Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Life Changes and/ or Daily Hassles as Sources of Stress

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By charliesavage95
Words 973
Pages 4
Outline and Evaluate research into life changes and/ or daily hassles as sources of stress
Holmes and Rahe carried out research into the idea that life changes are linked to stress and illness. They suggested that change is stressful and therefore this affects health. They developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), as a way to measure the relationship between life changes and physical illness. The SRRS is made up of 43 life events and each event is given a score called life change units (LCUs).

Rare et al used the SRRS to test the hypothesis that the number of life events a person experienced would be positively correlated with illness. He used 2700 participants which were all males who worked for the US Navy and made them complete the SRRS. They made them carry out a questionnaire before a tour of duty and they had to note down all the life events that they experienced in them six months (to create the LCU score). An illness score was then calculated based on the number, type and severity of illnesses that the men developed whilst on tour. The SRRS and the illness score were analysed and it was discovered that there was a significant weak positive correlation between LCU score and illness score of + 0.118.
They found that it does not matter whether an event is positive or negative; it is the amount of change an individual has to deal with during a life event that creates stress. This supports the idea that there is a positive correlation between life changes and physical illness, this occurs because life changes cause stress and stress causes illness.

A strength of this research is that it used a large sample size, as 2700 individuals completed the SRRS, so the results are more likely to representative and valid due to the larger sample size.
However, this study can be criticised as androcentric because it only used male participants and therefore…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Effects on Stress in the Immune System

...Outline and Evaluate research into the effects on Stress in the Immune System (12 marks) Stress is an environmental event or situation (a stressor), which can induce a stress response in us. When someone is experiencing a stressful situation, all the body's resources are diverted and this suppresses the immune system because of the high levels of stress hormones, corticosteroids, which shrink the thymus glands preventing the growth of T-cells. This makes us more vulnerable to infection and disease. 
Various studies have been devised to test whether stress makes us more vulnerable to infection and illness. 

 Research has supported the theory that stress can reduce the effectiveness of the immune system. Kiecolt-Glaser et al 1984 devised the study of exam stress and the immune function in people exposed to high levels of stress. Blood samples were taken from medical students 1 month before their final exams (control reading) and on the first day of their exams. (stress reading) Participants also completed psychological questionnaires, and the difference in blood counts was greatest for those who reported highest levels of anxiety and social isolation. This sample of participants is an unrepresentative sample of the general population and its generalisation is therefore restricted only to medical students. Also the questionnaire is subjective and social desirability may take over the participant’s answers as they may be worrying who will see them. The......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Biological Approach to Stress

...Outline and evaluate the Biological approach to abnormality The biological approach suggests that psychological disorders should be treated medically, as this model puts forward the idea that any psychological abnormality is causes by genetic factors and body malfunctions. The model as 4 different elements that may be the cause of psychological abnormalities; viral infections, biochemistry, brain damage, genetic factors. Several studies have been carried out by different researchers to investigate the theories of the model. Biochemical elements, is one of the highly researched parts of this model, where Weinberger in 2002 carried out research that suggested the 22nd chromosome doubled the risk of developing schizophrenia, another study carried out by Zubieta in 2000, where PET scans helped figured out that 30% higher levels of dopamine, serotin and norepinephrine were i9n people with bipolar disorder. On the other hand Janowsky carried out a study to show how biochemical imbalances lead to manic depression. While souse carried out a study in 2010 where genomes of 1000 autistics and 1200 non autistic participants, results showed that autistic participants carry 20% more copy number variation which suggests that this may be caused due to genetics. The viral infections elements were also researched by brown in 2000 where findings suggested that there’s a link between respiratory infections and the second trimester of pregnancy, which may results in the foetus developing......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress-Related Illness. (12 Marks)

...There has been a lot of research that suggests that the immune system can be severely affected by stress. Kiecolt-Glaser did an experiment to evaluate the effect of acute stressors on the immune system. She had a group of students who were about to have their medical exams. She took the blood sample one month before the exams and another during the exam period. She measured the NK cell activity to see how the immune system was effected and found that the NK cell activity had dropped significantly in the second blood sample that had been taken shows that stress had caused to lower the efficiency of the immune system and made the students were vulnerable to stress-related illnesses. Also Marucha et al. conducted a study involving a group of students. Marucha inflicted a punch-biopsy 3 days before an exam and found that the wound took 40% longer to heal when the wound was inflicted during the exam period. Also if a acute stressors could have such a negative impact on the immune system on chronic stressors where also suspected to have a similar effect. Kiecolt-Glaser conducted a study where a group of married couples were asked to have discussions about their marriage and also of the couples had blisters on their arms. It was found that the groups of couples that had very supportive discussions showed the wound healing process to be much faster in comparison to the people who had an argumentative discussion. Also another researcher observed 90 newly wedded couples for a 24......

Words: 424 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress-Related Illness. (12marks)

...Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and Stress-related illness. (12marks) It is suggested that stress can result in immunosuppression which can lead to stress-related illnesses such as Coronary Heart Disease and high blood pressure. Kiecolt and Glaser conducted an experiment to see the effects of stress on the immune system. This was achieved by taking blood samples of 75 medical students one month before and during their examination period. They then compared the two blood samples and found decreased leucocyte activity in the sample taken during high levels of stress (during their exams). This shows that stress reduces the activity of the immune system, making them more susceptible to becoming ill. Advantages of the study are that blood tests are objective measurements, so there was no social desirability or experimenter bias when analysing the results. The participants were also compared to themselves which removes participant variables on how they perceive stressors. The experiment was a field experiment so there was no manipulating of the independant variable to deliberately cause stress to the participants which makes it ethical. It also means the research has ecological validity and can be applied to the wider world. However, a field experiment may have extraneous variables which impact the results. For example, the student lifestyle of having little sleep and poor accomidation may have been an alternative source of stress.......

Words: 350 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Personality Types and Stress Related Illness. (12 Marks)

...Outline and evaluate research into personality types and stress related illness. (12 marks) Friedman and Rosenman identified two types of personality that relate to individual responses to stress these were type A and type B. Type A personalities are said to be impatient, competitive, ambitious, aggressive, find it hard to relax. In contrast, type B personalities are the opposite, being less driven, more easy going, patient and able to relax. Friedman and Rosenman conducted a longitudinal study in which 3000 middle aged men in california were examined for signs of CHD, while there personalities were also assessed using a structured interview. The findings showed after 81/2 years, twice as many type A participants had died of cardiovascular problems. while over 12% of type A participants had experiencedd a heart attack compared to just 6% of type B participants. Friedman and Rosenman concluded that Type A behaviour signifcantly increased the risk of coronary heart disease, and that personality types can contributre to stress related illness. A strenght of this study is its sample size as there is a increase in population validity. This is because 3000 participants were used which therefore provides a more representative set of results. However on the other hand a criticism of this study is it also lack external validity as all the participants were male therefore it cant be generalised to other cultures. Furthermore a study which is against Friedman and Rosenman is......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Relationship Between the Workplace and Stress

...Outline and Evaluate the relationship between the workplace and stress Many people believe work affects their health. Defining what is stressful in the workplace is not easy, because individuals react quite differently to the same situation. However, some common factors have been found in many workers that cause them stress and in some cases lead to illness. These include the level of control they have (low control = stress), the amount of workload they have (high workload = stress) and role conflict (getting the work life balance right). The job-strain model of workplace stress suggests that the workplace creates stress and illness in two ways, through high workload (putting pressure on people to work harder) and low job control (e.g. over deadlines and procedures). Marmot tested this model by studying 7372 civil servants. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire on workload, job control and how much social support they received. They were also checked for signs of cardiovascular disease (e.g. chest pains). Five years later they were then re-assessed to see if those who reported difficulties also had more severe heart disease. They found that for workload and stress there was no link. However, for job control and social support there was a link. The lowest grade civil servants had both low job control and poor social support and had the highest level of cardiovascular problems. In contrast the higher-grade civil servants expressed a high level of job control......

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline & Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress-Related Illness

...Outline & evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress-related illness (12) AO1 - COHEN ET AL investigated the role of general life stress on vulnerability to the common cold virus. 394 participants completed questionnaires on the number of stressful life events experience in the previous year. They also rated their degree of stress and level of negative emotions such as depression. The 3 scores were combined into a stress index. Ps were then exposed to the common cold virus which lead to 82% becoming infected. After 7 days, the number whose infection developed into a clinical cold was recorded. They found the chance of developing the cold i.e. failing to fight off the viral infection was significantly correlated with stress index scores. AO2 – however this was an indirect study as there were no direct measures of immune function. Nevertheless the results have been supported by Evans & Edgington who found the probability of developing the cold was significantly correlated with negative life events in the preceding days. The study did measure health outcomes (development of clinical colds) showing a relationship between life stress and illness. However, there was no direct manipulation of the independent variable (stress index) therefore a cause and effect relationship cannot be confirmed – only correlational data. Finally, the study doesn’t tell us which of the 3 elements of the stress index is most important and/or if all 3 really......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Life Changes and/or Daily Hassles. (12)

...into life changes and/or daily hassles. Holmes & Rahe, two American doctors saw that the medical records showed that patients who got ill the most contained lots of life events prior to their illness. They decided to make a list of 43 life events after looking at the medical records of over 5000 patients. They needed some way to make a relationship between life changes and how many times they got ill. So they got 400 men and women to look at the list and rate the events on how much adjustment they would require. After all of them had been ranked they found that death of a spouse was ranked the highest, with minor violations of the law was ranked the lowest. Each event was give a numerical value depending on how much readjustment was needed. These were called Life Change Units (LCU). The life events were put in a scale with highest numerical value being 100 and the lowest being 11 LCUs. The Social Readjustment and Rating Scales (SRRS) was ready to test the idea that life changes were stressors and could cause illness as they needed readjustment. A study that used the SRRS is the Rahe (1970) sailor study. Rahe aimed to investigate whether life changes caused illness. He did this by collecting 2500 male American sailors and giving them each the SRRS to complete. Over six months a detailed medical records were kept of each salior. Each sailor was given a score based on how many times they were ill and the serverity of the illness. They were then correlated with the life......

Words: 377 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Privation.

...Outline and evaluate research into Privation Privation is the failure to form an attachment, this may be due to extremely poor parenting or prolonged stays away from a potential attachment figure, e.g. whilst in hospital. One famous study on extreme privation is the case study of Genie: Genie was locked in a room by her father until she was thirteen and a half years old and never fully recovered and proceeded to lack social responsiveness. Her lack of recovery may be due to the fact that she was found beyond the sensitive period or because of the physical deprivation she experienced. Additionally, another well-known case study on privation is the Czech twins whom spent the first seven years of their life locked up by their stepmother and were unable to talk. Once they were found they were then cared for by two sisters and by the age of fourteen they were socially and intellectually stable and had no problems with relationships and intelligence. The two studies both demonstrate privation; however, they both differ in terms of recovery from the privation. The negative effects of privation were more easily reversed with the Czech twins than Genie; this could have been due to the fact they went to a stable loving home which gave them sufficient emotional care. They were also younger when discovered; this may also contribute to the ease of recovery. The Czech twins were together; this means they could recover better socially as they were not alone, unlike Genie who was secluded......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress

...Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and Stress-related illness. (12marks) It is suggested that stress can result in immunosuppression which can lead to stress-related illnesses such as Coronary Heart Disease and high blood pressure. Kiecolt and Glaser conducted an experiment to see the effects of stress on the immune system. This was achieved by taking blood samples of 75 medical students one month before and during their examination period. They then compared the two blood samples and found decreased leucocyte activity in the sample taken during high levels of stress (during their exams). This shows that stress reduces the activity of the immune system, making them more susceptible to becoming ill. Advantages of the study are that blood tests are objective measurements, so there was no social desirability or experimenter bias when analysing the results. The participants were also compared to themselves which removes participant variables on how they perceive stressors. The experiment was a field experiment so there was no manipulating of the independant variable to deliberately cause stress to the participants which makes it ethical. It also means the research has ecological validity and can be applied to the wider world. However, a field experiment may have extraneous variables which impact the results. For example, the student lifestyle of having little sleep and poor accomidation may have been an alternative source of stress.......

Words: 350 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Types of Attachment

...Outline and evaluate research into types of attachment. The Strange Situation was devised by Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues in order to test the nature of attachment by placing an infant in conditions of mild distress which was caused by the presence of a stranger and separation from the caregiver. This also allowed the observers to measure stranger anxiety and separation anxiety. The procedure consisted of eight episodes with each episode designated to behaviour for example episode 3 the entrance of the stranger measured the stranger anxiety. With respects to the Strange Situation, Ainsworth found out that there were three types of attachment. One of these being secure attachment, these infants were in a happy relationship with their caregiver, however were distressed by the presence of the stranger and separation from the caregiver. They happily greeted their caregiver on reunion. The second type of attachment was insecure- avoidant, these infants avoided social interaction and intimacy. They were unaffected by the presence of the stranger and separation from the caregiver. Lastly, the third type of attachment was insecure- resistant, in which the infant had high levels of stranger anxiety and separation anxiety and they rejected the caregiver on reunion. The Strange Situation has provided means through which we can study attachment types and later correlated them with behaviours in the future as done by Prior and Glaser who conducted a longitudinal studies and......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Conformity

...Outline and evaluate research into conformity: (12 marks) Asch carried out a key study in the field of conformity in 1951, looking at whether people will conform to the group and give an incorrect answer to a simple question. Asch used 50 male college students overall, and in each group there were 7 students - one oblivious participant, and 6 confederates of the experimenter. Asch showed each group a series of cards in pairs - one card had a vertical line on it, and the second card had 3 lines of differing lengths on it, one of which matched the line on the first card. One by one, the students were asked aloud which line matched the one on the first card - A, B or C. The six confederates of the experimenter gave the same wrong answer, and Asch observed whether the oblivious participant conformed to the group and gave the incorrect answer. Asch found that around 75% of participants conformed to the incorrect answer at least once, showing that even in situations where the correct answer is obvious, there is still huge pressure to conform, especially when the group is unanimous. A weakness of this study is that the sample was small, unrepresentative and biased - Asch used only male students, all the same age and all from the same college, meaning that the results can’t be generalized to females or older or younger people. Another issue is that the task was artificial, meaning that the study had low ecological validity and the findings can’t be generalized to other real-life...

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Studies Into Conformity

...A research done in conformity was conducted by Sherif. He did a lab experiment where he asked participants to watch a non-moving light in a dark room. The light appeared to move when in fact it was a visual illusion. Participants were asked to estimate the movement of the light alone and then in groups of three. He found that when participants were asked to estimate the movement of the light alone there was a variation in answers. However, when they were in groups of three participants changed their answers to give an average of their individual estimates. A criticism of Sherif’s study is that its low in ecological validity, for example the task that participants were asked to do is not a task you would do in everyday life. Therefore we may not be able to generalise these results to real life situations in which people conform to a majority. Another criticism of Sherif’s study is that it raises ethical issues, for example participants were deceived as they were not told the truth about the light not moving. Therefore this can lead to the participants feeling stressed as they try to find out the answer. This would raise another ethical issue as Sherif has not protected his participants from harm therefore this shows that Sherif is valuing his experiment more than his participants. Another criticism to Sherif’s study is that the answer to the task is ambiguous; for example, we don’t know whether the participants conformed to others due to them generally being affected......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate Psychological Research Into Biological Methods of Stress Management (12 Marks)

...When trying to cope with stress, some individuals use biological treatments (drugs) to help them manage their stress as it directly targets the stress response systems. One example is Benzodiazepines (BZs), such as Librium and Valium, they work by slowing down the activity of the central nervous system and reduce central arousal. BZs enhance the actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which is a neurotransmitter and is the body’s natural form of anxiety relief. BZs enhance the action by reacting with GABA receptors (which increases the flow of chloride ions into the neuron) meaning it is harder for the neuron to be stimulated and the person feels more relaxed. BZs also reduces the levels of serotonin (a neurotransmitter that has an arousing affect on the brain), by decreasing these levels it reduces the anxiety the person feels. A strength of BZs is they are an effective form of stress management, for example Kahn et al’s (1989) study of 250 patients found that BZs were significantly more effective than placebos. This suggests that BZs do work at reducing the stress levels of individuals and are an effective way of treating stress. However, a weakness of BZs is that they have been known to produce ‘paradoxical’ symptoms, such as: aggression and cognitive problems (impaired memory). This is a weakness because the side effects of the drug treatment might be worse than the original symptoms of stress that the individual is seeking help from, plus these side effects could......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Obedience

...of participants went to the end of the shock generator, issuing out the whole 450 volts of shock. Milgram concluded that under circumstances like these, most people will obey orders that go against their beliefs or conscience. This study has many ethical issues that need to be taken into consideration. To start with, the participants were told that they were involved in a study on the effects of punishment on learning, and did not know it had anything to do with obedience, therefore they were being deceived by Milgram. The participants were also put under a great deal of stress, which could have caused some serious psychological damage. Additionally, they had no right to withdraw from the experiment, putting even more pressure on them to administer the electric shocks. The study also has some lack of realism linked to it. The laboratory in which the experiment was carried out in does not resemble a real life situation at all, as Milgram had invited the participants there and wasn’t occurring naturally, showing how it in fact had low ecological validity. This could have affected results slightly, as participants in an experiment would react more real-like if it was set in situation they would be likely to come across. Furthermore, only male participants were asked to be part of the study, which could be a problem. Milgram should have studied the effects of obedience on both genders, in order to receive the most amount of fair data. Gender differences would have not affected......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Nero Lite-Micro v12.0. | Hyakka Ryouran: Samurai Girls + Spesial Episode BD Subtitle Indonesia | Sword Art Online - Fairy Dance