Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

In: Science

Submitted By lilwoman
Words 1897
Pages 8
INTRODUCTION
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. Women have two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries, each about the size of an almond, produce eggs as well as the hormones estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is difficult to treat and is often fatal. Ovarian cancer treatments are available. Researchers are studying ways to improve ovarian cancer treatment and looking into ways to detect ovarian cancer at an earlier stage.

SYMPTOMS
Symptoms of ovarian cancer are not specific to the disease, and they often mimic those of many other more-common conditions, including digestive and bladder problems. When ovarian cancer symptoms are present, they tend to be persistent and worsen with time. Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:
• Abdominal pressure, fullness, swelling or bloating
• Pelvic discomfort or pain
• Persistent indigestion, gas or nausea
• Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation
• Changes in bladder habits, including a frequent need to urinate
• Loss of appetite or quickly feeling full
• Increased abdominal girth or clothes fitting tighter around your waist
• A persistent lack of energy
• Low back pain

CAUSES
It is not clear what causes ovarian cancer. In general, cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic mutation that turns normal cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Cancer cells grow and multiply out of control, and they do not die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass, or tumor. Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body.

Types of ovarian cancer
The type of cell where the cancer begins determines the type of ovarian cancer one has.
Ovarian cancer types include:
• Cancer that begins in the cells on the outside of the ovaries: Called epithelial tumors; these cancers begin in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries. Most ovarian cancers are epithelial tumors.
• Cancer that begins in the egg-producing cells: Called germ cell tumors; these ovarian cancers tend to occur in younger women.
• Cancer that begins in the hormone-producing cell: These cancers, called stromal tumors, begin in the ovarian tissue that produces the hormones estrogen, progesterone and testosterone.
The type of ovarian cancer one has helps determine her prognosis and treatment options.

RISKS FACTORS
Certain factors may increase one’s risk of ovarian cancer. Having one or more of these risk factors does not mean that one is sure to develop ovarian cancer, but her risk may be higher than that of the average woman. These risk factors include:
• Inherited gene mutations: A small percentage of ovarian cancers are caused by an inherited gene mutation. The genes known to increase the risk of ovarian cancer are called breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2). These genes were originally identified in families with multiple cases of breast cancer, which is how they got their names, but women with these mutations also have a significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer.
• Family history of ovarian cancer: If women in your family have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer, you have an increased risk of the disease.
• A previous cancer diagnosis: If a woman has been diagnosed with cancer of the breast, colon, rectum or uterus, her risk of ovarian cancer is increased.
• Increasing age: Risk of ovarian cancer increases as a woman ages. Ovarian cancer most often develops after menopause, though it can occur at any age.
• Never having been pregnant: Women who have never been pregnant have an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

TEST AND DIAGNOSIS
Tests and procedures used to diagnose ovarian cancer include:
• Pelvic examination: During a pelvic exam, your doctor carefully inspects the outer exposed part of your genitals, and then inserts two fingers of one hand into your vagina and simultaneously presses the other hand on your abdomen to feel your uterus and ovaries. He or she also inserts a device called a speculum into your vagina. The speculum opens your vagina so that your doctor can visually check your vagina and cervix for abnormalities.
• Ultrasound: Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the inside of the body. An ultrasound helps your doctor investigate the size, shape and configuration of your ovaries. To create a picture of your ovaries, your doctor may insert an ultrasound probe into your vagina. Ultrasound imaging can create pictures of the structures near your ovaries, such as your uterus.
• Surgery to remove samples of tissue for testing: If other tests suggest you may have ovarian cancer, your doctor may recommend surgery to confirm the diagnosis. During surgery, a gynecologic oncologist makes an incision in your abdomen and explores your abdominal cavity to determine whether cancer is present. The surgeon may collect samples of abdominal fluid and remove an ovary for examination by a pathologist. If cancer is discovered, the surgeon may immediately begin surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible. In some cases, the surgeon may make several small incisions in your abdomen and insert special surgical tools and a tiny camera, so the procedure won’t require a larger incision.
• CA 125 blood test: CA 125 is a protein found on the surface of ovarian cancer cells and some healthy tissue. Many women with ovarian cancer have abnormally high levels of CA 125 in their blood. However, a number of noncancerous conditions also cause elevated CA 125 levels, and many women with early-stage ovarian cancer have normal CA 125 levels. For this reason, a CA 125 test is not usually used for diagnosis.

Staging ovarian cancer
Doctors use the results of your surgery in order to determine the extent — or stage — of your cancer. Your doctor may also use information from imaging tests, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), to determine whether cancer has spread within the abdomen. Your cancer’s stage helps determine your prognosis and your treatment options. Stages of ovarian cancer include:
• Stage I: Ovarian cancer is confined to one or both ovaries.
• Stage II: Ovarian cancer has spread to other locations in the pelvis, such as the uterus or fallopian tubes.
• Stage III: Ovarian cancer has spread beyond the pelvis or to the lymph nodes within the abdomen.
• Stage IV: Ovarian cancer has spread to organs beyond the abdomen, such as the liver or the lungs.

TREATMENTS AND DRUGS
Treatment of ovarian cancer usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

Surgery
Treatment for ovarian cancer usually involves an extensive operation that includes removing both ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the uterus as well as nearby lymph nodes and a fold of fatty abdominal tissue known as the omentum, where ovarian cancer often spreads. The surgeon also removes as much cancer as possible from your abdomen. Less extensive surgery may be possible if the ovarian cancer was diagnosed at a very early stage. For women with Stage I ovarian cancer, surgery may involve removing one ovary and its fallopian tube. This procedure may preserve the ability to have children in the future.
Chemotherapy
After surgery, the patient most likely be treated with chemotherapy (drugs designed to kill any remaining cancer cells). Chemotherapy may also be used as the initial treatment in some women with advanced ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy drugs can be administered in a vein or injected directly into the abdominal cavity, or both methods of administering the drugs can be used. Chemotherapy drugs can be given alone or in combination.

CASE STUDIES
• A Swedish study, which followed more than 61,000 women for 13 years, has found a significant link between milk consumption and ovarian cancer. According to the BBC, “Researchers found that milk had the strongest link with ovarian cancer, those women who drank two or more glasses a day were at double the risk of those who did not consume it at all, or only in small amounts. Recent studies have also shown that women in sunnier countries have a lower rate of ovarian cancer, which may have some kind of connection with exposure to Vitamin D.”
• Other studies have showed that, the more children a woman has and the earlier in life she gives birth, the lower her risk for ovarian cancer. They also suggest that, birth control pills decrease the risk of ovarian cancer.
• AJ is a 20-year-old Caucasian female who visited her gynecologist complaining of abdominal pain, pelvic pain, and pain in the small of her back, which had begun to worsen. She also felt bloated and was having frequent problems with indigestion and gas. In addition, she was tired all the time and rarely went to the gym anymore.
AJ’s medical history showed her to be a healthy and athletic female. She admitted to drinking occasionally at social events but denied having ever smoked. AJ had been receiving annual gynecological exams since she was 18 years old, and her menstrual history has been unremarkable. Her family history showed that her mother was a breast and ovarian cancer survivor. The patient was not on birth control medication, but she stated that she practices safe sex with the use of condoms.
The GYN performed a pelvic examination of the patient’s vagina, uterus, rectum and pelvis, including ovaries, and checked for masses or growths. He followed the pelvic exam with a transvaginal ultrasound to better detect the presence of abnormal growths in the reproductive organs. AJ’s transvaginal ultrasound revealed a mass on her right ovary. Additional laboratory work-up, including a CA-125 assay of her blood sample, was ordered.
When AJ went back to her GYN for a follow-up visit to discuss her lab results, the physician had concerning news. He said, “I am very sorry but your CA-125 level is very high and your ovary may have a tumor and not a cyst. I’m going to refer you to a gynecologic oncologist for further evaluation.”
Her GYN-ONC biopsied the lesion and consulted with a pathologist to verify the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. He recommended removal of both ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the uterus. AJ was stunned. She told in her physician, “I’m only 20 years old; how could I have ovarian cancer? Isn’t this an illness older women get?”

Bibliography

American Cancer Society, National Ovarian Cancer Coalition (n.d.). What is Ovarian Cancer. ovarian.org. Retrieved October 21, 2001 from http://www.ovarian.org/what_is_ovarian_cancer.php

Bougatsos, C., Huffman H., L., Harris L., E., Nelson D., H., & Walker, M. (2005, September) Genetic Risk Assessment and BRCA Mutation Testing for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0008140/

Mayo Clinic. (2010, November 11). Ovarian cancer. mayoclinic.com. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ovarian-cancer/DS00293/DSECTION=symptoms

Mayo Clinic. (2010, November 11). Ovarian cancer. mayoclinic.com. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ovarian-cancer/DS00293/DSECTION=causes

PRIME, Inc. (n.d.). Ovarian Cancer in a Young Woman . primeinn.org. Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://primeinc.org/casestudies/casemanager/study/847/Ovarian_Cancer_in_a_Young_Woman

What is relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer? (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2011 from http://www.ovarianstudies.com/cancer.aspx…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Terminology OVARIAN CANCER Ovarian Cancer is a disease that cancerous cell are found in ovary tissues. ovary is a part of organ , that is responsible for reproduction, can be found in the woman’s lower abdomen area. This organ is reproductive organ of hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and also responsible for making eggs that is sent through fallopian tubes into to uterus monthly. When a woman undergoes menopause, ovaries are not functioning well and this process produce less hormones than usual. This cancer’s cause is still unknown, but mostly this cancer can be seen at women who are older than 50’s and also undergoing menopause.(1) Most common type of ovarian cancer, generally, is epithelial ovarian cancer which is originated in the tissue so called “epithelium” which covers the ovary surface. Mucinous, endometroid and clear cell are other type of this cancer. (1) There is no early detection method for this type of cancer, the symptoms of the disease are vague and not always gynecologic. These symptoms may include;(2) * Heavy feeling in pelvis * Pain in the lower abdomen * Bleeding from vagina * Weight gain or loss * Abnormal periods * Gas, nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite Generally, the aim of treatment of ovarian cancer is to remove surgically cancer as much as possible and following additional therapy such as chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells in the body. Radiation therapy can be used to kill any cancer cells with......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Ovarian Cancer Samantha Massoth BIO 342—Genetics April 15, 2013 Abstract Ovarian cancer is described as a malignant tumor located in the ovaries. Malignant tumors can invade only one or both ovaries. Malignant tumors can also shed cancerous cells from the original tumor and “seed” these shedding on the surface of tissues and organs near the ovaries. The final way for ovarian cancerous cells to move is through “spreading” (metastasis). This is done by the cancerous cells entering the lymphatic system and/or bloodstream to other organs in the body. Ovarian cancer has many risk factors such as non pregnancy, menopause, family history of cancer, personal history of cancer, and others. The studies in this paper were to discuss three major themes of ovarian cancer. The first theme is the screening process of people suspected to have ovarian cancer yet show no signs or symptoms of the disease. The capability of doctors to detect, diagnose, and treat ovarian cancer is researched in these studies. The second major theme is the general prevention of ovarian cancer mainly in women who are at high risk of the disease. The third major theme of ovarian cancer is the general treatment of ovarian cancer and the affects over the counter drugs have as treatment of the disease. Introduction: Cancer is a disease that affects the basic building block of tissues, the human cell. Cells will grow and divide to provide the body with new cells when......

Words: 3524 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer HS310: Epidemiology and Biostatistics Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer among women, and ranks first among the different types of gynecological cancer mortality in Canada (Canadian Cancer Statistics, 2004). Ovarian cancer mostly affects elderly and middle aged women, with the highest incidence rates reported in North America and Northern Europe, and the lowest in Japan and in developing countries (Greenlee et al., 2000). Over the past 40 years, the rate of ovarian cancer mortality has increased among women 65 years of age and older. The incidence of ovarian cancer increases with age, from 1.5/100,000 annually among women 20 -30 years of age to 49/100,000 in women 60- 69 year of age (Mant and Vessey, 1995). In Canada, 2,500 new cases are reported annually, and 1,550 women die from this disease each year. The lack of screening tests for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is an important determinant of the mortality rate from this disease. Because of the absence or subtlety of early symptoms, more than 70 % of patients are diagnosed with advanced stages of ovarian cancer (Goff et al., 2000) The increase in the incidence of ovarian cancer near the age of menopause can be related to the diminution of oocytes or germ cells, the reduction in circulating estrogen levels, or a significant increase in the pituitary gland’s production of......

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Ovarian Cancer Michelle Blevins Sullivan University HIM110X Pathophysiology with Pharmacology I March 3, 2014 Abstract Ovarian cancer is a growth of abnormal malignant cells that begins in the ovaries (women’s reproductive glands that produce ova). Cancer that spreads to the ovaries but originates at another site is not considered ovarian cancer. Ovarian tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Although abnormal, cells of benign tumors do not metastasize (spread to other parts of the body). Malignant cancer cells in the ovaries can metastasize in two ways: directly to other organs in the pelvis and abdomen (the more common way), through the bloodstream or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. While the causes of ovarian cancer are unknown, some theories exist: Genetic errors may occur because of damage from the normal monthly release of an egg. Increased hormone levels before and during ovulation may stimulate the growth of abnormal cells. Keywords: ovarian cancer, malignant, cells, metastasize Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Cancer is the most common cause of cancer death from gynecologic tumors in the United States. Malignant ovarian lesions include primary lesions arising from normal structures within the ovary and secondary lesions from cancers arising elsewhere in the body. Primary lesions include epithelial ovarian carcinoma, germ-cell tumors, sex-cord stromal tumors, and other more rare types. Metastases to the ovaries are......

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Break the Cycle Ovarian Cancer Is Not a “Silent Killer”

...Break the cycle Ovarian Cancer is not a “Silent Killer” COM/156 November 04, 2012 According to estimations by the American Cancer Society (2012) about 70 percent of women diagnosed with late stages of epithelial ovarian cancer will not survive the disease, based on a five year survival rate. This year over 15,000 women will lose their lives to ovarian cancer. This disease does not discriminate between age and ethnicity. Ovarian cancer can affect mothers, daughter, grandmothers, sisters and aunts. The American Cancer Society (2012) asserts ovarian cancer is the ninth most common cancer among women. Ovarian cancer is called the “Silent Killer” because most women do not show signs of this disease, and are not aware they have this disease until it reaches the more advance stages. Many women have symptoms of ovarian cancer but they are misdiagnosed and unfortunately find out they have this disease in later stages. Advanced stages of ovarian cancer can cause women to lose hope as they face a reoccurrence. Ann at Lymphoma Club believes “For those facing relapses, sometimes it takes a little more “fight” to win the war against cancer. Never give up on yourself and never give up hope”. Women who learn they have ovarian cancer will have to learn about the different stages of ovarian cancer and what stage they fit in, what their treatment options are and how to cope with this disease. Debulking surgery with intraperitoneal chemotherapy is the choice for most doctors to use on......

Words: 1729 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...To day I would like to talk to you about Ovarian Cancer. • Ovarian Cancer starts in the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs. • Why do you need to know this? Ovarian Cancer is the 5th most common cancer among women than any other type of female reproductive cancer. About 2/3’s of the deaths from ovarian cancer occur in women from the ages of 55 and older. About 25% of deaths occur in women in the age range of 35-54. It could happen to someone you know or love. It could be your: • Mother, daughter, sister, aunt, grandma or your mother-in-law I did this research because just last Monday it happened to my mother in law, she is very important to me; she is like my own mother. So I wanted to learn more about ovarian cancer. So today I would like to talk to you about some of the causes and risk factors, symptoms and some of the treatments for ovarian cancer. **The cause is unknown. • Certain genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) • Women with a history of Breast Cancer • Family history of Breast Cancer or Ovarian Cancer • Older women **Ovarian cancer symptoms are often vague. By the time the cancer is diagnosed, the tumor has often spread beyond the ovaries. *Some of the symptoms are: • Bloating • Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly • Pelvic or abdominal pain • Abnormal menstrual cycles • Swollen abdomen or belly • Unexplained back pain that gets worse over time • Weight......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Breaking the Science on Ovarian Cancer

...Being the fifth leading cause of all cancer related deaths among women in the United States, ovarian cancer is a silent killer for which all women are at risk (National Cancer Institute, 2006). Ovarian cancer is a disease in which cancerous cells are located in the ovaries, the glands, of the female reproductive system. What makes this a deadly disease is because it is difficult to detect. In 2012, 22,500 women were diagnosed nationwide and an estimated 15,500 deaths were recorded (National Ovarian Cancer Coalition, 2012). Women today are unaware of the severity of this cancer in addition; they do not know the proper ways to keep themselves at minimum risk. Most cases of ovarian cancer are sporadic, meaning they occur in women who may not have a family history of developing this cancer; even though statistics show that 1 in 10 cases are hereditary (National Ovarian Cancer Coalition, 2012). Women of all ages should be educated on this disease and know the facts. Many women do not know that they are at risk for ovarian cancer. It is important to know the information because there are very subtle symptoms on this disease. Women diagnosed with ovarian cancer should know their options when receiving treatment to optimize their success of removing the cancer. It is important for all women to know the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer. There are several treatments and ways to prevent ovarian cancer. Women should always discuss treatment options with their......

Words: 1632 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Definition of Cancer The Webster’s Dictionary defines cancer as an : uncontrolled, growing mass of cells that is capable of invading neighboring tissues and spreading via body fluids, especially the blood stream, to other parts of the body, also called a malignant tumor. Cancers Effect on Our Bodies Cancer is a disease that is caused by uncontrolled cell division leading to abnormal tissue growth. It is believed that cancer can arise from both genetic (e.g. DNA mutation and hereditarianism like breast or ovarian cancer) and environmental factors (e.g. working with and breathing in chemicals, benzene, asbestos, and not limiting one’s exposure to the sun, or eating a healthy diet, etc.), which can lead to abnormal growth of our bodies different cells. Cell multiplication otherwise known as proliferation, is a normal physical process that occurs in our bodies. These cells can be in charge of our immune systems response, replacing cells that have died or have been shed as a part of their lifecycle (e.g. such as our skin or mucous membranes in our digestive tract) and are responsible for allowing us to grow and age properly. Normally, the balance between proliferation and cell death otherwise known as apoptosis is a tightly regulated system that has been put in place to ensure the integrity of our body’s organs and tissues. The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to two different types of cancer, which are known as benign and malignant tumors. ......

Words: 1635 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...February 18, 2011 Literature Review The article, Ovarian Cancer Listen for the Disease, was published in the November issue of the nursing journal Nursing2010. This specific article was written by Karen Blewitt, BSN, RN, AOCN. Ms. Blewitt is currently still in the nursing field and writes for the journal in her spare time. I selected this article about cancer due to my interest in the field of oncology. Just this past week, I went to the oncology office and learned a significant amount about several types of cancers and various forms of treatment. Cancer comes in all different types and forms, which is why it is so hard to fully cure. This article presents a case in which a woman in her early 50’s visits her doctor complaining of abdominal pain, urinary frequency, pressure in her lower abdomen, and an increase in her waistline despite efforts to lose weight. She is then stunned to find out that she has a mass in her pelvis which is later confirmed as Ovarian Cancer. This articled refers to Ovarian cancer as the “silent cancer” or the “disease that whispers” because early signs and symptoms are often subtle and can be confused with another diagnosis. The article then goes on to discuss the possible treatments such as surgical removal, chemotherapy, and radiation which is similar to all cancers. Ovarian cancer is not normally found early and normally has a poor prognosis. Many believe that a routine Pap Smear would detect the disease, however this is not true. Only an......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer Public Awareness Campaign

...Before talking about public awareness campaign on ovarian cancer and how badly it is needed, let’s clarify what ovarian cancer is. As American Cancer Society explains “ovarian cancer begins in the ovaries that are reproductive glands found only in females (women). The ovaries produce eggs for reproduction. They are also the main source of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. One ovary is on each side of the uterus in the pelvis” ("What Is Ovarian Cancer?"). One should understand that there are several types of cancer that develop from cells of the ovary and are considered to be one disease process. According to the information, provided at medicinenet.com, usually, “tumors arise from the epithelium or lining cells of the ovary. These include epithelial ovarian (from the cells on the surface of the ovary), fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal (the lining inside the abdomen that coats many abdominal structures) cancer” ("Ovarian Cancer: Facts on Symptoms and Treatment"). Obviously, there are some risk factors to pay attention to and the list of symptoms that women can identify themselves. Speaking about the risk factors that influence on the development of ovarian cancer, women should take into consideration the following key factors: age and family history. The older a women get the higher the risk. Thus, women who are over the age of 50 are more susceptible to ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer more often occurs in women who have already gone through the......

Words: 2020 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Management 1 Running head: OVARIAN CANCER Nursing Management of a Patient with Ovarian Cancer Jane A. Student Pasadena City College Nursing Management 2 Nursing Management of Patient with Ovarian Cancer H.S., a 57 year old female with a medical history of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, was diagnosed with a Stage IIIB clear cell carcinoma of the ovary and had surgery in April of 2007. When the patient began to have physical discomfort, an exploratory lapartomy was performed. A pelvic mass had developed post peritoneal chemotherapy. The patient had surgery to remove the intraperitoneal port, pelvic mass fluid drainage and pelvic biopsy. Often patients with cancer develop cachexia and should be assessed for adequate nutritional intake. Martin (2006) states that one of the greatest challenges for a woman with ovarian cancer is malnutrition: she may have little appetite as a result of treatment of advancing disease, causing her to lose weight. Pathophysiology The symptoms of ovarian cancer are vague and the causes may be related to several factors. As Bohnenkamp (2007) has explained, one or more risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing ovarian cancer, but their presence does not guarantee the cancer will occur. Martin (2006) claimed that the most significant risk is a positive family history of the disease; it is present in about 10% of women with the disease. Although it is not known if H.S. had a history of ovarian cancer in her family,......

Words: 1831 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by the lack of appropriate tumor markers and clinically, most patients fail to develop significant symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics of ovarian cancer have been studied in primary tumors and in established ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor material. Among the major clinical problems of ovarian cancer, malignant progression, rapid emergence of drug resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain unresolved. Ovarian cancer has a high frequency of metastasis yet generally remains localized within the peritoneal cavity. Tumor development has been associated with aberrant, dysfunctional expression and/or mutation of various genes. This can include oncogene overexpression, amplification or mutation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or mutation. Also, subversion of host antitumor immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer (Sharp, 77). Ovarian clear cell......

Words: 4428 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Cancer Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells. Causes, Incidence, and Risk factors Cells are the building blocks of living things. Cancer grows out of normal cells in the body. Normal cells multiply when the body needs them, and die when the body doesn't need them. Cancer appears to occur when the growth of cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly. It can also occur when cells forget how to die. There are many different kinds of cancers. Cancer can develop in almost any organ or tissue, such as the lung, colon, breast, skin, bones, or nerve tissue. There are many causes of cancers, including: * Benzene and other chemicals * Drinking excess alcohol * Environmental toxins, such as certain poisonous mushrooms and a type of poison that can grow on peanut plants (aflatoxins) * Excessive sunlight exposure * Genetic problems * Obesity * Radiation * Viruses However, the cause of many cancers remains unknown. The most common cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer, but in the United States, this type of cancer is pretty rare. Differences in diet may play a role. Some other types of cancers include: * Brain cancer * Cervical cancer * Hodgkin's lymphoma * Kidney cancer * Leukemia * Liver cancer ...

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Cancer Brian Street COM/172 12/01/2011 Don Glaze Cancer The definition of cancer can best be described as the uncontrolled growth cell in the human body. Cancer cells are also called malignant cells. Cancer grows out of normal cells in the body, which normal cells multiply when the body needs them, they die when the body doesn’t need them anymore. Cancer appears to occur when the growth of a cell in the body is out of control and the cell or cells divide too quickly. This can also occur when the cell forgets how to die. Cancer can acquire itself within any one of any age and at any time. It doesn’t matter whether it is a new born infant or if someone is in their teens or if someone is in their elderly stages of life. The approximate percentage of people diagnosed with cancer is about 1 in 3 people. This number is very staggering and very real and unfortunate. The U.S. alone back in 2008 was 0.47% about ½ of 1 percent. Now in the U.S. this number has increased dramatically. With everyday more and more people are being diagnosed with different types of cancer. There are so many types of cancer and causes of cancer. Some of the most common causes are: drinking excessively, too much exposure to the sun, obesity, and many types of viruses. Even though there are many causes of getting cancer so many remain unknown. One of the most commonly known cancer is Lung cancer and it has the highest death rate among the types of cancer. Different types of cancer occur in men than......

Words: 1112 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ovarian Cancer

...Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is one of the most under-detected types of cancers in existence because many of the symptoms are not noticeable until the later stages of the disease. These symptoms typically follow a pattern that helps determine whether or not a woman has ovarian cancer. The symptoms are “frequent bloating, pain in your belly or pelvis, trouble eating, or feeling full quickly, urinary problems, such as an urgent need to urinate or urinating more often than usual, fatigue, indigestion, pain with intercourse, constipation, and menstrual cycle changes.” For women who have ovarian cancer, the symptoms follow three common attributes: “they start suddenly, they feel different than your normal digestive or menstrual problems, and they happen almost every day and don’t go away.” However, another problem with the symptoms of ovarian cancer is that there are some women that just naturally have them, and that makes it very difficult to determine whether or not they have cancer (http://www.webmd.com/ovarian-cancer/guide/ovarian-cancer-symptoms - Symptoms). The risk factors that are associated with ovarian cancer are not absolute. However, like in any type of disease or infection, the more risk factors that a person has, the more likely they are to become disease-ridden. The risk factors of ovarian cancer can be very complex, but simplify as a person gets older. One factor is gene mutations within families. Most of the mutations come from families that have a prominent......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Login/Register | └ Holidays & Travel | Housewife 17028