 2.00pm | 28.3 | 81.9 | 28.9 | 75.6 | | 3.30pm | 28.4 | 75.8 | 29.2 | 74.1 | | 5.00pm | 28.1 | 76.2 | 29.0 | 72.9 | 2nd July 2013 | 8.30am | 25.3 | 90.0 | 26.3 | 85.6 | | 10.00am | 28.2 | 89.5 | 28.9 | 79.5 | | 12.30pm | 29.4 | 88.4 | 30.1 | 78.7 | | 2.00pm | 28.6 | 81.1 | 29.9 | 75.5 | | 3.30pm | 31.2 | 70.0 | 31.3 | 70.7 | | 5.00pm | 28.5 | 79.7 | 29.0 | 77.7 | 3rd July 2013 | 8.30am | 25.5 | 88.3 | 26.2 | 85.6 | | 10.00am | 28.1 | 89.0 | 28.1 | 79.3 | | 12.30pm | 29.3 | 88.9 | 29.9 | 79.1 | | 2.00pm | 30.4 | 86.1 | 30.2 | 70.4 | | 3.30pm | NA | NA | NA | NA | | 5.00pm | NA | NA | NA | NA | 4th July 2013 | 8.30am | 25.1 | 88.1 | 26.1 | 84.0 | | 10.00am | 26.1 | 86.0 | 26.8 | 85.7 | | 12.30pm | 25.9 | 89.1 | 27.1 | 84.0 | | 2.00pm | 26.9 | 91.0 | 27.5 | 86.0 | | 3.30pm | 26.0 | 93.6 | 26.6 | 88.6 | | 5.00pm | 26.0 | 90.3 | 27.6 | 86.8 | 5th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.3 | 89.8 | 27.3 | 85.0 | | 10.00am | 28.7 | 89.5 | 29.9 | 87.7 | | 12.30pm | 29.1 | 88.7 | 30.1 | 79.5 | | 2.00pm | 28.9 | 82.1 | 30.9 | 70.7 | | 3.30pm | 31.5 | 73.0 | 32.7 | 79.7 | | 5.00pm | 28.4 | 80.7 | 30.1 | 80.8 | 8th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.8 | 86.0 | 26.4 | 88.4 | | 10.00am | 29.2 | 79.0 | 29.2 | 78.8 | | 12.30pm | 30.9 | 68.1 | 30.6 | 69.8 | | 2.00pm | 27.7 | 75.6 | 28.6 | 74.3 | | 3.30pm | NA | NA | NA | NA | | 5.00pm | 27.6 | 81.3 | 29.2 | 75.6 | 9th July 2013 | 8.30am | 25.7 | 85.6 | 26.2 | 83.4 | | 10.00am | 26.4 | 88.7 | 27.7 | 81.9 | | 12.30pm | 27.2 | 82.6 | 28.7 | 79.0 | | 2.00pm | 26.1 | 84.0 | 27.3 | 82.0 | | 3.30pm | 26.7 | 84.7 | 27.7 | 80.2 | | 5.00pm | 26.5 | 83.8 | 27.9 | 78.4 | 11th July 2013 | 10.00am | 27.6 | 83.5 | 28.4 | 79.1 | | 12.30pm | 28.6 | 83.8 | 28.5 | 82.8 | | 2.00pm | 29.0 | 83.9 | 29.3 | 83.1 | | 3.30pm | 30.0 | 86.1 | 31.3 | 80.5 | | 5.00pm | 29.5 | 87.5 | 31.0 | 81.5 | 12th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.7 | 83.8 | 27.5 | 84.0 | | 10.00am | 29.6 | 79.0 | 29.5 | 76.5 | | 12.30pm | 29.8 | 71.0 | 29.6 | 75.7 | | 2.00pm | 30.1 | 78.5 | 30.1 | 76.0 | | 3.30pm | 29.7 | 72.8 | 28.7 | 72.8 | | 5.00pm | 29.8 | 74.0 | 28.8 | 79.1 | 15th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.2 | 82.5 | 26.0 | 83.4 | | 10.00am | 27.7 | 82.5 | 27.6 | 79.3 | | 12.30pm | 28.6 | 77.4 | 28.6 | 71.3 | | 2.00pm | 29.1 | 64.1 | 29.3 | 73.5 | | 3.30pm | 30.0 | 65.3 | 29.0 | 72.1 | | 5.00pm | 29.7 | 62.7 | 30.0 | 77.0 | 16th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.3 | 89.8 | 27.3 | 85.0 | | 10.00am | 28.7 | 89.5 | 29.9 | 87.7 | | 12.30pm | 29.1 | 88.7 | 30.1 | 79.5 | | 2.00pm | 28.9 | 82.1 | 30.9 | 70.7 | | 3.30pm | 31.5 | 73.0 | 32.7 | 79.7 | | 5.00pm | 28.4 | 80.7 | 30.1 | 80.8 | 17th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.2 | 82.5 | 26.2 | 84.0 | | 10.00am | 27.7 | 82.5 | 27.7 | 76.5 | | 12.30pm | 28.6 | 77.4 | 28.7 | 75.7 | | 2.00pm | 29.1 | 64.1 | 27.3 | 76.0 | | 3.30pm | 30.0 | 65.3 | 27.7 | 72.8 | | 5.00pm | 29.7 | 62.7 | 27.9 | 79.1 | 18th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.3 | 82.5 | 28.0 | 79.0 | | 10.00am | 27.1 | 83.0 | 27.1 | 77.0 | | 12.30pm | 27.0 | 84.1 | 26.9 | 83.9 | | 2.00pm | 27.3 | 83.0 | 27.2 | 84.5 | | 3.30pm | 27.6 | 81.3 | 29.2 | 75.6 | | 5.00pm | 25.7 | 85.6 | 26.2 | 83.4 | 19th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.4 | 88.7 | 27.7 | 81.9 | | 10.00am | 27.2 | 82.6 | 28.7 | 79.0 | | 12.30pm | 26.1 | 84.0 | 27.3 | 82.0 | | 2.00pm | 26.7 | 84.7 | 27.7 | 80.2 | | 3.30pm | 26.5 | 83.8 | 27.9 | 78.4 | | 5.00pm | 27.6 | 83.5 | 28.4 | 79.1 | 22nd July 2013 | 8.30am | 28.6 | 83.8 | 28.5 | 82.8 | | 10.00am | 29.0 | 83.9 | 29.3 | 83.1 | | 12.30pm | 30.0 | 86.1 | 31.3 | 80.5 | | 2.00pm | 29.5 | 87.5 | 31.0 | 81.5 | | 3.30pm | 26.7 | 83.8 | 27.5 | 84.0 | | 5.00pm | 29.6 | 79.0 | 29.5 | 76.5 | 24th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.7 | 84.7 | 27.7 | 80.2 | | 10.00am | 26.5 | 83.8 | 27.9 | 78.4 | | 12.30pm | 27.6 | 83.5 | 28.4 | 79.1 | | 2.00pm | 28.6 | 83.8 | 28.5 | 82.8 | | 3.30pm | 29.0 | 83.9 | 29.3 | 83.1 | | 5.00pm | 30.0 | 86.1 | 28.3 | 80.5 | 25th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.3 | 89.8 | 26.3 | 85.0 | | 10.00am | 28.7 | 89.5 | 27.9 | 87.7 | | 12.30pm | 29.1 | 88.7 | 29.0 | 79.5 | | 2.00pm | 30.1 | 78.5 | 30.1 | 76.0 | | 3.30pm | 29.7 | 72.8 | 28.7 | 72.8 | | 5.00pm | 29.8 | 74.0 | 28.8 | 79.1 | 26th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.4 | 88.7 | 27.7 | 81.9 | | 10.00am | 27.2 | 82.6 | 28.7 | 79.0 | | 12.30pm | 26.1 | 84.0 | 27.3 | 82.0 | | 2.00pm | 26.7 | 84.7 | 27.7 | 80.2 | | 3.30pm | 26.5 | 83.8 | 27.9 | 78.4 | | 5.00pm | 27.6 | 83.5 | 28.4 | 79.1 | 29th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.2 | 72.5 | 26.2 | 74.0 | | 10.00am | 27.7 | 72.5 | 27.7 | 66.5 | | 12.30pm | 28.6 | 67.4 | 28.7 | 65.7 | | 2.00pm | 29.1 | 74.1 | 27.3 | 66.0 | | 3.30pm | 30.0 | 75.3 | 27.7 | 62.8 | | 5.00pm | 29.7 | 72.7 | 27.9 | 69.1 | 30th July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.3 | 72.5 | 28.0 | 69.0 | | 10.00am | 27.1 | 73.0 | 27.1 | 67.0 | | 12.30pm | 27.0 | 74.1 | 26.9 | 73.9 | | 2.00pm | 27.3 | 73.0 | 27.2 | 74.5 | | 3.30pm | 27.6 | 71.3 | 29.2 | 65.6 | | 5.00pm | 25.7 | 75.6 | 26.2 | 73.4 | 31st July 2013 | 8.30am | 26.4 | 78.7 | 27.7 | 71.9 | | 10.00am | 27.2 | 72.6 | 28.7 | 69.0 | | 12.30pm | 26.1 | 74.0 | 27.3 | 72.0 | | 2.00pm | 26.7 | 74.7 | 27.7 | 70.2 | | 3.30pm | 26.5 | 73.8 | 27.9 | 68.4 | | 5.00pm | 27.6 | 73.5 | 28.4 | 69.1 | | | | | | | | Max | 31.5 | 93.6 | 32.7 | 88.6 | | Min | 25.1 | 62.7 | 26.0 | 62.8 | | Average | 28.0 | 80.8 | 28.5 | 78.0 |

Exhibit 2: Production Attendance Record

Exhibit 3: Breakdown for the Attendance Analysis MONTH | Annual Leave | Emergency Leave | Medical Leave | Absent | Mar-13 | 8 | 1 | 5 | 0 | Apr-13 | 17 | 1 | 13 | 1 | May-13 | 24 | 2 | 24 | 1 | Jun-13 | 18 | 5 | 20 | 4 | Jul-13 | 24 | 4 | 20 | 1 | Aug-13 | 24 | 2 | 17 | 2 | Sep-13 | 31 | 0 | 22 | 2 |

Exhibit 4: Data adapted from ASHRAE 55-2010. Temperature / Humidity Ranges for Comfort | Conditions | Relative Humidity | Acceptable Operating Temperatures | | | °C | °F | Summer (light clothing) | If 30%, then
If 60%, then | 24.5 – 28.0
23.0 - 25.5 | 76 - 82
74 - 78 | Winter (warm clothing) | If 30%, then
If 60%, then | 20.5 - 25.5
20.0 – 24.0 | 69 - 78
68 - 75 |…...

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...Organizational Issues Ethics and Social Responsibility/ETH 316 December 10, 2012 University of Phoenix Organizational Issues Ethics are a set of principles or values that help guide people to determine if something is right or wrong. They influence decisions that people make everyday. They are also the principles and standards of conduct the guide an individual or a group. In this week's assignment I opted for the EthicsGame simulations: “The Mysterious Blogger” and “The Veiled ID” The two simulations provided different ethical issues. “The Mysterious Blogger concerns the issue obtaining information that was illegally obtained to prove that an employee violated a non-disclosure agreement. Aaron Webb is an employee working in the MD department and posted confidential information in a blog concerning the company. An IT tech, Jamal Moore felt that his supervisor was not taking the situation seriously. He took it upon himself to hacked into Mr. Webb's home computer and found incriminating evidence. In “The Veiled ID” concerns the issue of protecting employees while also protected their rights and special needs. The company is beefing up security due to an unfortunate situation. The solution is to have each employee where security badges with a photo ID. Atsha Mullah religious belief is not to be seen without her veil to anyone other than her family and the photo would be in violation of that belief. In both simulations the......

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...Organizational Issues Axia College of the University of Phoenix ETH/316 Mary Sortino Feb. 12, 2013 The film I choose is “Good Vibrations” an animated film that was found on the, The Responsibility Project website. The film is about community responsibility and what the cost are involved in being self- righteous. In the film there is a construction worker using a jackhammer to break up concrete in the street, which is causing the surrounding area shake. It is causing a loose piece of concrete shake causing people who walk by it on the sidewalk to trip and fall. In the office building across the street from where this was happing, many of the office workers were watching the people trip and fall on the loose concrete and laughing and making fun of all the people that were falling. The next person that was walking down the side walk was an older gentleman that was walking with a cane. One of the workers that was laughing at the other people that fell noticed the old man he was going to warn the gentleman about the trip hazard, but he was unable to get the window open in time. The man did not fall and stood on the loose concrete after seeing that this is a major hazard to other people. The older man keeps putting up the caution sign that keeps falling over due to the vibration of the jackhammer, before the little boy riding his bike passes over it and gets hurt from falling on the loose section of concrete. The issue in this film makes a very important......

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...composed of a unique blend from various sources based on U.S. historical roots. Fundamentally, much of American law is derived from English legal doctrines that came with the English settlers of the colonies. Modern law in the United States regulating businesses and individuals is generally a combination of constitutional law, statutory law, common law, and administrative (regulatory) law at the federal, state, and local levels. These sources of law are known as primary sources of law and may sometimes work in conjunction with one another or independently.” (Melvin, "SOURCES AND LEVELS OF AMERICAN LAW," 2011) Constitutional law is concerned with the study, interpretation, and application of a country or states constitution. This can include issues with governing, the powers of the branches of government, civil liberties, and civil rights. Statutory law is the written ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF LAW PAPER 3 law that is established by enactments expressing the will of the legislature. Common law is the unwritten law based on custom or court decision; distinct from statute law. Administrative law is the area of law that deals with the affairs of agencies of the executive branch of a government. Law is important in society because with put things would run amuck. People still do what they want to do with our disregard for others, but having laws helps to keep everyone else in line. Without a set of laws it is hard to imagine just how chaotic things could actually be, and......

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...Organizational Issues It has been said that integrity is doing the right thing when we think no one is looking. Maybe integrity is choosing to do hard things when most people would give us a pass on taking the easy way out. For the purpose of this paper, integrity could be defined as ethics inspired actions. While the story of Avalon International Breads (Avalon) is focused on their commitment to the rebuilding of Detroit, it can stand as a model of integrity for the many cities and towns across America that have been devastated during the recent economic crisis. Detroit has suffered greatly in recent years because of the economic shift in our nation that has greatly impacted the manufacturing sector. Detroit had been an epicenter of manufacturing for the past century, thanks to manufacturing innovators such as Henry Ford, and the auto industry (The City of Detroit, 2012). Today, Detroit is a shadow of its former self, and to many it serves as a stark warning of what might lie ahead for many other cities. Politicians and bureaucrats in Washington D.C. continue to argue as to the state of our economy, whether we are on the road to recovery, or whether we are simply waiting for the other shoe to drop. Many of us get a good indicator of the situation every time we fill up our gas tank, or buy groceries. The video about Avalon demonstrates that ordinary people can make a difference by sharing the hope with others that we still control our own destiny. Jackie Victor and...

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...Organizational Issues ETH/316 June 10, 2013 Viewing the short film Lighthouse in “The Responsibility Project Website,” the organizational issues was exhibited. Ethical principles are something to be focused on by the organization’s issues. By watching this short film “Lighthouse” it was abundantly clear how important ethical principles are in any organization and how this can alter and influence them. “A grumpy lighthouse keeper tests and redefines his own limits of responsibility.” (June, 2008). The issues in the film are important in this case because it is clear how a normal shift things are not going right, and there would be nothing, which could make things go any worse. There are many times when an employee will rather stay in bed for the day. Incidents happen, and things are out of one’s control, the easy thing to do is throw in the towel; however this is not the thing to do. Mishaps occur, and when it does, one should assess what is occurring at work. In this situation the light can be fixed, and used the equipment utilized for this job. The lighthouse keeper looks as there was not a solution, and at the time he did not view what was available to fix this problem. In this case the best thing for the lighthouse keeper was not to panic. Darkness may appear in a job, but there is always options, in this case the light at the end of the tunnel. The film “Lighthouse” teaches when one thing fails, go at it another way, the people came together and helped the......

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...Organizational Issues Name ETH/316 January 14, 2013 Penny Hylton ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES Security measures are being implemented to prevent confidential information leaks within the company. Once the security measures have been established it immediately noticed that there was a leak of information, which was not considered confidential. This information had been leaked from an employee of the company. In addition, another member of the company did additional research to find out who exactly was sharing the information with the public. It came from an initially anonymous source who hacked into the personal computer of a fellow employee. A decision has to be made on how to handle the two employees who have violated company policy and prevent further occurrences of the same situations. Decision Making The first step in the decision making process is to be attentive. In this step you pay attention to your surroundings. You need to know the facts, you need to know who has to make the decision, and you need to know what problem needs to be solved. In this scenario the sources of information are emails, background information, and knowing the issues. The second step is being intelligent. In this step in the decision making process you have to evaluate the situation. It is also important to know who the stockholders are and know the values of the stockholders. The third step in the decision making process is be reasonable. During this step in the decision......

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...Organizational Issues Paper ETH/316 2013 Wally-world For many years, Wal-Mart has climbed the business ladder to become the largest retailer in the world. Wal-Mart has been unstoppable and undoubtedly unbeatable in its pricing when compared to its competitors. Many mom and pop stores have fallen victims having to close up their doors when a new Wal-Mart has opened in their neighborhood. With such high volume of sales, and an ever demanding stockholders standard of high dividend payouts year after year, Wal-Mart unfortunately went through many years where it put dollars ahead of its corporate responsibilities. Numerous organizations were created to keep a watch on Wal-Mart’s practices with its employees, and just as importantly, with the products it sells to unsuspecting customers. Wal-MartWatch (n.d.) stated “Wal-Mart is famous for its low prices….making customers forget about everything except low prices. The reality is much harsher than the company’s marketing would have consumers believe: these low prices often come at a deadly cost” (p. 1). Wal-Mart continues to be a target and placed under a microscope to ensure its ethical behavior improves along with the merchandise it provides. The Evil Empire Since its founding, Wal-Mart has made great efforts to establish itself as a reputable company in the United States and around the world. Customers have flocked to the giant retailer in hopes of finding a bargain they may not otherwise find at a......

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...Organizational Issues ETH/316 June 19, 2013 Organizational Issues In the past month a very popular retail store has been criticized and even boycott. Abercrombie & Fitch has been on top of the news headlines where the CEO Mike Jeffries makes some unwanted comments in regards to the time of people that their clothing caters to. In an a Business Insider interview Mr. Jeffries makes it known the public that they will not make any clothing extra large for women. He believes big girls are not hot enough to wear his clothing line. (Bennett, 2013) Issue This issue is important to address because it targets teenagers that just do not fit the mold that Mr. Jeffries is wanting to target. He believes that thin, hot looking people are considering the “cool kids” and the most attractive. These kids are the popular kids the fat girls are the unpopular kids, and he does not want to see then in his clothing line. His stores have been boycotting because of the discriminations against larger women that might have wanted to purchase an item of clothing, but is unable because his company does not make clothing larger that Large size. In which it has been said that their large size run small to be even consider large. (Bennett, 2013) Social Pressure Boycotting has been putting a great amount of social pressure to the company after the CEO made those remarks on the business insider interview and in another interview in 2006. But it has not had much effect on the company to......

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...Organizational Issues Devon Okafor ETH/316 October 30, 2013 Organizational Issues In the responsibility project discussed, we will view Erin Ganju’s organization “Room to Read” and the important issues viewed in the film that surround this organization and why they are of importance. As Ganju’s embark on her journey across international waters, we will examine the external social pressures Ganju faces, how they may be influencing the organizational ethics. We also determine if these issues hold relevance to influence the decisions made both personally and organizational. Possessing such a global vision, we look to see existing legal challenges, along with ethical matters and how the relate to one another. Important Issues Through Ganju’s childhood experiences she has co-founded “Room to Read” which recognizes the need to provide educational literature to children all across the world regardless of their geographic location, hope that it will groom world change. Ganju’s believes that in order to bring about world change, it must begin with educating and empowerment of children. Ganju faces a continuous battle of breaking through the social, economic and cultural barriers which impede ability to empower the children through books. External Social Pressures In certain nations and cultures, it is socially unacceptable for young children and especially females to read. In some cases, due to the social and economic demands placed on children they are found taking on......

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...Organizational Issues Ashley Anderson ETH/316 March 6, 2014 Organizational Issues The ethical issues presented in Week Three Ethics Game Simulations were from the Mysterious Blogger and The Veiled Id, the ethical issues address in game simulation of "The Mysterious Blogger" was whether or not the material gained by IT Tech, Jamal Moore was ample to control blogging employee Aaron Webb for violating the NDA policy. The ethical concerns for the game simulations for "The Veiled ID", was to address how to improve a security policy that would accommodate the special needs and the physical safety of the employees'. The decision-making steps one took to address these issues are base on the situation one held "The Mystery Blogger" one was able to conclude the best avenue ethically to approach in order to take action on both issues address in the game. First, this authors decision-making capability are base on protecting the interest of the shareholders and how these conclusions could affect the shareholders in both short and long-term. Ethical issues that ascend within an organization or business but also harm an individual employee, but it will harm the business and anyone who has made an investment in the business or business. Apart from shielding the interest of shareholders and the company, it also comes down to always subsequent company policies and doing the right thing. If organizations policies are broken in any way, shape or form, this author would......

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...Organizational Issues Micaela Johnson ETH316 March 24, 2014 Charles Wittenberg Organizational Issues After completing the Ethical issues simulation I learned that there are different lenses that help to facilitate how one makes an ethical decision. The ethical issue presented in case one was about a current employee who leaked confidential information on his personal blog and another employee who violated codes to find out who it was. Both employees were in the wrong even thought one employee considered himself helping the situation by finding out who leaked the information and coming forward. His means of finding out who committed the crime were illegal which therefore makes him liable for his actions, even if he had good intentions. In the second case, the ethical issue was how to develop a security policy that provides for employees' physical safety and accommodates special needs.  The first thing to considered in the decision making process is who are the stakeholders? Consider the people involved in the dilemma and determine who will be affected by the decision made. The stakeholders are the people that are directly involved in the situation, directly affected by the decision, or hold interest that need to be protected. The next step in the decision making process is to determine which ethical lens best fits the issue the company is dealing with. There are four different lenses rights and responsibility lens, result lens, relationship lens and reputation lens.......

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...Organizational Issues For any business that depends on the community to survive, Greyston Bakery feels it is important to let everyone know that they support their community and its people. It is important that companies give back to the communities that support them in their business endeavors and Greyston Bakery does it well. They not only hire local people from the community to work in their bakery but they give back in other ways as well. Greyston funds other community services such as after –school day care, low-income housing, they assist with health care for those with HIV that cannot afford to pay for it. There was a time when small mom and pops played a big part in their communities by helping those that needed help with food or rent. Everyone in the community patronized these local community businesses and helped to grow some of them into empires. According to "Mom And Pop Business That Turned Into Empires" (2011), (There are 10 mom and pop businesses that turned into empires, Walmart, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, and Ben and Jerry’s, Party Pieces, Energy Brands, Wrigley, Burt’s Bees, Yankee Candle Company, Mattell and Whole Foods Market.) Because of community support and their interaction with the community they grew to mega corporations. This decision to give back to the community had to be made at the top and flow down to the staff. This decision has given the owners an opportunity to show their workers and the community it is not always about the money, but...

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... Organizational Issues Pamela E. Williams ETH/316 August 13, 2012 Michelle Clark-Washington Organizational Issues There were two dilemmas presented in the ethics game .The first ethics dilemma was two employees Aaron and Jamal hacking into their company system. Both of the employees thought they were doing the right thing for different reasons. Aaron was hacking the company’s computer system because he felt that the company was hiding unethical practices that he felt the consumers who bought their product should know about. The second employee Jamal also felt the need or duty to hack in to the company’s computer system to prove who the person was that using sensitive material about the company in a blog. They both were acting out of a sense of duty to something that they felt strongly about. Aaron believed it was his duty to let other employees and prospective customers know that there were some unethical, practices within the company. Jamal felt that the company was not doing what it should be doing to find out who the leak was that was writing the blog about the company. He then hacked the computer system to find out whom the leak was and that he did do and reported it to the proper people. I had to then determine what the right thing to do concerning both parties was. Both parties felt that they were right by doing what they did. The ethical theory that Aaron based his decision on was utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the ethical theory that achieving the greatest......

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