Premium Essay

Outline Future Options for Melbourne’s Water Resource

In: Science

Submitted By yuki9180
Words 1948
Pages 8
Outline future options for Melbourne’s water resource

Abstract
Melbourne’s water reserves in the past 10 years have been exhausted; meanwhile climate change predictions indicate the pressure of water lack will be increasingly serious (Howe et.al 2005). This problem is not just for Melbourne, Australia and many other parts of the world also face to the water shortage problem. Since there is a grave water shortage in Melbourne, the policy of sustainable water management is becoming very important. In order to prevent further deterioration of water shortage in the future, the Victorian Government made a series of countermeasures. There are several projects to solve the scarcity of water problem in the future and work out Melbourne’s future water supply needs, such as water restriction in Melbourne; spending nearly 2 billion dollars to build one of the world’s biggest water desalination plants at South Melbourne; building catchment to collect and feed rain into eight of Melbourne’s reservoirs and protecting the water catchment area; establishing two large sewage treatment plants in east and west Melbourne. The other countries also did a lot to protect water resource such as Singapore used nearly half of the national area to build water reservoir; Moscow had developed high technology for Sewage treatment system. The Victorian Government dedicated in long-term water management to protect water security and in responding to Victoria's population growth and economic development; the government is confident in the face of drought and climate change challenges to reduce the influence of water shortage in the future.

The World Resource Institute’s statistic shows Australia is one of the countries whose consumption of energy and water resource per capita are most in the world. Each person living in Melbourne spends…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Future of Human Resource Management

...Human Resource Management is the process of “getting keeping, and growing good people.” (Mike Losey, 2005) As people look to the past of Human Resource Management, they must also look at the changes needed to perform the duties in the future. Technology, society, and business have changed over time causing the duties of a Human Resource Manager to change. In the past, many employees and companies shared a common loyalty for each other that made the staff members dedicate their lives to the same company. That has now changed with people moving from company to company in search of experience and the challenge to improve their resume. As the position moves into the future, each manager needs to realize that they have to be able to wear many different hats. In order to obtain qualified employees, an HR Manager should have an understanding of every aspect of the company. The position of a Human Resource Manager is always revolving into a new aspect of the company. In order to progress into the future of HR, professionals must look into the past. This will allow companies to anticipate issues that may arise and avoid outcomes that were produced in the past. As companies move into the future, they need to create a network of recruiting that does not force them to weed through tons of applicants. In the past, access to qualified individuals has been limited to a local area, but the future offers technology that opens the door to applicants worldwide. Using the older method of......

Words: 2470 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan

...------------------------------------------------- Water Resource Plan SCI/275 October 6, 2013 Katrina Baron October 6, 2013 Katrina Baron The issue of freshwater pollution is a serious level of concern. The Environmental Protection Agency has projected that water pollution will be as high in 2025 as it was in 1968, which is before the passage of the Clean Water Act. We must comprehend the problems and become part of the resolution in order to combat this pollution. There are many different types of water pollution, with that being said the quality and quantity of our clean freshwater resources are depleting. The water pollution is not just a local issue but rather a global problem that does require serious attention in order for the cleanup of these contaminates to be anywhere near successful. According to Pielou, (1998) “The UN reports that one person in six lives without regular access to safe drinking water.” There are many essential changes that are needed that are not going to come easily. We need to remember that water is essential to the survival of all living things. We need to do everything we can to maintain the quality of clean water. The world today has various categories of water pollution that affects it. We do recognize this reality, but humans still ignore this problem by polluting the rivers and lakes. Many humans throw their trash into the lakes and rivers when they are fishing and camping. The main contributors of water pollution are classified......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Futures and Options

...| Futures & Options Report | | | | | | a) Our portfolio consists of five stocks, one put option and one futures contract. The five stocks we have are Exxon Mobil (XOM), Johnson & Johnson (JNJ), Google (GOOG), Ford (F), and Amazon (AMZN). These stocks are all traded on the NASDAQ stock market. We have purchased ten shares of each of the five stocks below. Below is a graph with shows when we purchased the stocks and how much it cost at that time.   | Stock P | Date | Time | AMZN | $179.97 | 3/5/2012 | 1:28pm | XOM | $86.67 | 3/5/2012 | 1:29pm | GOOG | $614.70 | 3/5/2012 | 1:28pm | F | $12.48 | 3/5/2012 | 1:29pm | JNJ | $64.67 | 3/5/2012 | 1:28pm | The table below now shows the results of how the stock performed from 3/5/12 to 3/16/12: We will discuss some stock analysis and the gain/loss later in this report.   | Current | Date | Time | AMZN | 185.05 | 3/16/2012 | 1:28pm | XOM | 86.44 | 3/16/2012 | 1:29pm | GOOG | 625.4 | 3/16/2012 | 1:28pm | F | $12.51 | 3/16/2012 | 1:29pm | JNJ | $65.12 | 3/16/2012 | 1:28pm | Other than having five stocks, we have a put option for Procter & Gamble and a futures contract of Gold. b) Analyzing the futures contract of gold we bought at the beginning, March 2, 2012, it closed at $1,698 which meant our initial value was at $10,125 with a margin call at $7500. If it drops below that price then we would have to borrow money to bring it back up to the initial margin. On March 3...

Words: 2652 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Options, Futures and Risk Management

...BFF9515 Options, Futures and Risk management Group assignment Semester 1, 2014 Due date: 16.05.2014 BFF5915 Group Assignment Part 1 1. Compute Beta * Method: First, compute the returns of each stocks and the return of the index. They can be calculated using excel with the formula: (current price / the previous price) – 1, Second, use covariance and variance function in excel to calculate the beta of each stock. Third, multiply each beta with the corresponding weight to calculate the portfolio beta. * The beta for each stocks and the beta for portfolio (see table 1.1) Details can be seen in sheet “EquityReturnData” in the data file “Data.xlsx”. Table 1.1 The Beta(s) of Stocks and Portfolio Name | Code | Weight | Beta | CROWN RESORTS | 51333T(RI) | 7.25% | 0.8039 | COMMONWEALTH BK.OF AUS. | 314054(RI) | 7.26% | 0.8950 | NATIONAL AUS.BANK | 901842(RI) | 3.74% | 1.1317 | COCHLEAR | 871051(RI) | 3.96% | 0.8402 | WESTFIELD GROUP | 912307(RI) | 2.56% | 0.7096 | TELSTRA | 871685(RI) | 4.60% | 0.5050 | MACQUARIE GROUP | 865438(RI) | 4.36% | 1.4238 | INVOCARE | 28047X(RI) | 3.87% | 0.7210 | FLIGHT CENTRE TRAVEL GP. | 871048(RI) | 4.28% | 1.0063 | CSL | 131775(RI) | 4.89% | 0.6488 | SLATER & GORDON | 50509L(RI) | 4.79% | 0.3001 | JB HI-FI | 27736M(RI) | 4.50% | 0.8261 | CARSALES.COM | 67967W(RI) | 4.54% | 0.8459 | WOOLWORTHS | 322714(RI) | 4.86% | 0.5500 | FORTESCUE METALS GP. | 314160(RI) | 7.15% | 1.8687 | The......

Words: 2147 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Water Resources - Overfishing

...Water Resources - Overfishing Science 275 3/2/10 Kenneth Whitehall Water Resources - Overfishing In recent decades the method and technologies involved in commercial fishing has advanced tremendously. With a limited time in the fishing seasons, fisheries are forced to catch as many fish as they can as fast as they can. This, along with the growing population of people and their appetites for fish, is causing a major problem with overfishing. Overfishing is the process of catching fish faster then they can reproduce. It is fishing that unsustainably depletes fish stocks or that damages the ocean environment. Overfishing is causing irreversible negative effects within the ocean waters of the earth. Every living thing plays its part in the entire food chain from the smallest of organisms to the largest of animal. From the bottom of the food chain to the top all species are both predator and prey. Every living thing is connected in some fashion and relies on each other to complete the circle of life. When a part of this circle is either in shortage or is missing altogether, there is a break in the chain and everything pays the price in the end. Overfishing has become a major problem in recent decades. The damage that overfishing has already caused in the oceans is still often a surprise to environmental experts. Globally, 90% of large fish are already gone (Festa, Regas, & Boomhower, 2008). As the fishing stocks slowly disappear, commercial fisheries are......

Words: 2030 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Effects of Water Resources

...Effects of Water Resources Holly Regan SCI/275 August 29, 2014 Stacy Murphy Effects of Water Resources Groundwater Pollution in the United States is a map of the areas in the United States where significant groundwater pollution is occurring, saltwater intrusion or groundwater is naturally salty, and high level of minerals or other dissolved solids in groundwater. The pollutants range from municipal and industrial wastes such as from oil and gas fields, toxic industrial wastes, landfill leachate, irrigation return waters, and wastes from well drilling, harbor dredging, and excavation for drainage systems. The most significant pollutant throughout the regions of the United States is toxic industrial wastes and wastes from well drilling, harbor dredging, and excavation for drainage systems. Sources of Groundwater Contamination shows an illustration of the way pollutants are entering our groundwater directly or indirectly. Industrial and agricultural waste causes direct pollution which in return causes such actions as loss of wastelands, acid rain, landfill leaching, and faulty sewers. Global warming and drought can cause just as much harm because drought causes salt intrusion that leads to increased metals and acids that can ruin your drinking source. Protecting American’s from Danger in the Drinking Water is about a small town in California named Hinkley. The company Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) and workers at PG&E's nearby compressor station had......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Future of Water

...Nebrija Max Juergens Universidad Nebrija The implications of water scarcity An essay about the present problems and future implications of water scarcity, if the world do not change the utilization. The implications of water scarcity An essay about the present problems and future implications of water scarcity, if the world do not change the utilization. A Clean Water Crisis The water we drink today has likely been around in one form or another since dinosaurs lived on the Earth, hundreds of millions of years ago. While the amount of freshwater on the planet has remained fairly constant over time—continually recycled through the atmosphere—the population has exploded. This means that every year competition for a clean supply of water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and sustaining life intensifies. Freshwater makes up a very small fraction of all water on the planet. While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is ice or ocean. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in glaciers and snowfields. All in all, only 0.007 percent of the planet's water is available to fuel and feed its 6.8 billion people. In the following pages I am going to show the 4 main implications of water scarcity. Implications because of population growth Because of population growth and economic development, water resources in many parts of the world are pushed to their natural......

Words: 1298 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Finance Futures and Options

...FIN425 Futures Project 2 In regards to price of the futures contracts over time, both the contracts we chose seemed to fluctuate between positive and negative price changes. The crude oil contract changed at a smaller ratio compared to the e-mini. As with the price of the futures contract, the price of the underlying assets changed at a similar rate. However, because of the dates we chose, the crude oil underlying asset increased at every interval. The underlying asset for the S&P 500 did not. The basis for the crude oil future is increasing at the end of the interval. This is a negative indicator because we are selling this future. The basis for the e-mini is a negative number that is fluctuating. The negative number is a positive indicator in this case because we are buying this contract. The margin account balance for E-mini S&P 500 future was $26,300. That was found by multiplying the initial maintenance fee of $5,060 by the number of E-mini contracts purchased, which is 5. The account balance experienced rise and fall trends, with four separate occasions that required a margin call in order to keep our maintenance margin above $23,000 ($4,600 marginal maintenance per contract times five contracts). We had to invest an additional $2.8 million in order to meet our margins. The Crude oil futures margin account balance began at $38,500, found by multiply the initial maintenance $3,850 per contract, and we signed on for 10 contracts of the crude oil futures. As......

Words: 352 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Water the Finite Resources

...Water, The Finite Resources Outline   I. Introduction   A. Opener: What is water scarcity?   B. Thesis statement: One of the crises that our environment is facing is fresh water scarcity which is a very serious issue and it affects our global environmental.     II. Water shortage effects on environment and human beings.   A. Causes disease   B. Agricultural fields   C. Poverty group   D. Aquatic Ecosystems   III. Water scarcity is causes by different factors.   A. Global warming   B. Changes of climate   C. Decreasing ground water level   D. Population growth and the increased consumption of water   IV. Solution for water scarcity is a necessity.   A. Water Sharing Treaty   B. Environmentalists Oppose Desalination Solution   C. Government’s rules, regulations and plan   V. Conclusion: People should use water wisely to prepare a better future for our next generation. Water, Our Finite Resources One of the crises that our environment is facing is fresh water scarcity which is a very serious issue and it affects our global environment.   In the boundless black desert of space, the Earth which is always a blue-green oasis has a finite stock of fresh water (Lean, 2009).   Water is the principal element for all socio-economic growth and for sustaining healthy ecosystems (“Water scarcity: The”, n.d.).   Water scarcity is the product of an inequity between the supply of and demand for water supplies in a geographical area.   Plainly put,......

Words: 3208 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Options, Futures and Swaps

...Future, Option and Swap are three types of stocks bought and sold in the stock market. Future means trading an instrument in the future, options give buyers the right to trade security in future and swaps are derivatives where two parties agree to exchange one stream of cash flow with another. Future Trading The future trading consists of trading of futures where the future contracts are traded on the futures exchange. The trading of future contracts or normally termed, futures involves buying or selling of some underlying instruments sometime in the future where the future date is called the final settlement date or delivery date and the pre-set price is referred to as the futures price. The price set on the underlying asset at the day of delivery date is called settlement price in futures trading. Option Trading Options are basically the financial instruments that give the buyers the right to buy or sell the underlying security within a point of time in the future for a price, which is fixed at the time when the option is bought. The stock option buyers are called the holders and sellers are called writers in option trading terminology. The ‘call’ in option trading gives the owner of option a right but not an obligation to buy an underlying security within the specified time while the ‘put’ gives the owner a right but not the obligation to sell the underlying asset within the specified time at a pre-fixed price. The value of a stock option contract is determined......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Effects of Water Resources

...Effects of Water Resources Neal Wolf SCI/275 08/09/2015 Dr. Bryan Taylor Video The video about protecting Americans from danger in drinking water was focused on the effects in the town of Hinkley, CA due to PG&E pollutants. The plant releases tons of Chromium 6 into the environment in Hinkley, CA. Hinkley is suffering because they do not have drinking water, nor do they have sustainable conditions for living due to the pollutants. The environmental issues presented in the video affect me directly because I live in California. The water is very limited due to our ongoing drought and contaminating clean drinking water only causes more issues. I do not live in Hinkley, CA so the issues of drinking water do not affect me directly in that sense. I think that there needs to be closer management over companies and their affects onto the environment. The diagram focuses on the sources of groundwater contamination. There are three areas that deal with groundwater contamination. The three areas of groundwater contamination are natural activities, direct pollution, and indirect pollution. The environmental issues discussed in the diagram affect me directly because pesticides, chemicals. and groundwater pollution are all issues in California. The issues in the diagram that do not affect me directly are the drinking water. The drinking water where I live is not the greatest, but I have my water run through two different filters to prevent any chances of contamination.......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Futures and Options

...proper utilisation of loan money. (iv) Being a member of a cooperative bank, the borrower can participate in the management and also share in the profits of the society. (v) Co-operative loans create a sense of thrift and self-reliance among the low income group. (vi) Loans are generally given for productive purposes and that helps to develop the financial and social status of the people. Drawbacks i) Loan from co-operative banks is available only to members. ii) Co-operative banks find it difficult to ensure repayment of loan money due to inadequate information about the need and utilization of funds by the borrower. There is little scrutiny of the repaying capacity of the loan seeker at the time of granting loan. iii) Inadequate resources and lack of trained personnel for management have restricted the spread of co-operative banking facilities. iv) Co-operative banks depend largely on the support of the Government. Therefore Government rules and regulations sometime create hurdles for the borrowers. v) Credit from co-operative banks is available only for limited purposes....

Words: 3045 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan

...Water Resource Plan Water Resource Plan This is the link to the Audio Ace recording followed by the transcript and references: http://host7721.mytruvirtual.com/AudioAceHHS/?a=QZaecavNuUqbxxxnoatPgg “Coastal development is a major threat to shorelines and ocean waters. High population growth; large for profit corporations; and lack of enforcement for conservation programs; among other things, threaten the sustainability of clean water resources, onshore and off. With the use of an integrated management program people can develop a sustained use of coastal resources and perpetual maintenance initiatives. Sustainable development encourages social well-being along with economic prosperity while minimizing the impact on the ecosystem. With a plan that is tailored to meet the needs of local residents and the needs of the environment, the processes can create a level of cohabitation between man and nature. Through the processes of arrangement, coordination, and review; coastal development can be utilized in a manner that provides a benefit to the people and the environment. Arrangement involves a detailed plan for development and resource protection, including policies, goals, legal authorization and an enforcement mechanism. Coordination with governing agencies; including permit issuers and inspectors; will insure the safety of the resources. Review; including an environmental impact assessment and a review mechanism; insures that the arrangement and coordination have been......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan

...Water Resource Plan Evelyn Hillard University of Phoenix My selection of water resource is water pollution. This is cause by different problem when we dump garage, chemicals in the water, oil, and human waste in rivers and ocean. Water pollution have many different causes it makes it hard sometimes to resolve this issue. Sewage is one of the main causes of water pollution. This type of water pollution affects our lives in many ways. Over billions of people on this earth dispose of sewage waste a lot. When you dispose of sewage in any lakes, rivers, and ocean it takes a affect on our health and living condition. Many people do not realize that water pollution is very important and many people can get sick from it. I believe a good management plan will alleviate the problem of water pollution. Water pollution needs to have strict laws of waste and fuel dumping. They need certain people to go out and do testing on these lakes, rivers, and ocean to make sure that no one is dumping anything into the water. We should also have a machine that clean the water every so often. Making sure that it will collect all the trash and waste. The government needs to make s person pay a fine if they get caught polluting the water. I do not understand of where anyone should have a opposing view of water pollution. My view will be making sure that this world stop polluting the water. This problem is for our......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water Resource Plan Sci275

...Week 6 Assignment Water Resource Plan Jeff White SCI275 January 22, 2012 Week 6 Assignment Water Resource Plan Groundwater consists of surface water of lakes and streams and the underground aquifers that feed them. Because groundwater is believed to be infinitely renewable in many areas of the world, the threat to it is not recognized. This is extremely dangerous because, in reality, groundwater cannot be naturally replenished and plans must be formed to protect it. Many above ground reservoirs that are used as municipal water sources are feed by what are classified as “fossil aquifers”. These aquifers hold water that is, in some cases, hundreds of thousands of years old and they are minimally recharged if at all by surface precipitation that must penetrate hundreds of feet to reach the aquifer. It is estimated that up to 30% of water can be removed from lakes, rivers, and aquifers and not adversely affect the replenishment rate. Based on declining world precipitation estimates and with current and future municipal water consumption, there is no way these water sources can survive indefinitely. One of the key elements of insuring that groundwater will be available in the future is by developing a replenishment plan. Because of the precipitation estimates, natural replenishment seems unreliable and therefore a human methodical process must be employed to make wastewater, meaning municipally treated water that just goes down the drain, useable again. This is known......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Carmen Soup | Lauren Lapkus | Black Bullet