Free Essay

Over Heand Cane

In: Other Topics

Submitted By jackcooper017
Words 5729
Pages 23
ABSTRACT

Electric Overhead Travelling (EOT) Crane is one of the essential industrial equipment for material handling job. Indecent years little attention has been paid to the optimal design heavy electric overhead travelling bridges. The motive might be, but not limited to the availability of prevailing FEM, DIN, ISO, CMAA, BS, Chinese and now CEN standards for the design of cranes. Most of the crane manufacture has standardized the single dimensioned box section for multiple spans and duties of crane bridges for manufacturing simplicity.

LIST OF TABLES Table No. | Table Description | Page No. | 1 Different cross section formula 2 Dimension for ramshorn hooks

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Figure Description Page No.
1.1.1 Overhead crane
1.3.1 Standard crane
1.4.1 Free standing crane
1.5.1 Gear box
1.5.2 Electric brake motor
1.5.3 Rope guide
1.5.4 Load limiter
1.5.5 Low headroom trolley
1.6.1(A) Top Running Bridge Cranes
1.6.1(B) Under Running Bridge Crane
1.7.1 Top running vs. under running
1.9 Double girder crane hoist
1.9.1 Chain hoist
1.9.2 Wire rope hoist
3.1.1 Drawing of 160 ton hook, nut &
Lock plate
3.2.1 CAD model of 160 ton hook
3.3.1 Different views of crane hook

3.3.2 Bending of a beam with larger
Initial curvature
3.4.1 Modified cross section
3.5.1 Circular cross section
3.5.2 Rectangular cross section
3.5.3 Triangular cross section
3.5.4 Trapezoidal cross section
3.6.1 Ramshorn hook with different dimensions
3.6.2 Load test on ramshorn hooks

LIST OF SYMBOLS
C= Bad diameter
P= Load applied on ton d = Diameter of hook
W = Crane hook caries a load y = Distance form the natural axis h = Link radius m = Banding moment about the centrodial axis σt = Direct tensile stress
Rn = Radius of curvature of the neutral axis
Ae = Area of section σb =Bending stress yi = Distance of the neutral axis to the inside fiber yo= Distance of the neutral axis to the outside fiber

LIST OF ABRIVATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE I
CERTIFICATE II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III
ABSTRACT IV
LIST OF TABLES V
LIST OF FIGURES VI
LIST OF SYMBOLS VII

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction of crane 1.2Range of crane 01 1.3Standard crane 02 1.4Free standing crane 03 1.5Main parts of crane 04 1.5.1 Gear box 1.5.2 Electric brake motor 1.5.3 Rope guide 1.5.4 Load limiter 1.5.5 Low headroom trolley 1.6Different types of crane 05 1.7 Top running VS. Under running 1.8 Prevents the problem encounter with cranes 1.9 Types of electric hoist 1.9.1 Chain hoist 1.9.2 Wire rope hoist

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3 WORK DONE 3.1 Drawing of 160 ton hook, nut & lock plate 3.2 CAD model of 160 ton hook 3.3 Different views of the crane hook and
Calculation
3.4 Modified section
3.5 Stress cross section

CHAPTER 4 FUTURE WORK 27
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 28
CHAPTER 6 REFERENCES 29

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT PROJECT 1.1 INTRODUCTION OF CRANE

Overhead cranes raise, shift, and lower loads with a projected, swinging arm or a hoisting apparatus supported on an overhead track. There are many different types of products. Overhead cranes or bridge cranes attach a horizontal load-carrying beam to wall columns (overhung).
Overhead cranes differ in terms of product specifications, features, and applications. Performance specifications to consider include load capacity, vertical available lifting height, and horizontal available span. Overhead cranes with wheels are designed for load transport and positioning. Typically, these machines are equipped with a brake or stabilizing outriggers. Overhead cranes that provide motorized motion move loads with a motor instead of manual pulling. With some applications, an industrial pendant is used to enable an operator to actuate lift or trolley travel. There are many different sizes of overhead cranes.

Fig.1.1.1 Overhead Cranes[1]
Many overhead crane models exist, all offering unique advantages according to the application. The single girder over lungcrane is possibly one of the most popular. Also available are double girder cranes and under slung cranes. Electrically motor driven end carriages and hoist provide effortless accuracy when lifting and positioning heavy components and plant in machine shops, factories, warehouses, loading bays, etc.
Multi-functional controls are usually housed in a single control box. Operational control can be via suspended pendant, alternatively static pendant; remote or automatic controls can be fitted. There are a number of safety devices i.e. limit switches, warning lights, horns and anti-collision units, available to guarantee operator and pedestrian safety.
1.2 RANGE OF CRANE * Standard Cranes 4 - 4000 * Heavy Duty Cranes 5 - 5000 * Double and Single girder cranes * Hand operated cranes * Jib Cranes * Crane Kits
1.3STANDARDCRANE

Fig. 1.3.1 Standard crane[2] * Externally mounted motors allow for better ventilation and ease of access during maintenance, giving faster turnaround times. * Reduced scheduled maintenance and emergency downtime * Hoist independently load tested to 125% and certified by tests undertaken in the workshop * Easily adjustable over-raise and over-lower limit-switches allow swift changes on-site * Primary braking operates directly on the gearbox for maximum safety - secondary braking optional. * Fail-safe braking system incorporating a manual-release mechanism for emergency lowering in the event of a power failure. * Low voltage control system is an additional factor in operator safety * High quality structural assembly ensures compliance with BS466 (ISO4301) and BS2573. * End carriages fabricated from rolled steel with internal diaphragms for high torsional resistance. * Travel wheels made from spheroidal graphite cast iron with a high tensile strength and a high resistance to impact loads. * Graphite material castings within the wheel material act as a lubricant, reducing wear of the wheels and track. * Live axle drive system and precise speed control on all motors allows for smooth and accurate movement. * Rapid access to spare parts * Crane configuration selected to meet needs of application including Single girder, Double girder, Underslung, Goliath and Semi-Goliath.
1.4 FREE STANDING CRANE * Free standing cranes are usually supplied in standard sizes, but if the application requires it specific cranes can be designed to your needs. * Bespoke applications include wide spans and long down shops /lengths. * The versatility of the system means that if you have pillars or other obstacles the crane system can be designed to take account of these.

Fig. 1.4.1free standing crane[3]

1.5 MAIN PARTS OF CRANE

1.5.1 GEAR BOX

The 2 or 3-stage planet art gear reduces the speed of the electric motor to the RPM necessary for the drum.All gears of the planetary gear are made of heat-treated high quality steel.

Fig. 1.5.1 Gear box[4]

1.5.2. ELECTRIC BRAKE MOTOR

Three-phase asynchronous 1 or 2-speed motor with cone rotor and integrated cone brake driven by a coil spring.
The brake release is due to the sliding of the rotor after switching-on of the power supply.

Fig. 1.5.2 Electric brake motor[4] 1.5.3 ROPE GUIDE

The rope guide basically consists of two parts: a guide ring and a pressure spring that properly guide the rope on the drum grooves.

Fig. 1.5.3 Rope guide[4] The guide ting maintains the rope in position during the inkling, preventing it coming-off the groove and, when the load oscillates, is guided by a fixed bar and runs on bearings.

1.5.4 LOAD LIMITER

All "M" series hoists with 2 and 4 rope falls are equipped with a load limiter with 3 reaction thresholds. The load limiter consists of an electric-mechanical system with pre-set springs acting on two microswitches stop all movements, exception made for the lowering of the load. The first threshold activates a warning, the 2nd stops the function.

Fig .1.5.4 Load limiter[4]
1.5.5 LOW HEADROOM TROLLY
Low headroom trolleys are equipped with 2 travel units, consisting of planetary gears with double speed brake motors directly flanged to the wheels the wheels, therefore without external teeth

Fig.1.5.5Low headroom trolley[4]
1.6DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRANE

1.6.1 Top Running Bridge Cranes and Under Running (Under Hung) Bridge Cranes.
A.Top Running Bridge Cranes * Single Girder Bridge Crane * Up to 10 Ton Capacity * Up to 120 Feet Span * Double Girder Bridge Crane * Up to 300 Ton Capacity * Up to 200 Feet Span
B.Under Running (Under Hung) Bridge Cranes * Single Girder Bridge Crane * Up to 10 Ton Capacity * Up to 200 Feet Span (Multi-Runway Cranes) * Double Girder Bridge Crane * Up to 15 Ton Capacity * Up to 200 Feet Span (Multi-Runway Cranes)

Fig.1.6.1(a) Top running Bridge crane[5]

Fig. 1.6.1(b) Under Running Bridge Crane[6] * Overhead Bridge Cranes can be divided into two groups: 1. Top Running Bridge Cranes, and 2. Under Running Bridge Cranes (sometimes called under hung). * A Bridge Crane system consists of three major components. 1. the Bridge Crane, which traverses across the runway 2. the hoist & trolley, which traverses across the bridge and lifts up and down 3. the runway, which is tied to the building structure.
1.7 Top Running vs. Under Running
1.7.1 Top Running vs. Under Running is primarily determined by two factors: 1. Capacity - Although under running can be up to 25 ton capacity, the practical limit is more like 15 tons and the economic sweet spot is 1 to 7.5 ton range. 2. Support Structure - Under running can be suspended directly from the overhead steel (for lighter cranes). Top running cranes will require a bracket off the building support steel (up to 10 tons capacity) or independent columns for heavier capacities.

Fig. 1.7.1 Top running VS. Under running * The top running configuration is best used in cases where the end user has issues with headroom. The most space efficient configuration is the double girder, top running crane system. When headroom is not an issue a top or under running configuration can be used with either the double or single girder bridge crane.

1.8 Prevent the problems encounter with cranes: * Crane Travels Too Far Before Stopping.

If crane coasts more than a few feet, then it is likely that it uses electric motor brakes and that, like most cranes, the brake pads haven't been replaced (they require replacing or adjusting every 3 months). * Use a mechanical braking system thatnever needs adjusting or replacing. This provides a gentle, consistent coasting stop that does not vary over time. For cranes that travel over 100 FPM or require quick stopping, considering the soft-stop feature of a variable speed inverter. * Bearings wearing out too soon.

Use a minimum of 2 bearings per wheel. All of bearings are Class "D" which means they are designed with a minimum life expectancy of 10,000 hours of actual motor on-time. This is double the Class "C" rating - bearings for Class “C” cranes have a minimum life expectancy of 5,000 hours. Class "D" bearings are also sealed-for-life and never need lubricating. * Contactor problems.

Contactors, rated for 20,000,000 stop / start cycles if used in conjunction with inverters or electronic soft start features, should never need replacing under normal operating conditions. * Broken Push Button Pendant or Cable.

NAI pendants are ergonomically designed to be easily held in one hand, and are constructed of a durable thermoplastic material. The pendant cable has 2 steel wires built into the cable jacket for permanent strain relief. * Parts Availability Problems.

Components-bearings, contactors, gearboxes, motors and electrical systems-are designed to industry standards, and most are readily available throughout the U.S. All motor name plates and gearbox name plates are clearly labeled with the original manufacturing information. And virtually every spare part for the crane (excluding the hoist) is in stock here at North American and can be shipped immediately. * Brakes wearing out or not working properly.

Mechanical braking system on the trolley and bridge eliminates the need to adjust brakes on a regular basis (typically every 3 months). There are no brake pads to change or adjust with our mechanical brakes. This will reduce overall maintenance and extend the life of the wheel gears and pinions.
1.9 Main types of electric hoists:
A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. Cranes and Hoists are somewhat interchangeable terminology since the actual lifting mechanism of a crane is commonly referred to as a hoist. Hoists may be integral to a crane or mounted in affixed position, permanently or temporarily. When a hoist is mounted to a trolley on a fixed monorail, two directions of load motion areavailable: forward or reverse, up or down. When the hoist is mounted on a crane, three directions of loadmotion are available: right or left, forward or reverse, up or down. Figure below shows a rope hoist for double girder crane application.

Fig-1.9 Double Girder Crane Hoist[6]

Hoist Lifting Media

There are two basic hoist lifting media - Wire Rope Hoist which is very durable and will provide long term,reliable usage and the other type of hoist is the Chain Hoist.For a given rated load, wire rope is of lighter weight per running foot but is limited to drum diameters farlarge than the lift wheel over which chain may function. Therefore a high-performance chain hoist may beof significantly smaller physical size than a wire rope hoist rated at the same working load. High speedlifting (60 Ft. /min +) requires wire rope over a drum because chain over a pocket wheel generates fatigue inducing resonance for long lifts.
1.9.1 Chain hoists

Fig. 1.9.1chain hoist[7] * Lift by pulling the chain through sprockets and depositing the chain into a chain container * Are more common for applications below 7.5 tons * Require less maintenance * Are less expensive * Provide true vertical lift at no extra cost 1.9.2 Wire rope hoists

Fig. 1.9.2wire rope hoist[8] * Lift by wrapping cable around a grooved drum * Dominate the market at 10 tons and above * Offer very fast lifting speeds * Offer a wide array of options * Can be rated H-5 (severe duty)
Both chain and wire rope hoists are rated H-4 (heavy duty) or H-3 (moderate duty). Duty ratings are a better indicator of hoist durability than hoist type (chain or wire rope). Both types use similar motors, brakes and controls. The main difference between electric chain hoists and wire rope hoists is in the design of the lifting mechanism.
Be sure to request an H-4 rating on either your chain or wire rope hoist to ensure long life and low maintenance.

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Optimization of crane Box Bridge is a complex nonlinear problem for which a simple computational procedure has been suggested. The worksheet with solver can take more than thousand variables and very small to large scale nonlinear optimization can be performed. The results seem to be encouraging and the optimized girders are lighter than the cranes manufactured and supplied in the prevailing market. Additionally the designed spreadsheet does not cross any limit and therefore robust design can be approached. Computational work sheet as well as numerical optimizer calculates optimum parameters in millimeters and most of the time thicknesses are not in whole number. Such problem can be solved by rounding up to a nearest whole number or introducing the integer constraint in the solver which could bring about fractional rise in the weight of the crane. In crane design environment this methodology might help to save precious design time, without incurring high computational cost. The Numerical optimizer has been assessed for simple unstiffened box beam to girders with stiffener and variety of load cases and it has been established that computation time may increase to a moderate level. The APDL created for girder needs only parameter, loads and spans initialization. Later no further assistance is required for the complete model construction in FE software. The optimization is to be triggered of by another batch command which inputs design constraints and design variable limits to FE optimizer. The computational worksheet has not been considered for fatigue and weld design optimization for the plate girder which has been intentionally left for the sake of simplicity. These cases can be incorporated in the spread sheet in future.[12]

Bridge girder is an important structural member whose fatigue life decides the life of an EOT crane. In this paper, the fatigue life of bridge girder of a working EOT crane is calculated based on Palmgren& Miner’s rule for the important decision of replacing or maintaining the girder. The variable loadings coming on the bridge girder at the exact loading points of a working crane and stress spectrums by reservoir counting method are presented. A working crane of class of duty 4 as per BIS “M8” commissioned in 1983 is selected for this. The fatigue life considering probabilistic survival of 97.5% comes out to be 25.68 years. It is suggested that the bridge girder has lived its fatigue life and needs replacement.The fatigue life of the crane girder under consideration is found to be 26.31 years.[13]

Considering probabilistic survival of 97.5%, the fatigue life comes to 25.68 years. It may be interesting to note here, that the subject crane was commissioned in the year of 1983, already it has rendered the service of 25 years, and hence the management has started thinking of replacing the entire crane/girders. EOT crane’s bridge girder fatigue life calculation is made available in the form of MS-Excel program based on Palmgren-Miner rule considering the structural construction detail Tables of Euro code 3 and IS: 1024. It is possible to calculate the stress spectrum of the bridge girder for each and every point of loadings along with variable loadings, considering the effects of acceleration and deceleration of trolley movement. Using reservoir cycle counting method, stress spectrum of variable loadings is calculated. The program developed can be useful to predict preventive maintenance of EOT cranes, and or in taking the larger decision of replacing parts or whole of the bridge girder and also to predict the fatigue life of the girder of a newly commissioned EOT crane.[]

Control and protection Devices Play a Great Role in the Working of the Electrical Equipment’s. The protection of EOT Cranes from Free-Fall/ Breakdown of due to Over-Speed needs a Protection and control devices to minimize the accidents and avoid damage to Human life and Equipment. In the Existing System Hydraulic-Operated Caliper Brake unit is used for Protection due to Breakdown and Free-Fall of Crane. The Present system is Operator Dependent and time delayed. Adequate alarm and Isolation from Power Circuit are not available. It is not been Integrated with the Existing Process Automation System. The main Objective of the Current Project is to utilize the Flexible Operation of Counter and Sensor for Control and Protection of Crane from failure. Programmable Counter ProvidesInformation about the Initial and Final set Values of Speed through Sensor. It sets the Alarm during fault Condition. In addition the most Important things is that it sends Signals to the Caliper Brake unit and VVVF drive unit to take Necessary Actions and These things are Operator Independent and fully Automated.
From the above set-up and arrangement we can ensure control and protection of crane from possible failure this increases reliability of the system because of operator independent and additional Caliper brake, drive and power circuit can be disconnected immediately after the fault within fraction of seconds . Above all this is the most economical in Cost wise flexible for multiple operations.[15]

Main Component of Overhead Crane is Girder Beam which transfers load to structural member. In Present Practice, industries overdesign girder beam which turns costly solution. So, our aim is to reduce weight of girder which has direct effect on cost of girder and also performance Optimization is done for fatigue (life) point of view. In this paper FE analysis of girder beam is carried out for the specific load condition i.e. turning operation. Here, we done a mathematical design calculation crane component, and thrust forces are used in FE analysis. Here, we used ANSYS WORK BENCH V12.1.Software for the FE analysis of the girder beam. Through this analysis we get the result in terms of stresses and deformation and this result are within the allowable limits.[14] David c. wycoff (1974) has explained that to control the braking system for apparatusdriven by single and polyphase alternating current induction motors. The system prevent destructive and dangerous overspeeding when the nature of the driven load is such that it can furnish sufficient torque to overdrive apparatus in any one of several potential modes. Acapacitor selected according to this invention is permanently connected across the motor winding such as to cause the drive motor to automatically develop retarding torque in the absence of power supplied there to sufficient to restrict the overdrive speed to a value not appreciably exceeding the normal operating speed the system also incorporates drive motor specifically designed with a predetermined value of starting torque appreciably less than that conventionally applied to similar apparatus for the specific purpose of limiting.[] Thomas Karl McNeil (1975) invented a system for detection of fault along an electric overhead travelling crane runway has a transducer detecting axial movement of a crane wheel drive shaft connected to a vibration analyzer. As the crane is moved along the runway, the analyzer provides a signal indicative of axial vibration to a calibrated recorder to produce a graphical record which is correlated with the location of supporting column and rail joints.[] John b. Shaw (1975) invented an arrangement for one or more tiltable drums that may be used in conjunction with cranes or other hoisting devices to overcome fleet angle limitation and controls the points of cross-over and reversal of the winding of the running line due to feet angle limitations of the line when the load bearing blocks are brought near their high limit.[] A Team (2007) Improved electric lift actuator for use on variety of lift system, includes various improvement that enable a universal design with interchangeable parts across several load ranges. The universal design further enable additional features and functionality (e.g., improved load cell location, improved operator sensing and electrical signal/air channel in operator pendant, improved reliability and reduced cost for operator force sensing, etc.) In addition the universal design is incorporated with a rotational drive assembly wherein the load sensing and wire rope slack sensing, as well as cable limits may be achieved using improved components and techniques such as non-contact sensors, etc. many of the improvements described are believed to reduce cost and improved performance and expand the capacity and reliability of the actuator in addition to making the actuator a common design across several applications and load ranges.[] Travelling cranes of the hand operated type were in use in the 1880’s. About this time complicated designs of powered motion were offered by English and American builders, involving a driving shaft along the runway and multiple clutches for transferring the power of the driving shaft to the hoist, trolley or bridge motions. Study of crane hook for trapezoidal cross section finite element analysis santosh Shaun , in this paper CAE is used to shorten the development FEM concept is used in the locking system of the crane hook stress factor is distributed uniformly. Damage factor the database is used to identify the load conditions that were Fatal to those damaged crane-hooks. Some of the feature points are selected on the crane-hook design; the Deformation of a damaged crane-hook can be then obtained based on the feature points detected by means Of the image processing. The critical load condition of the damaged crane-hook is calculated by comparing the obtained actual deformation and the simulated deformation values in the database. On the basis of these calculated load conditions, the critical load condition for the crane-hook is estimated as a statistical Distribution based on the Bayesian approach.[11]
-------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-3WORK DONE

3.1 Drawing of 160 ton hook, nut & lock plate

Fig. 3.1.1 Drawing of 160 ton hook, nut & lock plate

3.2 design of 160 ton hook

Fig. 3.2.1 CAD model of 160 ton hook
3.3 different views of the crane hook and calculation

Fig. 3.3.1 Different views of the crane hook

* The inner side is called intrados and the outer side is called the extrado. * According to force diagram of the hook intrado experiences more tensile force than the extrado. * Hook bed diameter is given by the formula c=μPcm * Where P is the load applied in tone c is the bed diameter * μ is a constant varying from 3.8 to 7.6 * Considering μ = 4.24 c = 30cm =300mm * Throat of the hook is taken 0.75c =225mm * d= 3.2P+C/10 =256.2mm * Using safety factor 6 * W=6x50000 =300,000 N * A crane hook is treated as a curved beam * Straight beam theory and shallow beam bending theory is not applied to the crane hook. Bending theory of beam with larger curvature is applied here

Fig 3.3.2 Bending of a beam with larger initial curvature

* In a beam with larger curvature neutral surface is displaced from the passing through the centroid towards the centre of curvature.

* The stress distribution in the curved beam due to moment is found by balancing the internalresisting moment to the externally applied moment

* And we get the following result σ=MyAe(Rn-y)………..(1) * By simplifying putting value of Rn we can obtain the following equation σ=MAR1-R2yh2(R-y)…………(2) [ Where h_ is called link radius and the value is given by the formula h2=RAy2R+ydA ]…………(3) * If σ is +ve then stress is tensile if σ is –ve then the stress is negative * The value of y is taken as –ve if it is on the opposite of the neutral axis

Table no. 1 different cross section formula Cross Section | Value of link radius | Rectangular | h2=2.3R3Dlog2R+D2R-D-R2 | Circular | h2=d216+18×d416R2 | Trapezoidal | h2=R3A2.3B2B1-B2R2DlogR2R!-B1-B2-R2 | Triangular | h2=R3A×BD2.3R2logR2R1-D-R2 |
3.4 modified section D=3.2p+c10 =256.2 mm R=0.75d=192.1 r=18d=32.05

Fig3.4.1Modifiedcrosssection
3.5Stress Calculation
Circular cross section * D=d=256.2 * A=51526.1 mm2 * R=c+d/2= 428 * h2=4280.89 * σ=WA+MAR1-R2yh2R-yFig.3.5.1 Circular cross section * Considering M ≈W×R We can have * σ=WA2-R2yh2R-y * σ =-368.7 for y =d/2
Rectangular Cross section * D= 256.2 mm * A=51562.1mm2 * B=120.4 * h2=2.3R3Dlog2R+D2R-D-R2 * h2=5626 * σ=12.50 for y=d/2Fig.3.5.2.Rectangular cross section

Triangular cross section * D=256.2 mm * B=402.5 * A=51552mm2 * h2=R3A×BD2.3R2logR2R1-D-R2 * Considering M ≈W×R We can have * σ=17.97Fig.3.5.3 Triangular cross section

Trapezoidal cross section * B1=300 * B2=102.4 * h2=R3A2.3B2B1-B2R2DlogR2R!-B1-B2-R2 * Considering M ≈W×R We can have * σ=16.35

Fig.3.5.4 Trapezoidal cross section

3.6 Ramshorn hook * All the ramshorn hooks shall, before testing, be normalized by heating uniformly in a furnace until the whole of the material has attained a temperature between 880°C and 910°C. It shall then be withdrawn from the furnace and allowed to cool in still air.

Fig. 3.6.1Ramshorn hook with different dimensions

Table no.2 Dimension for ramshorn hook[9]

PROOF LOADING

Each completed ramshorn hook shall, after heat treatment, besubjected to a vertical proof load specified in Table 1. If the vertical proof load test is applied in accordance with Fig 1A, an additional test of half the proof load specified for the vertical loading shall be applied horizontally as indicated in Fig 1B Prior to the application of proof loading, each hook shall bear a centre punch mark at position a from which scribed lines shall be trammelled to position b After removal of the load, the hook shall be re-scribed with the trammel unaltered, and the difference between the scribed lines shall be the amount of permanent set. The permanent set shall in no case exceed 0 25 percent of the distance ab.Theramshorn hook shall then be thoroughly examined by a competent person and shall be accepted as complying with this standard only if found free from flaw or defect.

Fig. 3.6.2 Load test on ramshorn hooks
THRUST BEARINGS FOR RAMSHORN HOOKS

B-1. Up to 125 tones capacity, standard single thrust ball bearings may be obtained. With the majority of ball thrust bearings, it is generally found necessary to locate the bearings on spigots or recesses on the hook nut and crosshead.

B-2. For hooks above 125 tones capacity, tapered roller or special thrust ball bearings are recommended. The bearing manufacturer should be consulted for suitable sizes.

B-3. When mounting single thrust ball bearings, care should be taken that the race does not take excessive horizontal load due to clearance between the ramshorn hook shank and the bore of the crosshead.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE USE OF RAMSHORN HOOKS

D-1. The ramshorn hooks covered by this standard should not be upgraded for use with slings at included angles less than 90°, as the capacity of the hook is also governed by the permissible stress in the shank. ( Advantage cannot therefore be taken of the increased body strength when the included sling angles are less than 90°. )

D-2. Ramshorn hooks should not be used with sling legs at excessive angles, since the stress in the body of the hook will increase at a greater rate than that in the sling leg. (Tables of angular loading on slings will not therefore be equally applicable to the loading on the ramshorn hooks. )

D-3. For heavy and bulky loads, it is preferable to use a lifting beam suspended from the hook by two pairs of links at fixed centers, the centers of the link pins on the beam being slightly greater than the centersof the bed diameters of the hook.

D-4. An appropriate included angle between the link plates would be of the order of 30°. With so small an included angle, the stress reduction factor for the hook body is less than one-half.
D-5. To avoid the danger of overloading individual link plates and their associated link pins, due to the possible tilting of the beam and the consequent out-of-balance effect, link plate assemblies should be designed with an ample margin of safety.

D-6. When using lifting beams, their length can be arranged to take varying centers of slings to suit the loads and ensure true balancing. True balancing is essential in order that the hook may rotate freely under load when required.

D-7. When lifting bulky loads where the centre of gravity is not central between the points of slinging, it is desirable to adjust the length of theslings so that the centre of gravity of the load is immediately below the centre line of the hook.

D-8. In order to reduce the effort required to rotate the hook when loaded, it is recommended that the hook be carried on a ball or roller thrust bearing (see Appendix B ).

D-9. When sling angles approach the limiting included angle for which the hook is designed, it is necessary to take care that neither of the two horns is subjected to a load exceeding one-half of the safe working load of the hook, since the stress reduction factor would then be nearly unity, and any out-of-balance effect could overload one of the horns. When lifting loads just within the capacity of the hook, extreme care is needed in this respect.

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER 4 FUTURE WORK

Hook will be analyzed for stress and deformation using analysis software and material might be changed if standard material available.
For increase load lifting capacity Hook, material used for hook, weight of load carried out by crane, weight of crane can be considerd.

\
-------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

Design is prepared and model is prepared by modeling software.

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER 6 REFERENCES

[1] http://www.craneservices.co.uk/products/overheard-cranes-gantries/
[2] http://www.servacrane.comnew-overhead-cranes.cfm
[3] http://www.morriscranes.co.uk/cranes/lightCraneSystems/lightCraneSystems2.htm

[4] http://www.gruasresemsa.com/MISIA-CDCrane.htm
[5] http://www.dearborncrane.com/
[6] http://www.hayestrading.com/Overhead_Bridge_Cranes.html
[7] http://electropar.co.nz/stahl-crane-systems/
[8] http://www.liftingequipmentdirectuk.co.uk/electric-rope-hoist/
[9]
http://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/so8/is.5749.1970.pdf

[10]http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/overhead_crane
[11] Takuma Nishimura, Takao Muromaki, KazuyukiHanahara, Yukio Tada, Shigeyuki Kuroda and Tadahisa Fukui; “Damage Factor Estimation of Crane-Hook (A Database Approach with Image, Knowledge and Simulation)” 4th International Workshop on Reliable Engineering
Computing (REC 2010)
[12]http://www.ijirset.com/upload/2013/december/57a_optimization.pdf

[13]http://www.grouppofrattura.it/osc/index.php/icf/icf12/paper/viewfile/1543/9080
[14]http://www.ejournalaessangli.in/asseejournals/mech68.pdf
[15]http://ijiset.com/v1s6/ijiset_v1_i6_41.pdf
[16]www.naicranes.com
[17]RajendraParmanik“Design Of Hoisting Arrangement Of E.O.T. Crane”Posted on July 26,2008 by http://rparmanik.wordpress.com/about-me-rajendra-parmanik/

[18] R. Uddanwadiker, "Stress Analysis of Crane Hook and Validation by Photo-Elasticity," Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2011, pp. 935-941

[19]http://www.codecogs.com/reference/engineering/materials/curved_beams.php(updatedlast on 2011-10-17 08:12:34

[20] R.S.Khurmi,“Strength of materials” 23rd Edition (2009) ,Chapter 33

[21]http://www.pdhonlimne.org/courses/m245/m245content.pdf…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Habakuk the Cane King

...Habakuk, the Cane King Introduction Success is a very important measure of an entrepreneur’s achievements and goals. Success can be measured by analysing various factors which could be qualitative and quantitative in nature. This means that defining success encompasses a broad spectrum. For instance, success can be measured by analysing the performance of the business, taking into consideration the expectations of stakeholders with an interest in the business venture, the nature of the expectations and the actual outcomes achieved relative to the expectations of the business venture. Analysing the performance of a venture can be measured for example by looking at the net profit of the business or its revenue and various profitability ratios of the venture. In addition, establishing relationships with others and achieving personal satisfaction are also important factors to consider when measuring the performance of the business. It has been indicated by Charles (2011) that the success of a new venture does indeed include meeting the expectations of interested parties. It has also been found by Charles (2011) that successful ventures are dependent on other factors such as the knowledge and skills of the entrepreneur. This knowledge can come from first-hand experience in a specific industry or research conducted in a specific area. It is also important to find the proper niche in the market, to be financially secure and to employ the right people. According to Wickham......

Words: 2287 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Over Population

...Over Population The impact of over-population is more widespread than most Americans realize. With an average of over 200,000 more people being added to this planet daily, an effect on the environment is inevitable. I believe over-population has more of a negative effect than positive. Issues such as depletion of natural resources, over-crowding, and the spread of diseases are why I am so concerned about this epidemic. With such a rapid average growth in population, natural resources are dwindling. Our country does not have enough resources to provide for the people. In return, we are cutting down forests to use those resources for fuel. The forests were a natural protection to our planet from global warming. Since they are being destroyed, we are no longer protected. Also, species are becoming extinct because we are destroying their natural habitats. A large percentage of the population lives in poverty and these families are growing rapidly. Some parents from low-income families cannot afford to properly provide the needs of their children. This is causing a rise in mal-nourishment. These children are going without nutrients they need which in turn causes health problems. These health problems go untreated because the families cannot afford health care. Again, this affects everyone because those that have jobs end up having to pay higher health premiums to provide for those that cannot pay for their own medical services. We are also affected......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cane Toads

...WHAT EFFECTS ARE CANE TOADS PRODUCING TOWARDS THE SUSTAINABILTY OF ECOSYSTEMS AND THE SURVIVAL OF NATIVE SPECIES Chelcy Jordan SUST 1000 October 10 2012 The introduction of invasive species can often lead to unpredictable alterations and a shift within natural ecosystems. Cane toads were originally introduced to Australia in 1935. They were brought into Australia to prey on specific pests that were attacking sugar cane plants. Cane toads are highly adaptive and can easily adjust to climate changes and feeding grounds. The growth of reproduction in cane toads has formed a species invasion on the habitat of native animals. Immense competition and a shift in ecosystems are a result of their significant growth rate. What effects are cane toads producing towards the sustainability of ecosystems and the survival of native species? Many animals, and plant species have been either finding new ways to adjust to changes caused by the introduction of cane toads. Cane toads have impacted natural ecosystems so drastically that they have left a strenuous effect on native species ability to maintain their own survival. This is crucial when looking at the effects cane toads have on sustaining plant and animal life within ecosystems. Dramatic changes in an ecosystem could potentially fail due to inadequate nutrients and energy distribution. It is important to examine ways in which cane toads affect ecosystems so environmentalists can predict potential negative shifts and try to......

Words: 2157 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Citizen Cane

...“Citizen Cane” By Fran-Marie Grant English Comp I EN1010 10/28/13 http://www.wsmuseum.com/wshist.html/ The White Settlement area was settled beginning in 1850. The first settlers were farmers from other states such as Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, etc. The area was referred to as White Settlement because it was the only community outside the fort (Fort Worth) that was settled entirely by white people. All of the other communities were mixed Indian and Whites. The area was about 10 miles west of the Fort. Early settlers were harassed by hostile Indians...but soon made friends of them and did considerable trading with those in the area. The land was rich and produced bumper crops of corn, grain, etc. A mill was established and the area did considerable trading, not only with the Indians, but other whites in the vicinity. The community remained more or less the same until 1940, when a bomber plant was built on the shores of Lake Worth in the area. The government built temporary housing for workers and businesses were established. In 1941 the city was incorporated and after the war continued to grow with the General Dynamics plant and other businesses. No farms remain within the city limits today. The community itself is rich in sales taxes and motel taxes and provides great parks, a public library, recreation department, senior services and first class fire and police protection. It is completely surrounded by Fort Worth, but...

Words: 1505 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sugar Cane

...Sugar Cane Today, sugar cane has many industrial uses and is one of the most widely used and cheapest domestic products Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically three to four meters high and about five centimeters in diameter. Sugar cane probably originated in the island of New Guinea. Its cultivation spread along human migration routes to South-East Asia, India and to Fiji and Hawaii in 500-1100 AD. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop. In 2010, FAO estimates it was cultivated on about 23.8 million hectares, in more than 90 countries, with a worldwide harvest of 1.69 billion tonnes. Brazil was the largest producer of sugar cane in the world. The next three major producers, in decreasing amounts of production, is India, China, and Thailand Sugar is an addictive food, not only in humans but also in dogs and pigs and other animals with simple stomachs. Excessive sugar induces at least one type of cancer and late- onset diabetes. It also 'crowds out' other energy foods. Despite this, sugar is now part of most processed food and drink of every kind in advanced countries, especially the USA. Unites State's one of the biggest sugar cane companies is Unites States Sugar Cane Corporation. It is Headquartered in Clewiston, Florida the company farms more than 180,000 acres in Hendry, Glades, and......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Over Population

...Effects and Solution of over population Having babies is a hope of most of the parents. In the past, our parents though that their son or daughter should have as many children as possible. However, this advice is not good because it can lead to a social problem called over population. Over population is a condition in which too many people for the environment. This paper analyses the effects and solutions of over population. Over population can cause a variety of negative effects. Firstly, the natural environment may be destroyed. Land is said account for only ¼ of the Earth’s surface. It means the space both for people and food growth is limited. However, with a huge number of people, consequently the Earth cannot support human anymore. The result is people have to cut down the forest to supply more space and they often use fire to do this business. This action can produce smoke and carbon dioxide. In addition, since the forests are depleted, there will have no enough trees to refresh the atmosphere or transfer oxygen from carbon dioxide. These can result in air pollution. Furthermore, loss of the biodiversity results from the direct impacts on wild animals’ habitat. Secondly, the social benefit is degraded. There are too crowed and so the city cannot sustain the necessities for its resident such as medical care, education and water and food supply. Another point is that crime in developing countries can be stem from over population. The more there are too many people,...

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Raising Canes

...RAISING CANES CHICKEN FINGERS FRANCHISE IN THE MISSISSIPPI GULF COAST BILOXI AREA Objective This Raising Canes Chicken Fingers franchise would strive to fit the hungry needs of the nearby patrons at the targeted area of Biloxi near Biloxi Regional Hospital and Casinos. While doing this Raising Canes would be expected to give superior service to customers, fair prices, and to be involved in the community in a positive way. Providing a fun, exciting, challenging world career with tremendous growth potential to all employees. Company History The chicken fingers have been served in the deep south states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana for many years, but not as the only item on the menu. The founder of the Raising Canes Chicken Fingers, Todd Graves, was a business student at Louisiana State University. During Graves’ college days, he learned how to cook chicken fingers and developed a wonderful sauce to complement the taste (Cater III, J., & Chadwick, Ken). In college course he was told by one of his professors, after submitting his business idea for what would be later be named Raising Canes, he was told that the business proposal would not work and gave him a very low C grade for the class (http://www.rasingcanes.com). Graves went to financial institutions and other private investors with his business plan. Like his professor, they also told him the plan would not work saying “a restaurant serving only chicken finger meals will never make......

Words: 3350 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Sugar and Slavery Cane Essay

...base of the New World’s economy. The majority ships that sailed yearly for Africa were from the city of Newport. A little over sixty percent of North American voyages that involved the Transatlantic Slave Trade were founded in Rhode Island because of their ports. Spanish America had 1,552,000 slaves, Europe had 175,000 slaves, British North America/ United States had 399,000 slaves, French America had 1,600,000 slaves, Brazil had 3,647,000 slaves, British Caribbean 1,665,000 slaves, Dutch America had 500,000 slaves and Danish West Indies had 28,000 slaves. From 1526 until 1870, all these slaves were sold this means about ten million slaves that were taken from Africa. Depleting Africa of its culture and resources and enriching the New World. The first recorded New England slave ship sailed from Boston, Massachusetts in 1644. From Boston, the ships would sail to the West Africa coast, and then to different states across North America, and the Caribbean. By the 1670’s, Massachusetts’s traders were distributing slaves between the Caribbean and North America (“New England”2). The slave trade was clearly a global business because it linked them to all corners of the world, The economy grew with this number of slaves circulating around the globe. The Transatlantic Slave Trade included other trade relationship such as salted cod to Barbados for sugar cane. Traders would go to Virginia for tobacco and would transport the sugar and tobacco to England for English......

Words: 1261 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Over the Counter, over Prescribed

...Lefebvre, Joseph Bentley University Over the Counter, Over Prescribed Prescription Drug Abuse Over the Counter, Over Prescribed Prescription Drug Abuse When describing a drug addict, the stereotypical description is usually someone who has no job, steals to get their fix, and is living their life in poverty because of their crippling addiction. The drug of choice for these “junkies” is typically black tar heroin. However in recent years this has not been the case. The age of prescription drugs is beginning and people are dying from prescription drug overdoses at an alarming rate. According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), as seen in Figure 1 found in the Appendix, in 2010 there were 8.76 million prescription drug abusers (Drug Facts: Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications). Prescription drug abuse has become an epidemic in America and it is not isolated to the stereotypical addict, as doctors and emergency response teams are seeing more and more overdoses and individuals seeking medical attention who are in the upper middle class and lead a fairly “normal” life besides their addiction. The NIDA found that there are around 5.1 million people in the US suffer from substance abuse disorders related to prescription pain relievers (Figure 1, Appendix). Although pain killer abuse gets a lot of the prescription drug abuse headlines, there are other medications that are being abused namely stimulants. Because over the counter and prescription medicines...

Words: 4393 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

A Depleting Market for Sugar Cane and Cocoa Beans

...For this particular project, the supply and demand for chocolate as well as sugar cane was to be critically evaluated and commented upon. The information that was to be evaluated came from the Commodities Corner from Barrons.com titled Sour Outlook for Sugar Prices and from the Commodities section of the Wall Street Journal titles World’s Sweet Tooth Heats Up Cocoa. The project also calls for an economic report that is to be published in a trade magazine that services the U.S. Market for Non-Chocolate Candy. Throughout the economic analysis and report market equilibrium, identification of the main variables of the articles, interpretation of impact on supply or demand, application to the supply and demand model, as well as the qualitative forecast of price and quantity in the relevant market. A Depleting Market for Sugar Cane and Cocoa Beans With the decline in sugar cane prices the world trade outlook for sugar cane also declines. As one can interpolate from Figure 1, the plot of quantity demanded for sugar cane versus the price per pound of sugar cane, the market equilibrium price for sugar is on the decline and has been on the decline for the past couple of years. In fact, raw sugar prices for the month of March declined at 15.22 cents a pound, which is down 7.3% since the turn of the New Year; it is also the lowest level in three and a half years accordingly. With the provided supply and demand curve (Figure 1), gives a projected outlook on supply and demand, as......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Black Shack Alley vs Sugar Cane Alley

...Black Shack Alley: Movie vs. Book Sugar Cane Alley is a film directed by Euzhan Palcy that depicts Joseph Zobel’s novel, Black Shack Alley. Both the film and the novel are set in Martinique and follow the life of José as he matures and struggles to escape the poverty and hardships of a sugar cane plantation in the colonial Caribbean. With the love, sacrifice and support from his family, while both the movie and book narrate the same story of achievement and overcoming obstacles, it is remarkable to examine the adaptations Palcy made upon the original text. Whether it’s a change on character dialogues, appearances, or modifications to José maturity and education, every different adjustment made confronts and addresses the issues of slavery, racial inequality, and the push for a collective African heritage and identity conveyed through Zobel’s text. It is essential to point out that the most obvious difference between both works is the time discrepancy. In the novel, José’s maturity progresses over a period of many years, starting with the age of seven and elongating all the way through his education at the lyceé. On the other hand, Palcy presents José as having reached maturity very early in the movie. The incident of the broken bowl exemplifies this adaptation. In the original text the incident occurs when José invites his friends inside to snack on goodies and sugar (which was very protected by M’an Tine). Urged by José’s initiative, they then proceed to search the......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Smart Cane Impaired Visually People

...'SMART’ CANE FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE Vaibhav Singh, Rohan Paul Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Introduction 3 Review of the literature 4 Objective of the project 4 Methods and Materials 5 1. Description of System 5 2. The gadget works in two client selectable modes 5 3. Design of System 6 Experiments of the field 6 1. Field research 7 2. Enrolment of User 7 3. Usage of Smart Cane training 7 4. Phase of Trial 8 5. Indicator for Key Performance 8 Outcome 9 Awareness about Obstacle raises 9 Rate of collision reduction 9 Distance of Obstacle Detection 9 Usage of Smart Cane with few observations 10 Feedback of user post-experiment 10 Special cases of user 10 Conclusion 11 References 11 Executive Summary The persons that are visually challenged face awesome trouble in autonomous portability and utilize the white stick as a versatility help to distinguish near to impediments on the ground. Nonetheless, the stick has two noteworthy impediments: * It can just distinguish obstructions up to knee-level. Consequently, the client can't identify raised impediments like lifted bars and much of the time crashes into them. (Iovine, 2004) * The stick can just distinguish obstructions inside 1m from the client. Additionally, obstructions like moving vehicles can't be distinguished until hazardously near the individual. Very nearly 90% of the visually impaired persons live in creating nations, with a larger......

Words: 3414 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Over

...| e. Priority | a. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium | f. Flow control | b. Identifies the sender and receiver | g. Congestion control | e. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing | Protocol | Specification | a. Ethernet | c. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA | b. Point-to-Point Protocol | a. Defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard | c. 802.11 | a. Includes specifications for operation at 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 Mbps | | b. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes | | c. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame | | c. Often found on WANs | | a. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD | | b. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document | | b. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame | | c. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully | Concept Questions 1. Compare and contract Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses As compared to Layer 3, where addresses in the packet header are carried from source host to destination host regardless of the number of network hops along the route, Layer 2 uses addressing to transport the frame across the local media. 2. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Point-to-Point topologies, with just two interconnected nodes, do not require addressing. 3. What is the purpose......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Cane Corso Managerial Analysis

...CANE COSO v. PIT BULL: Let’s Compare Some Traits I have to say, we’re obviously biased here toward cane corsos, but we do love pit bulls nonetheless. So, I wanted to address the subject that seems to come up frequently about “Which is a better guard dog?” My immediate answer, hands-down, ALWAYS is the cane corso. While pit bulls are fierce and highly aggressive toward other dogs, they seldom attack people. They are very sociable, and make good family pets, despite their bad reputation. We have owned several pit bulls, so this is speaking from experience. They are very good hunting dogs…pits LOVE to be worked. And I doubt you’d ever find a better Frisbee chaser than a pit bull. But when it comes to guarding your ASSets, **ahem** I have to go with the cane corso every time. Plus, they’re still under the radar in terms of where you can own one and drive around with one in your vehicle, which is a bonus if you’re into driving around with your dog riding shotgun. Pit bulls are quickly becoming outlawed in many regions, sadly because of false media representations and also because people just don’t seem to want to devote the amount of time required to train such an active-breed dog…I guess it all goes back to the saying that dumb people just shouldn’t own dogs, but it’s still a free country in that respect. Here’s a link to an article that picks apart each breed a little better than I think I could do: http://www.squidoo.com/pittbullsvcanecorso This article,......

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Cane

...The cane. Simply put the stigma of the cane alone can be a daunting prospect. Never mind the fact that I don’t have a disability. In all honesty (and ethics aside) I was afraid to use a cane in public because canes are an instant label. Does it make any sense at all that I would be more comfortable using crutches than I would a cane? No? Me either, but that’s the truth of it in a nutshell. Realistically, though perhaps not logically, crutches convey something temporary, an injury that will eventually heal. An injury that perhaps could even be conceivably derived from my athleticism gone awry, a sign of my wholeness on pause that would eventually return. A cane labels you as weaker than the rest, unhealthy even, takes you aside socially, mentally and physically from those that walk and live unassisted, strong, normally. I don’t like thinking that I am capable of snap judgments on the characters of others whom I have never met. I don’t like to think that I am capable of thinking so shallowly. In fact when I am in the presence of someone that is disabled I can’t help but want to help. I consider their apparatus to be a part of their personal space, an extension of their bodies and respect their needs which are usually no more than patience and space. I will always hold doors, reach something for those that can’t or be sure my children are respecting boundaries and be patient around those that need more time to complete tasks. Though, in the confines of my human body, I......

Words: 959 - Pages: 4

View Site Leaders | Cars speelgoed | Godzilla Dublado Online Assistir Godzilla Dublado Online HD 720p Joe Brody (Bryan Cranston) criou o filho sozinho após a morte da esposa (Juliette Binoche) em um acidente na usina nuclear em que ambos trabalhavam, no Japão. Ele nunca aceitou a catástrofe e quinze anos depois continua remoendo o acontecido, tentando encontrar alguma explicação. Ford Brody (Aaron Taylor-Johnson), agora adulto, é soldado do exército americano ...