Premium Essay

Overuse of Antibiotics

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sjallen05
Words 506
Pages 3
The New England Health Institute (NEHI) considers antibiotic overuse a $63 billion issue that desperately needs reform. The solution to the overuse of antibiotics has already been started by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The CDC implemented an educational program discussing the treatments of viruses and bacterial diseases aimed at patients or the parents of patients as well as health care providers. This program called, Get Smart, Know When Antibiotics Work, discusses the dangers of demanding an antibiotic when the drug will not be effective and outlines options for doctors to discuss with patients (Bend the Curve, 2013). Another part of the reform effort suggests increasing vaccinations to combat antibiotic overuse. By increasing the use of flu shots, the need for antibiotics will diminish. The NEHI favors reform of the guidelines in hospital clinics and other health care settings making it policy to not prescribe antibiotics unless the treatment calls for them, no matter what the patient demands. If all health care professionals respond this way, patients will eventually accept the practice. NEHI considers antibiotic overuse a major player in the health care reform setting including antibiotics given to, or put in the feed, of animals that later become food. Work to decrease antibiotic use in this area impacts human medicine as much as efforts to decrease antibiotics prescribed to humans (Bend the Curve, 2013). Not only are there action that can be taken by doctors, but we as patients can protect ourselves by taken certain actions to help prevent bacterial infections and the overuse of the antibiotics. The single best to prevent any bacterial infection is using good hygiene by washing hands to help prevent the spread of bacteria. Next step is to make sure that when a doctor prescribes antibiotic that you actually need them. Asking the doctor if…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Antibiotics: Not Always the Answer

...Antibiotics: Not Always the Answer It was flu season. Almost everyone was getting sick. For a few days, my throat felt constricted, making it hard for me to swallow down food. Thinking that it was a cold, I ignored it and went on with my daily schedule. Two weeks passed, there was no change. I never really thought about looking at my throat to see what was going on, but once I looked, my tonsils were the size of golf balls. I went straight to my doctor, hoping it wasn't tonsillitis. The first thing we had to figure out was to see if this was a bacterial or viral infection. My tests results for strep throat, mononucleosis, tonsillitis, and blood samples to test for bacterial infection were all negative. My doctor reported that my results indicated that I had some sort of virus, and did not prescribe me antibiotics, raising questions for why I shouldn't be taking antibiotics for my infection. Since Alexander Fleming's discovery of them in 1927, antibiotics have played a profound role in ridding the population of bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemicals that work to kill disease-causing, single-cell living organisms called bacteria ("The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse"). Bacteria can surpass our immune system, reproduce, and cause diseases or infection by producing chemicals that damage our bodies ("What Are Antibiotics? How Do Antibiotics Work?"). For instance, bacteria can invade our inner ear and cause a bacterial ear infection. Our immune system works to fight the...

Words: 1937 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Viruses and Antibiotics

...characteristics. 2. Viruses cannot be grown agar as bacteria are because they cannot metabolize on their own. They need at least one host cell where it could input its DNA and infect it. After that, both those viruses would commence by infecting other living host cells. 3. Antibiotics work to get rid of the replicating function of bacteria so it cannot spread. However, viruses cannot replicate on their own unless they have living hosts, therefore since the viruses do not replicate, the antibiotics have no use. 4. Viral specificity means that the virus chooses and selects the type of cell, organism to infect and which disease to invoke onto it. 5. a) A-Virus, B-Cell DNA, C-Cell/Cell Membrane, D- Nucleic Acid (DNA or RNA) b) Bacteriophage Life Cycle c) I believe it doesn’t matter what they infect, as they are non-living and as long as they find some kind of living host, they’ll inject their nucleic acid to replicate into many more viruses. 6. Antibiotics literally will have no effect and will not cure the patient. All that the patient will gain are the side effects, for example: drowsiness and such. They will not get cured, as their problem is that viruses aren’t alive and antibiotics only deal with live things. Part 2 http://www.storyjumper.com/book/index/10963732/rc21angus Works Cited Wikipedia contributors. "Rabies in Animals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 19 June 2013.......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antibiotic Misuse

...There are several people who use antibiotics for the wrong reasons. Some people think that using antibiotics will get rid of a cold or the flu virus faster or clear up a skin condition. Antibiotics should only be consumed for the infectious illness in which they were suggested for. Antibiotics are abused world-wide, and abuse of the medication can do more harm than help. I chose to research antibiotic abuse and the underlying issues with antibiotics. Antibiotics are being abused in so many ways by people and industries everywhere. The focus will be on agricultural abuse of antibiotics, human abuse, and antibiotic resistance. I will conduct various phone or face to face interviews with individuals as well as provide a questionnaire survey to obtain the information needed for this particular project. What are antibiotics? Antibiotics are “A medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms”, (What You Should Know about Antibiotics, 2012, p. 3). Antibiotics are used to treat various infections within the body cavity. They help ward off unwanted illnesses. There are various types of antibiotics each one has a significant role in fighting bacteria or fungal infections. “How do antibiotics work? When properly prescribed for a bacterial illness, antibiotics join forces with your body’s own defenses and literally wage war against invading bacteria. Some antibiotics dissolve the protective cell wall of an organism, rupturing......

Words: 1681 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Antibiotics in the Production of Food Animals

... Antibiotics in the Production of Food Animals Lawrence S. SwaderDeVry UniversityEnglish 135 Professor Hanson12/5/2011 | Antibiotics in the Production of Food Animals The use of antibiotics in the production of food animals has caused some controversy of late. Antibiotics have been used in food animal production in the U.S. and other countries for more than 50 years (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, n.d). Antibiotics are used in agricultural applications not only therapeutically to treat illnesses and infections, but also as a non-therapeutic growth agent. This use as a growth agent has been a boon to the meat producers and consumers of the world. It has allowed for quicker weight gain and thus shortened time from birth to slaughter. This increases production and lowers prices to consumers. So, why all the controversy now. It is this non-therapeutic use or use for something other than treating illness or disease that has spawned most of the controversy around their overuse and raised calls that antibiotics be banned in agricultural use for anything except the treatment of illness or disease. Although antibiotics have contributed to an increase in production and the lowering of cost of industrially produced meat there is also a serious downside. According to FDA estimates fully “80% of the antibiotics produced in the U.S. are for agricultural use. Four times the amount used to treat human illnesses” (Union, 2011). The use of antibiotics in......

Words: 2989 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Antibiotics

...Antibiotics have saved numerous lives since the innovation of penicillin antibiotics in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. Although, now there is a increasing anxiety that overuse of antibiotics can direct to avoidable side effects and the expansion of drugs which are mostly opposing bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).  MRSA has happened to be the most frequent organism responsible for skin, soft tissue and surgical-site infections in the United States and in different parts of the Europe. Different findings had been conducted in a study of the genetic code of MRSA samples; they have added these samples to support to the theory that the introduction of extensive antibiotic use in the 1960s may have generated MRSA disease. Antibiotic word is an originated from Greek for anti, which means against and bios means life. A micro –organism bacteria is a life figure that is moreover good, living in our lower part of the canal near stomach and anus which called intestine, such bacteria’s infecting our bodies and making the world population ill. Antibiotics are a kind of drugs used to treat these infections caused by bacteria. Healthy immune systems can be destroyed by bad bacteria before they can cause disorder in the whole body which causing illness. Human bodies assault the bacteria by transferring white blood cells to the unsafe bacteria separating the good bacteria unaccompanied. Antibiotics are frequently used for higher respiratory infections. But the......

Words: 1136 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Antibiotic and Surgery

...Antibiotic in Surgical Patients Gretchen Smith Antibiotic in Surgical Patients Prevention of surgical infections is a highly significant issue to pre-op nursing care, as surgeons entrust nurses to carry out the procedure, of administration antibiotic prophylactic, which have a positive impact on patient outcome. When a surgeon determined that an antibiotic is going to be required for a particular case, giving the antibiotic at the correct time is “very important” (“Case example,” 2010, p. 27). Research has found that antibiotics that are administered (“to early or after surgery begins are not effective” (“Case example,” 2010, p. 27). It is important for nurse to be aware of the timetable and take steps to implement this in to their practice. It has been debated as to whether or not antibiotic prophylaxis is appropriate in preventing infections in surgical patients. (Easter, 2010). Zaidi, Tariq and Breslin (2009), addressed the topic of timing an antibiotic prophylaxis, the researches study 525 elective surgeries and the timing of antibiotic administration. Zaidi, Tariq and Breslin stated that the “antibiotic should be administered as near to the incision time as possible,” as the study found that “pre-incisional prophylaxis administration of antibiotics is more beneficial than post-incisional administration” (Zaidi, Tariq, & Breslin, 2009, p. 226) The most significant risk factor for delivery by cesarean section is post partum infection. As......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Antibiotics

...AAntibiotics Antibiotics are a chemical which work by being either bactericidal where they kill microorganisms; or by being bacteristatic where they inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. Narrow spectrum antibiotics target specific reaction in particular microorganisms; whereas broad spectrum antibiotics will have an effect on more general features so affect a wide range of pathogens. They work by cell wall synthesis: an example of a bactericidal antibiotic is Penicillin, this works by preventing the production of peptidoglycan which is a substance that forms in the cell wall. This means the cell will continue to grow without dividing or developing new cell wall Therefore, the wall gets weaker, and eventually ruptures. Another way antibiotics works is by protein synthesis: an example of a bacteriostatic antibiotic is Tetracycline, it binds to ribosomes in bacteria this means the cell cannot make proteins and therefore inhibits growth. The benefits of using antibiotics is that it helps people with weakened immune systems, it can treat many infections such as strep throat, tonsillitis and sinusitis, it is easy to administer since you can take them orally or via injection, it has few side effects and is cost effective. However issues concerning antibiotics are allergic reactions depending on your drug allergies you may be extremely allergic to some types of antibiotics, such as those containing sulfa. Unfortunately, sulfa is present in many common antibiotics, so it......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antibiotic

...ANSWERS Process of Science (13.15) What Are the Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance? Lab Notebook Place an "nr" for "not resistant" and an "r" for "resistant" in the appropriate boxes. | | |Subjects | |Antibiotic |Common Use | | | | |Child |Elderly |Young woman |Physician | | | | |person | | | |Ampicillin |treatment of ear |r |nr |nr |r | | |and throat | | | | | | |infections | | | | | |Cephalosporin |treatment for |nr |r |nr |r | | |people susceptible| | | | | | |to skin infections| | | | | |Ciprofloxacin |treatment of |nr |nr |r |r | | ...

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antibiotics Are They Really Magic Bullets?

...TITLE: ANTIBIOTICS : ARE THEY REALLY MAGIC BULLETS? The human body is exposed to substances that have the potential to cause harm on a daily basis. The body protects itself against these substances in several ways. Our natural defences give the body an opportunity to fight off invading microbes that may cause disease. The first line of defence is non-specific and aims to stop microbes from entering the body. The skin and mucous membranes act as a physical barrier preventing penetration by more harmful microbes which could lead to infection (1). The normal body flora on the surfaces of the body, reduce the area available for pathogens to attach to, as well as acting as a competitor for suitable nutrients. The body also produces several antimicrobial substances that kill or break down bacteria. A specific example of a physical barrier is when the blood produces a clot to seal the wound to prevent microbes from entering when the skin has been cut. The second line of defence is also non-specific and involves the process of phagocytosis. A type of white blood cell, called phagocytes, send out pseudopodia to attack the pathogens. Digestive enzymes are then released which break down the harmful microbes (1). Conversely, specific immunity is when resistance is given to a particular foreign agent such as a virus or bacteria, known as antigens. These antigens work to attack the pathogen by causing specific cells to replicate and produce proteins to provide......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Reducing the Use of Antibiotics

...Reducing the Use of Antibiotics Antibiotics are created using natural substances which bacteria secrete to kill other bacteria when forced to compete for limited nutrients. The first antibiotic, Penicillin, was discovered in the 1928 by Alexander Fleming and began being mass produced by the 1940’s. Within the same decade, resistant strains of bacteria began to appear. (1) Since then, 18 dangerous drug-resistant superbugs have been discovered (according to the CDC). A bacterium is referred to as a ‘superbug’ if it carries several resistant genes within its DNA. (2) Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics primarily through two ways: by mutation or by horizontal gene transfer, in which bacteria share resistant genes with other bacteria essentially swapping out portions of their DNA for mutated sections. Antibiotics kill bacteria by binding to the cells protein so that the protein cannot function properly, hindering the bacteria from growing and reproducing. If the bacteria contains mutated portions of DNA, the antibiotic cannot bind to the altered protein and the bacteria won’t be affected. Due to natural selection, the bacteria that survived, the mutated bacteria, will be left to grow and reproduce and all that will remain will be the antibiotic resistant bacteria. (1) There continues to be an increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria due to a variety of reasons, mainly the over-prescription of antibiotics, the misuse of antibiotics (such as not taking......

Words: 1549 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Antibiotic Resistance

...Antibiotic resistance — what is it and why is it a problem? The development of antibiotics was one of the most important advances of medicine. Many bacterial infections (e.g. tuberculosis and infected wounds) that had previously had no effective treatment and often killed people, became treatable with antibiotics, saving millions of lives. Now, because of the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, bacterial infections that were once easily cured with antibiotics are becoming harder to treat. This is due to antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization has called this one of the biggest threats to human health today.   What is antibiotic resistance? Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria change to protect themselves from an antibiotic. They are then no longer sensitive to that antibiotic. When this happens, antibiotics that previously would have killed the bacteria, or stopped them from multiplying, no longer work. What are ‘superbugs’? ‘Superbugs’ are bacteria that are resistant to several different antibiotics. The methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria commonly found in hospitals, and the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), are now very hard to treat because of antibiotic resistance. Strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) — the bacteria that causes many urinary tract infections — have also developed resistance to a number of antibiotics. How does antibiotic resistance affect me? Using antibiotics when you......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Antibiotics: a Harmful Misued Product

...Antibiotics: A Harmful Misused Product Today, the human race has way too much reliance on antibiotics and products associated with them. Many people are extremely unaware of what can happen if antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly. Nobody allows their body to heal itself. In certain cases antibiotics should be used to help cure one of an infection but not in the ways they are used today. Antibiotics can be found in many household that includes mostly all wipes and sprays. Antibiotics being included in all of these products can do nothing but hurt one in the long run. Placing antibiotics in cleaning appliances can cause all bacteria to become immune and change so that the antibiotic becomes unproductive and the bacterium becomes stronger. Antibiotics are used for anything from cuts to strep throat and pneumonia and have been for a very long time. They are becoming impotent because they are used incorrectly by nearly everyone: doctors, patients, and even people raising animals for meat. The misuse would be prescribing the drugs completely incorrectly. In doing this, superbugs are produced and they are extremely antibiotic resistant and almost impossible to stop. Antibiotics also kill some of the good and helpful bacteria inside of the body which may allow resistant bacteria to fill in. The human body itself has sets up its own defenses with pathogens and other walls that fight and harmful bacteria off without any use of antibiotics. It is very faulty to overuse any......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Resistance to Antibiotics

...to antibiotics, explain how such adaptations can develop through the process of natural selection. Exam # 25010400 Exam # 25010400 January 17, 2016 kelsey duff January 17, 2016 kelsey duff Natural selection is the process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic (living) and the abiotic (nonliving) environments. In the biotic environment organisms acquire resources through completion, predation, and parasitism. The abiotic environment includes weather conditions, dependent chiefly on temperatues and precipitation. Directional selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored and the distribution curve shifts in that direction. Such a shift can occur when a population is adapting to a changing environment. Resistance to antibiotics and insecticides are examples of directional selection. The widespread use of antibiotics and insecticides (pesticides) results in populations of bacteria and insects that are resistant to these chemicals. When an antibiotic is administered, some bacteria may survive because they are genetically resistant to the antibiotic. These bacteria are most likely to pass on their genes to the next generation. Result, the number of bacteria keeps in increasing. Drug-resistant strains of bacteria that cause tuberculosis have now become a serious threat to the health of people worldwide. Because the genes of bacteria are varied, it is likely that there are some bacteria that carry genes which allow them to survive or resist antibiotics,......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Misuse of Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance

...The Misuse of Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance Samantha Onda Penn State Worthington Scranton Abstract The growing issue of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is growing more rapidly than anticipated. Numerous factors contribute to this growing issue and it creates a major concern for society today. The main factor in this growing issue is the continuous misuse and overuse of antibiotics. For example, people use them by prescribing antibiotics to themselves, even if they have acquired a viral infection. Furthermore, livestock is pumped full of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infections. Moreover, bacteria have become smarter and evolved so that they are able to transmit the resistance to other bacteria. This is an important issue in today’s society because if antibiotics are continuously misused, they will no longer be affective. The world will go back to a time period when diseases, even something as simple as the common cold, killed mass numbers of people. From reading this paper, readers will learn that they need to properly educate themselves and others in our society to prevent complete resistance. Keywords: antibiotics, bacteria, resistance, misuse, educate The Misuse of Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance Antibiotics have been used throughout centuries of medicine. An antibiotic is a medication used to treat infectious diseases. There are many different types of antibiotics, such as penicillin and tetracycline, that work differently to treat......

Words: 2623 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Resistance to Antibiotics

...------------------------------------------------- Many Pathogenic bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics, explain how such adaptations can develop through the process of natural selection. Exam # 25010400 Exam # 25010400 January 17, 2016 kelsey duff January 17, 2016 kelsey duff Natural selection is the process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic (living) and the abiotic (nonliving) environments. In the biotic environment organisms acquire resources through completion, predation, and parasitism. The abiotic environment includes weather conditions, dependent chiefly on temperatues and precipitation. Directional selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored and the distribution curve shifts in that direction. Such a shift can occur when a population is adapting to a changing environment. Resistance to antibiotics and insecticides are examples of directional selection. The widespread use of antibiotics and insecticides (pesticides) results in populations of bacteria and insects that are resistant to these chemicals. When an antibiotic is administered, some bacteria may survive because they are genetically resistant to the antibiotic. These bacteria are most likely to pass on their genes to the next generation. Result, the number of bacteria keeps in increasing. Drug-resistant strains of bacteria that cause tuberculosis have now become a serious threat to the health of people worldwide. Because the genes of bacteria are varied,......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Seguridad y alarmas del coche | 3 10 2016-08-21The Last Ship - Scuttle | Dungeons Dragons