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Pamukhina

In: Business and Management

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ББК81.2 Англ-9 П15 ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Пособие «Business English» предназначено для широкого круга лиц, активно использующих английский язык в коммерческой деятельности, требующей знаний иностранного языка. Оно может быть использовано как составная часть стабильного учебного материала в учебных заведениях деловой ориентации, на курсах и в кружках по изучению делового английского языка, а также для целей дистанционного обучения. Применение пособия предполагает знание нормативной грамматики и наличие лексического запаса в объеме 1500-2000 лексических единиц. Цель пособия - представить образцы ведения переписки и переговоров по широкому кругу актуальной коммерческой тематики и обеспечить ее усвоение. Тематика включает следующее: 1. Контракт купли-продажи, его заключение, выполнение. 2. Выполнение проектной документации, контракт на ее подготовку и продажу. 3. Поставка товара и оборудования. 4. Командирование специалистов за рубеж по контракту. 5. Торговые операции через агентские фирмы, участие в торгах. 6. Продажа лицензий, франчайзинг. 7. Строительство крупных объектов, а также строительство на условиях «под ключ». 8. Формы сотрудничества типа консорциум. 9. Транспортные операции. 10. Претензии, арбитраж. Тематический принцип построения пособия дает возможность использовать его как цельное учебное пособие, так и для выборочного изучения нужной тематики. Структура. Пособие включает 11 тематических разделов, список письменных штампов, используемых в переписке, англо-русский и русско-английский словари тематической лексики. Разделы построены по единому принципу, имеющему целью облегчить усвоение материала как при изучении его в группе, так и при самостоятельном обучении. В каждом разделе представлены: 1. Информация по ключевым вопросам данной темы (в форме писем и диалогов). 2. Лексические средства, представляющие эту информацию на английском языке. 3. Система упражнений для закрепления темы. 4. Справочный материал по теме.

Памухина, Л.Г., Жолтая, Л.Р., Любимцева, С.Н., Архангельская, Т.Р. П 15 Английский язык для делового общения / Л.Г. Памухина, Л.Р. Жолтая, С.Н. Любимцева, Т.Р. Архангельская. - М.: ГИС, 2006. - 440 с. ISBN 5-8330-0232-Х Цель пособия — развитие навыков ведения деловой беседы и переписки на английском языке. Тематика пособия отражает различные аспекты деятельности внешнеторговых и внешнеэкономических организаций, включая такие ее формы, как создание совместных предприятий, участие в консорциумах, торговля лицензиями, «ноу-хау», контракт купли—продажи, контракт на подряд строительства и др. Предназначается для широкого круга специалистов, изучающих английский язык и работающих в области внешнеэкономических отношений. Может быть использовано как в условиях стационарного учебного процесса, так и для дистанционного обучения.

Издательство «ГИС», 2006 Л.Г. Памухина,

ISBN 5-8330-0232-Х

е л р ЖолтаЯ(

С.Н. Любимцева, Т.Р.Архангельская, 2003

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Структура каждого раздела включает: 1. Вступление в тему. 2. Образцы переписки по тематике раздела. 3. Образцы диалогической речи (обсуждение ключевых вопросов). 4. Списки активной лексики с комментариями, списки письменных и рече вых штампов. 5. Упражнения: а) для работы с текстом; б) для закрепления трудноусваиваемых лексических единиц; в) для закрепления тематической информации на материале дополнителЬ' ных писем на русском и английском языках; г) задания для составления писем или диалогов по теме раздела; д) справочный материал - образцы коммерческой документации по теме! раздела, дополнительный информационный материал по актуальным пробле мам деловой и коммерческой деятельности. Методические рекомендации для работы с пособием диктуются практи ческими условиями учебного процесса (цель обучения, объем учебных часов, режим занятий, стационарное или дистанционное обучение и т.п.). Основные рекомендации по порядку прохождения каждого раздела могут быть следую щими: | 1. Поэтапное изучение секций А, В, С, D каждого раздела параллельно с| соответствующими секциями упражнений I, II, III и лексическими едини-j цами Vocabulary Notes. 1 2. Аудиторное и внеаудиторное выполнение упражнений VI, VII, VIII. | 3. Устное выполнение упражнений типа IV, V, VII, VIII, IX. | 4. Последовательное выполнение упражнений IX, X с устной проработкой в| аудитории. I 5. Градуированное выполнение упражнений XIII, XV с устной проработкой! в аудитории. I Данное издание является переработанным и дополненным изданием учеб ника «Business English». Оно успешно используется в течение многих лет на ВКИЯ Минэкономразвития России (раньше на ВКИЯ Государственного коми тета по внешнеэкономическим связям, ВКИЯ Министерства внешнеэкономи ческих связей) в условиях очно-заочного учебного процесса. | Переработанное издание подготовлено авторским коллективом на основа-1 нии изучения деловых документов и практики деятельности внешнеторговых! организаций и финансовых институтов в следующем объеме:

| Л.Г. Памухина разработала методические принципы построения пособия, подготовила разделы 1,5, 11. Т.Р. Архангельская подготовила разделы 6, 9. Л.Р. Жолтая подготовила разделы 2, 3, 4. С.Н. Любимцева подготовила разделы 7, 8, 10. Авторы

UNIT 1

PERFORMING A CONTRACT
А. TEXT A contract is the most accepted formal document confirming the decision1 of the contracting parties to carry out mutual business obligations. The major contract clauses include articles on legal titles of the parties, subject of the contract, quality and quantity of the goods, terms of inspection, delivery and payment, requirements for packing and marking, claims and arbitration and other articles. As a rule concluding a contract2 is preceded by discussing the enquiry2 of the Buyer and the offer of the Seller. B. * ENQUIRY

Most letters of enquiry are short and simple. The writer of an enquiry states briefly and clearly what he is interested in, and this is all the receiver of the letter needs to know. An enquiry should include: a) A brief mention of how you obtained your potential supplier's name. b) Some indication of the demand in your area for the goods which the supplier can sell. c) Details of what you would like your prospective supplier to send you. Normally you will be interested in a catalogue, a price-list, discounts, methods of payment, delivery times, and, where appropriate, samples. d) A closing sentence to complete the enquiry. Here are some examples of enquiries. 1. December 5, 20... Dear Sirs, We were greatly impressed by the samples of your goods which we saw on display at the Moscow exhibition last November. We are very interested in establishing contacts with you2 and feel that we shall be able to do successful business provided3 your terms and conditions are acceptable for us. 5

Please let us have your catalogues and latest price-lists quoting your! best terms and prices. We are looking forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, 2. September 5, 20... | Dear Sirs, I We have heard from the ... Embassy in ... that you are producing fori export hand-made shoes and gloves in natural materials. j There is a steady demand in our country for high-quality goods of this | type. Sales are not high, but a good price can be obtained for fashionable j designs. , Will you please send us your catalogue and full details of your export | prices and terms of payment, together with samples of leather and, if pos- j sible, samples of some of the articles themselves. We are looking forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, 3. November 10, 20... Dear Sirs, We have seen your advertisement in the ... Journal and would be grateful to you if you would kindly send us details of your product. Please quote us for the items listed on the enclosed enquiry giving your prices c.i.f.4... Will you please also indicate delivery times, your terms of payment and details of discounts for regular purchases and large orders. Our annual requirements for this product are quite high, and we may be able to place big orders with you if your prices are competitive and your deliveries prompt. We look forward to receiving your quotation. Yours faithfully, С OFFER A reply to an enquiry which is an offer, is usually fairly brief, and does not need to be more than polite and direct, provided the supplier is in a position to meet his correspondent's requirements, his reply will generally: 6

a) Thank the writer of the letter of enquiry for the letter in question. b) Give all the information requested, and refer both to enclosures and to samples, catalogues and other items sent by separate post. c) Provide additional information, if he can do it. d) Conclude with one or two lines encouraging the customer to place orders and assuring him of good service. . Here are some examples: 1. March 5, 20... Dear Sirs, Thank you for your enquiry of... which has been given our careful attention. We enclose detailed quotations for a wide range of our product. We can make a firm offer to meet any delivery dates. The prices and the terms of payment will depend on our mutual agreement. If you place a big order we shall be able to give you a discount. Your early reply will be appreciated. Yours faithfully, 2. February 5, 20... Dear Sirs, We thank you for your enquiry of... and can confirm our telephone conversation of yesterday in which we informed you that we can deliver part of the goods required from stock. For the balance we would require approximately two months from the date of signing the contract. Prices as quoted are f.o.b.4... Packing in ... cases. Payment against documents by a L/C.5 We are prepared to discuss details of the delivery dates at your convenience. Meanwhile we assure you that you can count on our full cooperation. Yours faithfully,

D. 1. PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION F. Well, Mr R., you've studied our offer and seen our samples, haven't you? What's your final decision? 7

R. We like samples 5 and 8, they suit us. The quality is excellent and we t h i n k the goods will go down well in our market if the prices are reasonable. F. You are right. We've been selling the goods for two years and very successfully. Sample 8 is our latest modified model. Are you going to place a big order? R. Yes,... pieces for prompt delivery and ... pieces for delivery in four equal lots of... per month within four months of signing the contract. F. We are quite able to meet the dates. We have a big stock. Do you prefer FOB 4 terms? R. Yes, we do. And you remember my remark, don't you, Mr F.? I said: If the prices are competitive, we would like you to give us a discount of 5%. F. That's too much. As a special concession to a new customer we can give you a 3.5 % discount. And payment by an irrevocable confirmed L/C which you will open right after signing the contract. R. Good, it's a deal. We'll be able to sign the contract this week, I think. 2. PERFORMING THE CONTRACT

NOTES 1. confirming the decision зд. подтверждающее решение confirming - причастие настоящего времени, может быть обра зовано от любого глагола, кроме модальных; соответствует русскому причастию действительного залога настоящего времени: < to read - reading - читающий to sell - selling - продающий to deliver delivering - поставляющий В деловой переписке русским эквивалентом причастия может быть оборот с В ответ на Ваше письмо с извесуществительным: щением ... In reply to your letter informing us ... Please send us your offer quoting your Просим прислать предложение с указанием наиболее выгодbest terms. ных условий. Мы получили факс с указанием We have received their fax indicating сроков поставки. ... с the delivery dates, ... giving your указанием цен СИФ prices CIF 2. concluding a coAtract discussing the enquiry performing the contract We are interested in establishing contacts with you. We are looking forward to hearing from you. concluding, discussing, establishing, hearing - формы герундия от глаголов to conclude, to discuss, to establish, to hear. Герундий обладает признаками глагола и существительного. В отличие от существительного герундий не имеет артикля и предлога of родительного падежа в таких случаях, как the date of signing the contract «дата подписания контракта». Помимо функции прямого дополнения после глагола (I like reading, he stopped working) герундий часто употребляется в предложных оборотах различного типа. Перевод герундиальных оборотов зависит от контекста: 9 заключение контракта обсуждение запроса исполнение контракта Мы заинтересованы в том, чтобы установить с Вами контакты. Ждем ответа от Вас.

For a few months Brown & Co. had been doing successful business with Russian companies. However under this contract problems arose and in that connection Mr F. came to Moscow. R. Welcome to Moscow. Mr F., I'm glad to see you, though the occasion is not quite pleasant. F. I hope we'll settle everything. I hear you have problems with customs clearance? R. Yes, you see we couldn't clear the goods because there was a discrepancy in the documents. F. Yes, I've seen to that, everything will be all right. Anything else? R. Yes, in the first consignment some items proved to be of inferior quality and there was a short-delivery of 10 pieces. F. My best apologies, Mr R. May I have a copy of your report? It's the first complaint we've ever had from your companies. We'll make immediate shipment of short-delivered items and replace the inferior ones. R. Good. But I'm afraid we'll have to revise some parts of the contract.

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I am fond of reading. He is responsible for checking the invoices. Please look through the report before sending it to the customer. We are interested in establishing business contacts with them. 3. provided (that) ... provided your terms and conditions are acceptable

Я люблю читать. От отвечает за проверку счетов. Пожалуйста, просмотрите акт, прежде чем отсылать его заказчику. Мы заинтересованы в том, чтобы установить с ними деловые контакты. при условии, что ... при условии, что ваши условия будут приемлемы

5. by а L/C Letter of Credit - L/C

по аккредитиву,с аккредитива

аккредитив, форма расчетов, наиболее удобная и выгодная для продавца безотзывный подтвержденный аккредитив an irrevocable confirmed letter of credit a letter of credit valid аккредитив сроком на ... for .. to pay by a L/C to open a платить по аккредитиву открыть аккредитив в ... банке L/C with a ... bank
VOCABULARY LIST

Provided the goods are delivered При условии, что товар будет in two lots we shall be able to sell поставлен двумя партиями, them this season. мы сможем реализовать его в этом сезоне. После союза provided (that) в английском языке будущее время заменяется настоящим, как и в придаточных условных предложениях после союза if. If he is at home he will help you. Если он будет дома, он поможет вам. 4. ci.f. (cost, insurance, freight) - условие поставки, согласно которому продавец обязан за свой счет застраховать товар, зафрах товать судно, погрузить и доставить товар в порт назначения: ci.f. Calcutta port - сиф порт Калькутта. f.o.b. (free on board) - условие поставки, согласно которому продавец обязан за свой счет доставить и погрузить товар на борт судна: free on board English port - фоб английский порт. Обратите внимание на отсутствие предлога перед English port. В США free on board лишь тогда означает «фоб или франко борт судна», когда непосредственно за ним следует слово vessel: f.o.b. vessel New York. При отсутствии слова vessel выражение free on board означает в этом случае «франко вагон» в указанном железнодорожном пункте: f.o.b. New York - франко вагон Нью-Йорк. 10

sample n to do (successful) business contract (for) n to draw up a contract to prepare provided con] a contract to conclude a to meet the requirements contract to perform a enclosure n contract to execute a delivery dates contract contract clause to meet delivery dates inspection n inspector n (the) balance n stock n enquiry n to make an enquiry to to place an order customs clearance send an enquiry to clear the goods supplier n prospective supplier consignment n price-list n discount n inferior quality short-delivery n method of payment complaint n terms of payment replace v revise v
WRITTEN PATTERNS

На нас произвели впечатление образцы. We are (were) greatly impressed Нас очень интересует (мы заинтеby the samples. We are very ресованы в том, чтобы ...) interested in ... Просим прислать ... Мы узнали, что ... Please let us have ... Мы прочитали Ваше объявление в ... We have heard from ... We have seen your advertisement Мы были бы признательны Вам, если бы Вы (любезно) прислали нам ... in ... We would be grateful to you if you 11 would (kindly) send us ...

Will you please send (indicate)... Please quote us [or... Your early reply will be appreciated. (We) thank you for... Your letter (enquiry) of... At your convenience. Meanwhile ... We can assure you that... What's your final decision?

Просим выслать (указать)... Просим назвать цены на ... Мы будем признательны за скорейший ответ. Благодарим за ... Ваше письмо от ... Когда Вам будет удобно. Тем временем, одновременно . Заверяем Вас, что ... Каково ваше окончательное

SPEECH PATTERNS решение? Вы правы. Мы You are right. продаем этот товар уже два года. Это чересчур много. 3(3. We've been selling the goods for Специально (для вас)... two years. That's too much. Договорились. Надеюсь, мы все As a special concession ... It's a решим. Вы предпочитаете deal. условия I hope we'll settle everything. Do (фоб)? Я уже об этом you prefer (f.o.b.) terms? позаботился. Что-нибудь еще? Приношу извинения. Разрешите I've seen to that. получить ... Anything else? My best apologies. May I have ...

We would like you to draw up a contract as early as possible. contract clause Syn. contract article What does this contract clause say? contracting party subject oi the contract legal title inspection n inspector n inspection test requirements (for) n packing n marking n claim n precede v enquiry [m'kwaian] n enquiry for to make to send an enquiry to receive We have not received their enquiry of the 1st of March. briefly adv obtain v supplier n prospective supplier Our prospective supplier is interested in the contract. price-list n Can we have your price-list today? discount I'diskaunt] n a 3% discount a discount to give to make method of payment terms of payment sample l'sa:mplj n Can we have samples of your goods?

статья контракта

сторона, заключающая контракт предмет контракта юридическое название приемка (товара, оборудования) (инженер)-приемщик (товара) приемные испытания требования (к) упаковка маркировка претензия . предшествовать запрос запрос на

кратко получать, доставать поставщик будущий поставщик

прейскурант, праислист

contract (for) п under the contract VOCABULARY NOTES to prepare to draw up контракт (на) по a contract контракту to conclude to sign to perform to execute

скидка трехпроцентная скидка, скидка в 3 процента форма расчета условия платежа образец 13

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to do (successful) business We hope we'll do successful business here. on display provided conj Syn. if We shall place an order provided you give a discount. steady demand for annual requirements to meet (the) requirements We are sure we'll be able to meet your requirements. to place an order place an order for smth with smb enclosure [т'Ыэозэ] n Your enclosure will be studied quite carefully. enclose v (with) delivery dates (times) to meet the delivery dates I assure you we can meet the delivery dates. stock n We can deliver the goods from stock. count(on)v modified adv (the) balance n The balance of the goods will be delivered from stock. prompt delivery in equal lots We would like you to deliver the goods in three equal lots. customs clearance The buyers cannot help us with customs clearance. to clear (the goods) We are sorry we still can't clear the goods. discrepancy |dis'krepgnsij n

успешно вести дала зд. на выставке при условии Мы разместим заказ при условии, что вы дадите скидку, стабильный спрос на ежегодные потребности удовлетворять потребности разместить заказ разместить заказ на что-л. в какой-л. компании приложение

consignment |kan'sainmant) п Syn. lot item I'aitoml n of inferior quality Syn. low quality The goods proved to be of inferior quality. short-delivery n The short-delivery was discovered only at the port. complaint n complaint about We have no complaints about the service. complain (about) v short-delivered items replace v We promise to replace the defective items. revise v There is no need to revise this clause.

партия (товара) позиция (товара) низкого качества Товар оказался низкого качества, недопоставка жалоба, претензия жалоба на жаловаться (на) недопоставленные позиции (товара) заменить пересмотреть, изменить

прилагать (к) даты (сроки) поставки соблюдать сроки поставки

склад, запас товара

EXERCISES рассчитывать (на) модифицированный остаток

I. Answer these questions. A. 1. What do we call the parties that sign the contract? 2. What are the major contract clauses? 3. Is a contract a formal document? 4. What comes before signing a contract? В.. 1. What is the purpose of an enquiry? 2. Is an enquiry brief or detailed? 3. What are the main points included in an enquiry? 4. What are the sources of information in the three enquiries listed? 5. What information do the prospective buyers require in the three enquiries? 6. Are the three enquiries different in this respect? С 1. What information do replies to enquiries usually offer? 2. Do the prospective sellers usually wish to attract the prospective buyers? How? 3. In what cases do they promise a discount? 4. Which of the two offers carries more information? 5. What kind of information does it carry? 15

срочная поставка равными партиями таможенная очистка очистить (товар), пройти таможенную очистку различие, противоречие

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t
D. 1. Why did the prospective buyer choose samples 5 and 8? 2. What does the prospective seller think of sample 8? 3. What order are the buyers going to place? 4. What are the required delivery dates? 5. What terms of delivery does the buyer prefer? 6. What discount is the seller ready to give? 7. What terms of payment do the parties agree to? 8. What problems has the buyer got with the goods under the contract? 9. Was the problem with the first or the second consignment? 10. What was the problem with the first consignment? 11. What did the seller promise to do? 12. Why did the buyer mention revision of some parts of the contract? II. Find Russian equivalents to the following phrases from the texts. A. formal document confirming the decision; to carry out mutual obliga tions; terms of inspection; as a rule; concluding a contract B. states briefly and clearly; a brief mention of; demand for the goods; a closing sentence; we are interested in establishing contacts with you; pro vided your terms and conditions are acceptable; hand-made shoes; sales are not high; if possible; the items listed on; discounts for regular purchases С provided the supplier is in a position; the letter in question; refer to enclosures and samples; provide additional information; assuring him of good service; a wide range of product; the terms of payment will depend on; we can confirm our telephone conversation; from the date of signing the contract; payment by a L/C D. they suit us; the goods will go down well in our market; are you going to place a big order for prompt delivery; we have a big stock; if the prices are competitive; we can give you a 3.5% discount; by an irrevocable confirmed L/C; problems arose; because there was a discrepancy; proved to be of inferior quality; we'll make immediate shipment; to revise some parts of the contract HI. Find English equivalents to the following phrases from the texts. A. выполнить взаимные обязательства; стороны контракта; как пра вило; заключение контракта B. указывает коротко и ясно, что его интересует; краткое упомина ние того, как; указание на спрос на товар; заключительное предложе ние; мы полагаем, что сможем успешно сотрудничать (торговать); в на шей стране имеется стабильный спрос на товары высокого качества; все 16 подробности; если возможно; с указанием цен на условиях СИФ; если ваши цены будут конкурентными C. ответ на; при условии, что поставщик будет в состоянии; письмо, о котором" идет речь; вся запрошенная информация; строки, побуждаю щие заказчика разместить заказы; который (запрос) тщательно нами изучен; мы можем сделать предложение; цены и условия платежа бу дут зависеть от; мы можем поставить часть товара со склада; два меся ца с даты подписания контракта; в любое удобное для вас время D. мы думаем, товар хорошо пойдет; мы продаем товар уже два года; поставка четырьмя равными партиями в ... за месяц; мы можем обеспе чить эти сроки; мы хотели бы, чтобы вы дали нам скидку в 5%; оплата по безотзывному подтвержденному аккредитиву; проблемы с таможен ной очисткой; я позаботился об этом; некоторые позиции оказались низкого качества; мы организуем немедленную поставку; придется пе ресмотреть IV. Say what information you have got on: a) a contract as a formal document b) information that an enquiry should include c) information that an offer should contain d) the main points raised during the preliminary discussion of the contract e) the problems that arose in the performance of the contract V. a) Compare the contents of the examples of enquiries and offers, b) Act out the following parts of the dialogues. a) b) c) d) the final decision of the buyer including the delivery dates the terms of delivery, payments and the discount problems with customs clearance problems with the low quality and short-delivery of the goods

VI. Practise these words and points from the notes. Make up sentences as per Models. Model 1: We have received your fax stating (с указанием) the exact delivery dates. 17

с указанием с We have received приложением с your offer of the подтверждением с 2nd, March сообщением о Model 2:

your best prices your catalogues and price-] your terms of paymen your delivery dates

contract; offer; delivery terms; delivery dates; terms of payment; to place an order; discount; to give a discount; to replace a) Act out these flashes of conversation using the substitutions for the phrase in italics. 1. A. What's your final decision? B. I think we can sign the contract. Substitutions: make an offer; accept their delivery dates; confirm the terms of payment; place an order on such terms; meet these delivery dates 2. A. We would like you to give us a 5% discount. B. I'm afraid, that's too much. We can agree to a 3% discount only. Substitutions: to pay 50% in advance - a L/ C; to change the delivery terms to FOB - CIF terms; to replace 50% of the goods shipped - 30% replacement b) Translate into English. 1. Мы согласимся принять эти условия платежа при условии, что вы обеспечите более ранние даты поставки. 2. Мы хотели бы, чтобы вы заменили товар низкого качества в этом месяце. 3. Мы разместим заказ на этот товар, при условии, что на нашем рынке будет стабильный спрос на него. 4. Мы давно работаем на этом рынке, мы сможем помочь вам с таможенной очисткой. 5. Какие условия поставки вы предпочитаете? -Мы предпочитаем условия сиф. 6. Мы хотели бы, чтобы вы назвали ваши лучшие цены. Мы могли бы разместить крупный заказ. to clear the goods; customs clearance; consignment; inferior quality; short-delivery; complaint; stock a) Translate into Russian. 1. There is a discrepancy in the invoice. We can't clear the goods. 2. Can you help us with customs clearance? We would be very grateful if you could do that. 3. Inferior quality goods will have to be replaced within one month. 4. We can't meet the delivery dates, the goods are out of stock at the moment. 5. I wonder if I can have your report on the discrepancies. I have to see to the complaint. b) Act out the flashes of conversation using the substitutions for the phrase in italics. 1. A. There is a complaint about short-delivery.

We obtained the information by (before, without) c< tacting the prospective sellers (sending the enquiry, pt ing the bill). checking the price-list establishing contacts w other companies obtaining a 5% discount changing the terms of de ery or terms of paymen

They perform the contract suc- before cessfully without The company does successful business by after They conformed the prices They placed the order Model 3: We would be obliged

We would be obliged if We would be grateful if I would appreciate it if He would be glad if

if you would send us the requit you he information. she they give our enquiry immediate attenti help us to clear the goods meet my request to ship the consignment as early possible provided; if

Complete the sentences. Sum up the answers. a) 1. We will send an enquiry for the goods if... 2. They will make an offer provided ... 3. We will get in touch with the sellers if the President, 4. The preliminary talks will be held in Moscow, if... 5. We will sign a contract provided ... b) 1. If the delivery dates don't suit us ... 2. We shall place a big order provided ... 3. Provided the terms of payment are acceptable ... 4. If the goods are of inferior quality we ... 5. The matter will be settled provided ...

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В. I've seen to that. Everything will be all right. Anything else? A. No, nothing at the moment. Substitutions: customs clearance; the second consignment; the inferior quality of items 2 and 3; late deliveries 2. A. We can't deliver the short-shipped items. They are out of stock. B. I'll see to it. We'll try to revise the delivery dates. Substitutions: the items in question; the modified models; samples 2 and 4; the required goods 3. A. Have the buyers confirmed payment by L/C? B. Not yet. They've been considering the terms for some time. A. We want it to be confirmed and irrevocable, valid for three months, and opened with a first-class bank. B. That's agreed. But they still object to covering all expenses. A. All expenses connected with opening the L/C should be for the buy ers' account. Substitutions: accepted; agreed to; stipulated; indicated to cover the expenses оплатить расходы connected связанный for the buyers' account за счет покупателя VII. Fill in the articles or possessive pronouns wherever necessary. Sum up the dialogues. 1. A. Well, Mr В., let's resume ... talks, shall we? B. Yes, we were going to look at... guarantee clause today. We guar antee ... highest standards, excellent performance and workman ship. In fact... models you are buying are ... latest. We put them on ... market... year ago. So ... guarantee period is 12 months from ... date of putting ... equipment into operation. A. That's good. I've got two points to make here. One is that we want ... equipment to meet ... specific conditions. So we expect ... final tests to be made at... plant. B. No problem. Are you going to issue ... document about that? A. Yes, we call it an Acceptance Report. ... date of... Acceptance Re port will be considered to be ... date of putting ... equipment into operation. B. That's O.K. with me. Anything else?

A. B.

Yes, my second point. If something goes out of order do you prefer replacing ... defective equipment? Or eliminating ... defects at ... plant. That will depend on ... kind of defects. Anyway, it will be done at our expense. to go out of order выходить из строя defective п дефектный, некондиционный to eliminate defects устранить недостатки at smb's expense за чеи-л. счет

performance n технические характеристики workmanship отделка to put into operation пустить в эксплуатацию I've got two points to make here. У меня есть два замечания.

2. - Have your buyers opened the L/C? - Not yet. The fact is we have not obtained ... export license yet. The President has been trying to obtain it for two weeks but he has been unable to get in touch with the license department. As soon as he gets ... license we'll send ... fax to ... buyers and they will open ... L/C. to obtain an export license получить экспортную лицензию VIII. Fill in prepositions or adverbial particles wherever necessary. July 1,20... Dear Sirs, We thank you ... your letter ... 25 June and are glad to inform you that most of the items listed ... your enquiry ... the goods are ... stock. We are enclosing a detailed description ... the items you are interested ... and if you wish to place an order... us ... items 1, 2, 3 we will be pleased to meet any delivery dates you may require. ... the moment we guarantee delivery ... 3 months ... signing the contract. Our usual terms ... payment are ... a L/C ... shipping documents. We are looking forward ... hearing ... you. Yours faithfully, IX. Compare the English and the Russian sample letters. Discuss the questions given below each of them. 1. Dear Sirs, We have given your offer our best attention and would be glad to Уважаемые господа! Мы внимательно изучили Ваше предложение и были бы

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discuss particulars. Our Vice-President Mr S. is going to visit the International Engineering Conference which will be held in London in July. He will be prepared to negotiate the purchase of the machines you offer. Mr S. will get in touch with you on arrival in London. Yours faithfully, ... Questions:

рады обсудить подробности. Вице-президент нашей фирмы г-н С. посетит Международную машиностроительную выставку, которая состоится в Лондоне в июле. Он будет рад провести с Вами переговоры о покупке предложенных Вами станков. Г-н С. свяжется с Вами по приезде в Лондон. С уважением, ...

3. Dear Sirs, We are sorry that we have to complain about the short-shipment of parts which were delivered in the last consignment. The cases were delivered to the site in good condition and the short delivery was discovered only when the cases were unpacked and the contents were checked up with the invoices. Besides some parts were found damaged. A list of these is enclosed. Please look into the matter and take action to correct the situation. Yours faithfully,
Questions:

Уважаемые господа! Очень сожалеем, что вынуждены выразить претензию в связи с недогрузкой частей, которые были поставлены в последней партии. Ящики были доставлены на площадку в хорошем состоянии, и недогрузка была обнаружена только при вскрытии ящиков и сверке содержимого со счетами. Кроме этого обнаружилось, что некоторые детали повреждены. Список этих деталей прилагается. Просим Вас разобраться в этом вопросе и принять меры к исправлению положения. С уважением, ...

1. Have the prospective parties exchanged correspondence? 2. Are they planning personal contacts? 3. Where are the negotiations going to take place?

Dear Sirs, We thank you for your letter of ... and are pleased to learn that you are interested in buying our goods. We enclose our current price-list, which gives you information about our terms of payment and delivery. Our samples were sent to you by separate mail. If you need any further information please let us know without delay. Yours faithfully, ...

Уважаемые господа! Благодарим за Ваше письмо от ... Мы с удовольствием узнали, что Вы заинтересованы в покупке наших товаров. Прилагаем наш прейскурант текущих цен, который дает информацию о наших условиях платежа и поставки. Образцы (товара) были посланы Вам отдельной посылкой. Если Вам потребуется дополнительная информация, пожалуйста, сообщите без промедления. С уважением, ...

1. What does the buyer complain about? 2. When was the short-shipment discovered? 3. What else does the buyer complain about? X. Read these letters and do the assignments given below each of them. 1. May 7, 20... I Dear Mr Scott, Many thanks for your letter of 5 May. We are interested to hear that you saw our advertisement in the ..., and appreciate your interest in the products we stock. We are enclosing our Terms of Business, where you will find details of our quarterly discounts, and our price-list for the complete range of... products. As you will see, we can give special terms for orders of the value you mention.

1. Does the letter come from the buyer or from the seller? 2. Is the buyer interested in buying the seller's goods? 3. What does the seller enclose? 4. What was sent to the buyer by separate mail? Questions: 22

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I will be in ... myself on 17 May, and will be happy to call on you at any time in the afternoon. Perhaps you would like to let me know whether this is convenient. I will, of course, bring the complete range of our product items, which are described in the catalogue we have sent you today. I am looking forward to meeting you. Yours faithfully, Meet Mr Scott to discuss particulars of their prices and discounts. Specify the delivery dates you require. 2. December 10, 20... Re: Equipment for the Moscow office. Dear Mr Brown, We thank you for your offer dated November 28, 20... which we have studied and on the whole we would like to accept it. We also agree with your proposal to give us assistance in installing the equipment in question and would like to invite your Company's representative to Moscow. At the same time we will appreciate it if you will grant us a discount off the prices quoted in your offer. In order to prepare a draft contract we kindly ask you to forward to us by fax supplementary data both about your Company (namely: a copy of your Company's Rules and Regulations and the latest balance sheet) and details necessary for including in the contract: time of delivery, terms of payment, name of your bank and account No., mode of transportation, etc. Our Fax Number is 755 22 34 We are looking forward to your early reply. Yours faithfully, Meet Mr. Brown in Moscow to obtain supplementary data on his company. Speak on their possible assistance in installing their equipment. 3. December 17, 20.:. Dear Mr Brown, Many thanks for your fax of 14 December 20.. from which we were pleased to learn about the activities of your Company. As to the information concerning the offer for the equipment we would like to agree upon as follows: 1. Time of delivery - January 20..., installation - April 20... .

2. Transport agent - Green & Co. 3. We would like the Sellers to bear all the expenses on sending a specialist to Moscow for the installation of the equipment and in this case we agree to a 5% discount on the prices. 4. Payment by a L/ С which is to be opened within 5 banking days upon the Sellers' notification of the readiness of the goods for shipment. We hope you will accept the above and confirm your consent by fax. Best regards,

to bear expenses on нести расходы no consent n согласие

notification of the readiness of the goods for shipment извещение о готовности товара к отгрузке

Telephone Mr Brown to get his confirmation of the conditions you stated in your letter. Request him to speed up (ускорить) sending their reply by fax. 4. October 5, 20... Dear Sirs, With reference to the discussions we held in Moscow in September about possible sales of our furniture on your market I am now pleased to provide additional information on the subject in question. We would be ready to give you the maximum discount of 5% per piece for a total of ten units which would make the selling price FOB ... $ ... . We believe this to be a competitive price for your market. We are also prepared to install and display in your showroom two complete sets of our furniture as you requested. The sets can be dispatched to you any time you like and at our expense. This will be regarded as a gift to your company in view of our future cooperation. We hope we can conclude our business successfully. Yours faithfully, the subject in question предмет, о regard v считать, рассматривать котором идет речь gift п дар, подарок showroom п демонстрационный зал in view of в виду Hold the talks to finalize your order. Specify the delivery dates of the gift furniture.

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XI. Read and act out the flashes of conversation using the substitutions for the phrases in italics. 1. A. Have you finalized the delivery terms? B. Not yet. We've been discussing them for two days already, but we still need to clarify some details. A. What do the buyers want? B. They want us to deliver the goods on c.i.f. terms. Substitutions: by truck; by air; by sea; in three consignments; on door-to-door terms; by the end of the year; against the revised delivery schedule finalize ['fainalaizj v окончательно редавца на фирму покупателя («от шить что-л. двери к двери») clarify ['klaenfai] v уяснить delivery schedule ['Jedjiri] график поdoor-to-door terms (DDT) условия ставок поставки непосредственно от про2. A. Has Boris left for inspection? В. Yes, he's been at the factory for a week already. They've been testing the equipment. A. Have you heard from him? B. Yes, he says there are still some small defects. He won't issue a re lease for shipment until they are corrected. to issue a release for shipment выдать to eleminate (correct) defects усразрешение к отгрузке транить (исправить) дефекты Substitutions: the results are satisfactory; everything is all right; the defects are eliminated; the equipment is accepted; the tests are over 3. A. We'd like you to open a letter of credit with the Bank of Russia. B. That's our usual practice with Russian firms. What documents will you send for payment? A. A full set of shipping documents, as usual. B. I think we can accept these terms of payment. And where will the equipment be insured? A. We usually insure the equipment with Ingosstrakh. B. Very good. Now we're ready to sign the contract, Mr Sokolov. A. That's nice to hear. that's our usual practice это наша full set of shipping documents обычная практика полный комплект отгрузочных доinsure (with) v страховать кументов 26

Substitutions: to finalize the matter; to discuss the delivery schedule; to pass on to other points XII.Translate into English. 1. 10 сентября 20... r. Уважаемые господа! Мы познакомились с Вашей продукцией на выставке в ... и хотели бы получить более подробную информацию о Вашей фирме. Нас интересуют товары (позиции 1, 3, 8), поскольку в нашей стране имеется стабильный спрос на продукцию такого рода. Просим прислать Ваши каталоги, котировки цен с указанием возможных скидок, а также предполагаемые сроки поставки, условия платежа и гарантии. Надеемся установить долгосрочные взаимовыгодные контакты. ^eM ответаС уважением, 2. 2 июля 20... г. Уважаемые господа! Благодарим за Ваш запрос от ... на ... Мы были бы рады предложить Вам нашу продукцию по конкурентным ценам и были бы готовы обсудить подробности с Вашим представителем. Как нам известно, г-н В. прибывает в Москву для участия в работе выставки. Мы были бы признательны, если бы он связался с нашей головной конторой в Москве. С уважением, 3. 7 июня 20... г. Уважаемые господа! Мы получили Ваш факс от ... об отгрузке товара по контракту № 25. Однако нам только что сообщили, что товар не может пройти таможенную очистку в связи с неточностями в отгрузочных документах. Мы надеемся, что товар пройдет таможенную очистку при условии, что Вы срочно вышлете новый комплект документации с указанием номеров позиций, счетов и спецификаций. Просим принять срочные меры к разрешению вопроса, во избежание значительных расходов по хранению товара в порту. Ждем скорейшего ответа. с уВажеНием,

комплект документации a set of значительные расходы по хранению товара (в documents но порту) heavy storage expenses избежание to avoid 4. Уважаемые господа! В ответ на Ваше письмо от ... с сожалением сообщаем, что в настоящее время мы не можем подписать контракт в связи с финансовыми трудностями этого года. Однако мы заинтересованы в покупке товара, позиции ... и намереваемся вернуться к вопросу в ближайшем будущем при условии, что вы сможете пересмотреть часть Ваших стандартных условий. Просим сообщить, когда Ваш представитель прибудет в Москву. Мы хотели бы обсудить детали возможного сотрудничества. С уважением, в ближайшем будущем in the near часть Ваших стандартных условий part of future your standard terms and conditions 5. 10 сентября 20... г. Уважаемые господа! С сожалением сообщаем, что в последней партии товара обнаружена недопоставка по позициям 2, 7, 8. Наши приемщики подписали акт приемки с указанием недопоставленного товара, и мы прилагаем копию акта в доказательство нашей претензии. Просим принять меры для решения вопроса. Мы хотели бы, чтобы недостающие позиции были поставлены в течение этого месяца. Ждем скорейшего ответа. С уважением, в последней партии обнаружена акт приемки acceptance report the last consignment showed в доказательство to confirm

XIII. Act out the situations. 1. You are negotiating a prospective purchase of consumer goods. Indicate the samples г. 10 августа 20... you have chosen and state your idea of a discount. Promise to confirm your final choice by fax. 2. There is a delay in delivery of the goods under your contract with ... . Call the company's representative to explain why the delivery is urgent and what you will have to do if the delay becomes too long. 3. Meet your customer's representative in Moscow to explain why you delay opening a L/C. Ask him not to postpone deliveries as your Russian partner expects the goods within the contractual dates. 4. Meet a prospective customer in the showroom you run. Tell him about the goods on display, specify the prices and terms of sale. Offer your catalogues and price-lists. XIV. Write letters based on the following situations. 1. Напишите запрос фирме на закупку интересующего вас товара. Укажите, что вы видели образцы на выставке и хотели бы получить базовую информацию (прайслист, основные условия и даты поставки, условия платежа), так как считаете, что в вашей стране есть спрос на такой товар. 2. Напишите ответ на запрос фирмы с предложением вашей продукции. Укажите, что ваш представитель собирается посетить выставку в стране предполагаемого покупателя и смог бы обсудить подробности сотрудничества. 3. Напишите факс продавцу. Укажите, какие проблемы вы имеете в связи с контрактом и попросите фирму принять меры. 4. Напишите факс фирме-поставщику с просьбой прислать их специалиста для установки оборудования. Сошлитесь на соответствующую статью контракта. 5. Напишите письмо потенциальному продавцу с уточнением вашей позиции по условиям платежа и гарантиям. XV. Read and translate these clauses of the contract. 1. Subject of the Contract The Sellers have sold and the Buyers have bought the following equipment C.l.F. UFA as per Appendix No 1.

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2. Prices and Total Amount of the Contract The total amount of the Contract is US Dol..... The prices are firm for the duration of the Contract and are understood to be C.I.F. UFA city by truck. 3. Delivery Dates The equipment under Clause 1 of this Contract will be delivered within 4 months from the date of opening the Letter of Credit as stipulated in Clause 4 of the present Contract. All questions concerning shipment of the goods are to be settled in accordance with the Buyers' instructions. 15 days before the date of shipment the Sellers will notify the Buyers by fax about the date of the readiness of the goods for shipment indicating the weight of the cargo as well as the transit border of the truck to Russia. Within 24 hours after shipment the Sellers will let the Buyers know by fax the date of shipment, contract Nariad and Trans numbers, the number of the truck way-bill, the number of cases and their weights. The delivery date is understood to be the date of the truck way-bill issued in the name of the Buyer. Prior deliveries are allowed. 4. Terms of Payment Payment under this Contract shall be made in Dollars by a Letter of Credit which is to be opened by the Buyers with the Central Bank of... in the name of the Sellers within 30 days from the date of signing the present Contract. The Letter of Credit is to be valid fori 80 days. Expenses connected with opening the L/C will be for the Buyers' account. If there is a delay in opening the L/C the deliveries will be postponed accordingly. Payment shall be made against presentation of the following documents: a) original and two copies of detailed invoice, b) two original clean Bills of Lading or truck way-bills issued in the name of the Buyers, c) packing lists in triplicate, d) test report or any other document showing that the equipment conforms to the specifications, e) copy of the Sellers' letter about the dispatch of the technical documentation to the Buyers in accordance with Clause 6 of this Contract.

Б. Sanctions 5.1. If the Letter of Credit is delayed or/and opened for an improper amount the Buyer will pay the Seller a penalty of 0.1% of the Letter of Credit amount. If the opening of the Letter of Credit is delayed for more than 5 days, the Seller has the right to cancel the delivery of the lot of the Goods to be paid for from the Letter of Credit. 5.2. The Seller has the right to claim interest on the amounts delayed from payments due to the Seller in accordance with the present Contract. 5.3. If the opening of the Letter of Credit is delayed the delivery period shall be extended accordingly. 5.4. In case the delivery period stipulated in the present Contract is violated, the Seller shall pay penalty to the Buyer. 5.5. The penalty is estimated as 0.5% of the cost of delayed Goods for every complete week of delay, but it should not exceed 3% of the cost of the actually delayed Goods. 5.6. The amount of the penalty can be neither increased nor decreased by arbitration. 5.7. If the Goods arc delayed for more than 4 months, the Buyer has the right to cancel the Contract in full or in respect of its undelivered parts. way-bill п авто-накладная as per в соответствии accordingly [a'kordinli] adv соответtotal amount общая сумма prices are understood цены подни- ственно dispatch п отправка маются presentation [,prez3n'teijan) п предtruck n грузовик all questions... are to be settled все ставление вопросы должны решаться (глагол to in triplicate ['tnphkat] в трех экземbe с последующим инфинитивом плярах употребляется для выражения дол- to conform to соответствовать женствования в соответствии с до- improper [ип'ргврэ] зд. неправильговоренностью, оговоренной пись- ный cancel ['kaensal] и расторгнуть, менно или устно) to notify smb about the readiness of the кан-целировать goods известить кого-л. о готовности to claim interest требовать уплаты процентов товара extend [ik'stend] v продлевать weight [weit) n вес violate I'vaialeitJ v нарушать cargo n груз transit ['traenzitl border место пере- decrease |di'kri:s| v снижать сечения границы, пограничный in respect |n'spekt| of в отношении пункт

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XVI. Read these sample letters for different occasions. Make use of the phrases in bold type. A. Business Letters 1. Dear Sirs, Your Draft Contract has reached us duly and we can now make comments on some of the clauses. While most of the clauses are acceptable the total cost of the equipment seems unreasonably high. We think that we have to look again at the prices which are quoted by the world leading firms in this field. Will you therefore meet our representative in Moscow to discuss your itemized and group prices. This would help us to reach mutual agreement. We expect to hear from you soon! Yours faithfully, 2. Dear Sirs, With reference to your request to speed up issuing entry visas for your engineers we wish to inform you that proper action was taken a week ago and we hope the visas will come through very soon. Meanwhile will you let us have your comments on our ideas about the new reimbursement Уважаемые господа! Мы получили Ваш проект контракта и можем сделать заключение по ряду статей. Основные статьи контракта приемлемы (для нас), однако, общая стоимость оборудования очевидно завышена. Мы полагаем, что необходимо еще раз рассмотреть цены ведущих фирм мира, занятых в указанной сфере. Просим встретить нашего представителя в Москве для обсуждения ваших позиционных и групповых цен. Это поможет, нам достичь взаимного согла-j шения. Надеемся получить ответ в ближайшем будущем. С уважением,

rates. We may also take up the question of the new reimbursement rates during the forthcoming talks in Moscow. We wish to keep up fruitful cooperation. Yours faithfully, 3. Dear Sirs, There has been a great deal of progress in our negotiations concerning our contract for constructing the N. project. You will remember that we discussed the project in some detail in Moscow in December and are now summarizing the discussions as regards payments. As was agreed cash payments will be made for design documents, technology and know-how, and for the services of your specialists.

наших соображений о новых ставках возмещения. Мы можем обсудить этот вопрос в ходе предстоящих переговоров в Москве. Мы всегда хотим поддерживать плодотворное сотрудничество. С уважением,

Уважаемые господа! Ссылаясь на Вашу просьбу об ускорении выдачи въездных виз Вашим специалистам сообщаем, что неделю тому назад были предприняты соответствующие меры, и мы надеемся, что визы будут получены в ближайшее время. Одновременно просим Вас выслать замечания по вопросу

With regard to deliveries the manner of payment will have to be discussed again. Yours faithfully, 1.

Уважаемые господа! Следует отметить значительные успехи в наших переговорах относительно контракта на строительство объекта в Н. Вы, очевидно, помните, что мы довольно подробно обсуждали объект в Москве в декабре и сейчас \ излагаем основные положения в отношении платежей. В соответствии с договоренностью платежи наличными будут производиться за выполнение проектной документации, представление технологии и «ноу-хау», а также за услуги Ваших специалистов. Однако в отношении оплаты за поставки (товара) способ платежа придется обсудить повторно. С уважением,

В. Social Occasions Dear Mr President, Mr I. of ... is visiting our Customers in... and will be in your city Уважаемый г-н Президент! Г-н И. из ... в настоящее время находится на фирме наших за-

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next week. He would like to have an appointment with you at any time convenient for you. Your early reply would be appreciated. Yours faithfully,

казчиков в ... и на следующей неделе будет в Вашем городе. Он хотел бы встретиться с Вами в любое время, удобное для Вас. Просим ответить как можно скорее. С уважением,

рапу and will always remember his kindness and his helpful advice. Yours faithfully,

будем помнить его доброту и полезные советы. С уважением,

2. Dear Sirs, We have appointed Mr A. to the position of Export Manager for our firm. Mr A. has a wide experience of the markets in ... and would be glad to do business with you on any matters of mutual interest. Yours faithfully,

Уважаемые господа! Мы назначили г-на А. на пост управляющего по вопросам эксперта нашей фирмы. Г-н А. имеет большой опыт работы на рынке... и был бы рад сотрудничать с Вами по вопросам, представляющим взаимный интерес. С уважением,

The Chairman and Directors of ... request the pleasure of your company at a Reception to be held at... at... RSVP 6. Mr J. В. thanks the Chairman and Directors of... for their kind invitation to the Reception to be held ... which he has much pleasure in accepting. 7. Dear Mr А., I wish to thank you most warmly for the excellent hospi tality you extended to me during my stay in ... I very much appreciate your kindness in showing me round the plant. Sincerely yours,

Председатель и Совет директоров ... приглашает Вас на прием, который состоится в ... в ... (дата) (просят ответить)

Г-н Дж. Б. благодарит председателя и Совет директоров... за любезное приглашение на прием, который состоится ... и с удовольствием принимает приглашение.

3. Dear Mr A., May we congratulate you on your appointment as... of your firm. We are confident that our cooperation will be of mutual benefit. Yours sincerely,

Уважаемый г-н А.! Разрешите поздравить Вас с назначением на пост... Вашей фирмы. Выражаем уверенность, что наше сотрудничество будет взаимовыгодным. Искренне Ваш,

Уважаемый г-н A.! Сердечно благодарю Вас за прекрасное гостеприимство, оказанное мне во время моего пребывания в... Я признателен Вам за любезность, оказанную Вами при осмотре завода. Искренне Ваш,

4. Dear Sirs, We are writing to express our sincere sympathy on the death of your President Mr B. We have been doing good business with your com34

Уважаемые господа! Выражаем искреннее сожаление по поводу смерти Вашего президента г-на В. Мы давно сотрудничаем с Вашей фирмой и всегда

XVII. Information on business letter writing. STRUCTURE OF THE BUSINESS LETTER The business letter consists of seven principal parts: (1) the letterhead, (2) the date, (3) the inside name and address, (4) the salutation, (5) the 35

message, (6) the complimentary closure and (7) the writer's signature and official position. 1. The Letterhead The letterhead expresses a firm's personality. It gives the name and ad1 dress of the firm, telephone numbers, telegraphic addresses; the telegraphic codes, fax numbers, and states the company's business. For companies registered in the United Kingdom with limited liability the word Limited (Ltd) must form part of the name. Companies formed with limited liability in the United States use the word Inc. 2. The Date Always type the date in full, in the logical order of day, month, year, thus: 12th October 20... Example: Date: 20th September 20... Miss E. Hughes, 100 South Street, PURLEY, Surrey, CR2 4TJ. Dear Miss Hughes, 3. Inside Name and Address The usual practice is to write the name and address of one's correspondent at the head of the letter, though it is sometimes placed at the foot, in the bottom lefthand corner, in official (i.e. Government) correspondence. Where the head of department is known, address the letter to him by his official title, thus: The Sales Manager The Hercules Engineering Co Ltd Brazennose Street MANCHESTER M 60 8 AS All the names must be spelled correctly. To address T.B. Cartside as T.B. Carside is impolite. 36

(a) Courtesy titles The courtesy titles used in correspondence are Mr, Mrs, Miss, Messrs. When your correspondent has a special title, such as Doctor, Professor. Colonel, Sir, he is addressed by his title and Mr must not be used. We write, DrJ. Brown, Prof. L. Carter, Cot. W. Johnson, Sir Arnold Plant. (b) Foreign correspondence When you write letters to other countries, always include the name of the country, even if the town mentioned is the country's capital. The Vice President The Eagle Press Inc 24 South Bank BOSTON Mass 02116 USA 4. The Salutation This is the greeting with which every letter begins. The usual greeting in a business letter is Dear Sir, but others are used too. For example: Dear Madam (for both single and married women); Dear Sirs (when a company is addressed). When your correspondent is unknown to you and may be either a man or a woman, always use the form Dear Sir. These are the formal openings normally used, but at the present time, especially if your correspondent is known to you personally, or if you have traded with him for some time the warmer and more friendly greeting, Dear Mr..., is then preferred. The greetings Sir, Madam and Gentlemen are very formal and are now seldom used in English business letters, though Gentlemen is usually preferred by American writers. 5. The Message This forms the body of the letter and is the part that is really important. Before you begin to write or dictate, ask yourself the following questions: (i) What is the purpose of this letter? (ii) What do 1 hope to get by it? (iii) What is the best way to write It? 37

Do not end letters with / am, We are, I remain, etc. These phrases are as old-fashioned, as sentences introduced by Thanking, Hoping and similar participles. 6. The Signature Always sign your letters by hand, in ink and in the same style. One must not sign Eric Castle on one occasion and E. Castle on another. A signature must not carry a title. Do not, for example, sign as Mr J. Piatt or Professor R. Butler. There is one exception to this: a woman writing to a stranger should indicate whether she is married or single and may do so by adding (Mrs) or (Miss) in brackets in front of her signature thus: (Miss) Alice H. Brooks If a married woman in business wants to be known by her unmarried name she must of course be addressed as Miss, e.g. Dear Miss Thompson Because many signatures are not clear, it is good modern practice to type the name of the signer and to place his signature immediately above it, thus: H.W. Webster (From: Model Business Letters by L. GARTSIDE)

UNIT 2 CARRYING OUT DESIGN WORK
A. TEXT Construction of a project begins with carrying out certain types (stages) of work based on the needs of the Customer (Purchaser). The work thus done can be qualified as design documentation. At the Customer's request the Supplier can do the following: prepare a Technical Proposal for construction; send Russian engineers to collect initial data and agree upon the assignment for Feasibility Study (FS)' elaboration; elaborate a Feasibility Study; prepare a Design Assignment;2 carry out a Detailed Project Report (DPR) 3 including Working Drawings as part of the DPR or as a separate stage. Every type of the above-mentioned work is done under a contract signed for a specific purpose, which stipulates the Customer's consideration and approval. Here is an illustration of successive steps taken by the parties in preparing a DPR: The Industrial Corporation of... made a decision to construct a ... plant with product capacity of... tons per year. As a result of the talks with one of the Russian companies, engaged in constructing similar projects, an agreement was concluded. Under a separate contract a Feasibility Study (Report) was elaborated by the Supplier and sent to the Customer for consideration. B. A month later the Supplier received a letter, which ran as follows: 1st September, 20... Dear Sirs, We have pleasure in informing you that we accept the Feasibility Study you elaborated for the project. We highly appreciate the work you have done for us. We also find convincing your conclusions on the economic benefits of the construction.

letterhead ['letahed] n шапка на фир- in full полностью менном бланке (im)polite [дтрэ'1аЛ] а (не)вежлиinside name and address название ВЫЙ и имя фирмы, которой адресовано courtesy title ['кз.Чга 'taitlj титул письмо Colonel ['кэ:пэ1] n полковник message (= body of the letter) n зд. formal opening официальное начало собственно письмо (письма) cotnplimenlary closure заключи- waste v тратить (впустую) тельная фраза письма to keep short зд. писать короткими signature I'signstfa] n подпись фразами limited liability [,lara'brlitrj ограни- reflect v отражать ченная ответственность matching зд. соответствующие

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Our Corporation intends to continue work on the project and we shall be glad if you will be willing to cooperate with us4 further in this endeavour. We look forward to a visit of your experts with a view to discussing the Feasibility Study for final approval. We would also like to consider some points concerning the preparation of a Draft Contract for carrying out a De-« tailed Project Report. Yours, faithfully, Chairman of the Industrial Corporation ... A team of Russian experts arrived in the Customer's country to discuss the Feasibility Study. After the approval of the Document it was agreed that our experts together with the Customer's engineers would collect initial data and prepare the Design Assignment on the basis of which the Detailed Project Report was going to be worked out.5 The parties also made tentative conclusions on the amount of work involved and the required time limits for the design work. Based on the information received, the Russian side worked out a Draft Contract for the elaboration of the DPR and sent it to the Customer. After a careful study of the Draft Contract the Customer's experts came over to Moscow to discuss some terms and conditions that were not fully acceptable to them. С 1. DISCUSSING THE AMOUNT OF WORK Supplier: I think we can get down to business right away. Customer: Very good. Let's start. On the whole the draft suits us quite well, but there are some points we'd like to raise today. S. All right. Shall we go point by point then, or is there anything that you'd like to discuss first? C. Yes, first comes the amount of work. Could you prepare working drawings along with the DPR? That would ease things around and reduce the total time limits. S. Well, it's a big project and that's why Working Drawings come as a separate stage. But in this case there is some benefit for you too. C. Could you be more specific, please? Just to show how we shall benefit by this. ! S. Certainly. In a DPR we usually give the amount of construction work, j And with the help of detailed specifications attached to the DPR you'll! i 40

be able to decide exactly what kind of equipment and materials you will provide yourselves, even at that stage. С This does sound very attractive,61 must say. Shall we go only by specifications to make our choice? S. Not only. You'll have drawings of the general view of equipment, shops layout as an example, to give you an idea of the future production. C. Thank you, Mr N. You are quite convincing. I believe the original provision in the draft is quite reasonable. S. Good. May I suggest a break now? C. No objections. 2. DISCUSSING THE TIME LIMITS

Supplier: Now, let's resume the talks, shall we? Any other points, Mr A.? Customer: Yes, and that's the time limits. The plant is urgently required by our industry. S. Obviously so. That explains your decision, as we understand. С Yes, that's why we are asking you to reduce the time limits from twelve months as stipulated in the draft to eight, if possible. S. We'd be happy to cooperate where we could, but I'm not sure if our design organizations can make it less than ten months. C. Could you explain why? S. It's a matter of amount of work. The project is big and normally it takes us about this period to complete the job. Besides, we'd like to be thorough and efficient, without undue haste. C. In that case ten months would suit us all right. S. I hope we'll be ready with the answer in two days. Note: for different types of construction time limits can be quite different too. D. 3.

DISCUSSING THE COST OF THE DESIGN WORK

Supplier: We've got good news for you, Mr A. Our design organizations agreed to do the job in ten months after all. Customer: That's really good news, thank you. We can now look at the cost of the design work. We find it too high.7 We've brought some catalogues. 41

Have a look, please. This firm here, for example, constructed a similar project but the cost was lower. S. We assure you, our price is quite competitive. We know that project. It is true that the cost is lower but the capacity is lower too. You will agree that in our case the designing is not very costly. The elaboration of the technological part alone involves8 a large amount of work. C. Still the difference seems too big. S. The information you have here is somewhat dated. The cost of designing has gone up in the world lately. C. Yes, considering this, the higher cost looks fair.9 We agree. Now, shall we pass on to the terms of payment? You ask for a 20 per cent advance, don't you? 5. That's right. We don't think it makes a big sum. C. But under our law we cannot give you more than 15 per cent of the full contract value. Perhaps we can settle for this figure with you. S. All right, I think we can go down by 5 per cent. In this case the wording of the article will be as follows: 15 per cent of the total price shall be transferred by the customer within 30 days of signing the contract to the account of Vnesheconombank in favour of the supplier with the National Bank of... . C. Good. As to the remaining sum, we agree to pay it by an irrevocable confirmed letter of credit.10 5. Then we'll amend the draft to provide for payment of 75 per cent after the design work has been completed and the DPR submitted to the customer and 10 percent after the approval of the DPR. С All right. Note: Reasoning may include other points, too. These ones are just sorne of them. NOTES 1. Feasibility Study (Report) (FS, FR) 2. Design Assignment 3. Detailed Project Report (DPR) 42 ТЭО — технико-экономическое обоснование задание на проектирование технический проект

4. We shall be glad if you will be willing to cooperate with us.

Мы будем рады, если вы согласитесь сотрудничать с нами.

В письмах для выражения вежливой просьбы в придаточных предложениях условия употребляется глагол will (would): We shall (should) be glad if you will (would) promptly answer our letter. 5. ... on the basis of which the ... на основе которого должен detailed project report was был быть разработан технический проект. going to be worked out. 6. This does sound very attractive. зд. Это действительно звучит очень заманчиво. Глагол do (does, did) употребляется для усиления смыслового глагола. Эта конструкция употребляется в настоящем и прошедшем времени в утвердительной форме. В русском языке такое усиление передается частицами и наречиями «да, же, ведь, и; очень, I do hope that you'll meet our непременно, пожалуйста» и т. д. request. Я очень надеюсь, что вы удовлетворите We do understand your diffiнашу просьбу. culties. Мы очень хорошо понимаем ваши трудности (мы ведь понимаем...) He did come here last week. 7. Он действительно приходил на прошлой неделе. We find it too high. Мы считаем ее (цену) слишком высокой. Глаголы to find, to consider, to think, etc. употребляются в следующей конструкции: to find to consider smth/smb + adjective to think Заказчик находит сроки вполне The customer considers the time приемлемыми. Ему limits quite acceptable. Did he find понравился фильм? the film interesting? 43

8. The elaboration of the techno- Выполнение только технологи-logical part alone involves ... ческой части потребует... 9. ... the higher cost looks fair. ... более высокая стоимость кажется справедливой.

После глаголов to look, to feel, to sound, которые выполняют роль глагола-связки, употребляется прилагательное, а не наречие. His answer sounded convincing. Не caught (a) cold and felt bad. Его ответ прозвучал убедительно. Он простудился и чувствовал себя плохо.

аккредитив 10. letter of credit an irrevocable confirmed letter of безотзывный подтвержденный аккредитив credit (L/C) VOCABULARY LIST to carry out design work construction n construct v project n request n at smb's request customer n design documentation supplier n collect v initial data elaboration n elaborate v working drawings contract n stipulate v consideration n consider v approval n party n to make a decision product capacity per prp experience (in) n turn (to) v assistance n conclude v contact v inform v accept v appreciate v conclusion n benefit n benefit (by, from) v cooperate v endeavour n expert n draft contract team n to work out tentative a amount n involve и time limit(s) terms and conditions acceptable a to raise a point

to go by (down, over, up) reduce v specification n attach (to) v equipment n provide v provision n general view layout n original a suggest v preliminary a design organization thorough a efficient a deny v

cost n assure v competitive a technological a dated a terms of payment advance n settle (for) v wording n transfer v account n in smb's favour as to remaining a amend v submit v

WRITTEN PATTERNS We have pleasure in informing you... We look forward to a visit... with a view to discussing ... We have received your letter of 9th October, informing us about ... In reply to your letter... We wish to inform you that ... In view of the above ... (We) thank you for your letter of/ dated 21st March ... Please let us know (inform us) ... We are glad (pleased) to inform ... We have to inform you (to state)... We enclose with the letter... y, enclose herewith ... attach hereto... С удовольствием сообщаем ... Мы с нетерпением ждем приезда с тем, чтобы обсудить ... Мы получили ваше письмо от 9 октября, в котором Вы сообщаете о ... В ответ на Ваше письмо ... Сообщаем Вам, что ... (Извещаем вас о том, что ...) Ввиду вышеизложенного ... Благодарим за Ваше письмо от 21 марта ... Пожалуйста, сообщите нам ... Мы рады сообщить ... Мы вынуждены сообщить Вам ... К письму прилагаем ... Прилагаем при сем ... 45

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SPEECH PATTERNS right away Shall we go point by point (page by page, etc.)? first comes ... (the first thing is ...) That would ease things around. Could you be more specific, please? You are quite convincing. No objections. Obviously so. We'd be ready to cooperate where we could. It's a matter of... We can now look at... I don't deny that... Considering this ... Perhaps we can settle (for) ... We can go down by ... carry f'kaen] out Syn. execute, fulfil We assure you that the design сразу же, не теряя времени Будем обсуждать пункт за пуь том? прежде всего, начнем с ... зд. От этого все только выигран: Не могли бы вы пояснить CBI слова (свою мысль)? Вы меня убедили. Возражений нет (не возражаю Очевидно, это так. Мы готовы по возможности п мочь вам. Это вопрос ... Теперь мы можем обсудить ... Не отрицаю, что ... Учитывая это, ... Может быть, мы договоримся (остановимся на ...) Мы можем снизить (цену) на .. выполнять, осуществлять

Syn. enterprise I'entapraiz] This industrial project is oi great importance to the economy of the country. request n at the request This is done at the customer's request. to meet a request customer n design documentation supplier Isa'plaia) n collect v initial data to collect initial data The initial data collected by the customer are/is incomplete. data n elaboration [i,Uebs?'reif(3)n] n The elaboration of the DPR will take ... months. elaborate v Syn. work out working drawings contract n under a contract full contract value stipulate v The contract stipulates preparation of the DPR within this period. consideration [k3n,sid3'reif(3)n] n to submit for consideration under consideration This document is now under consideration. consider v to consider a request We consider it necessary ... considering all things ... approval la'pru:v(a)l| n approve v

просьба по просьбе удовлетворять просьбу заказчик проектная документация поставщик собирать исходные данные собирать исходные данные мн. ч. от сущ. datum; согласуется с гл. во мн. и ед. ч. подготовка, выполнение подготовлять, выполнять рабочие чертежи, рабочая документация контракт, договор по контракту (полная) стоимость контракта оговаривать, обусловливать

VOCABULARY NOTES work will be carried out in time. (план, работу, инструкцию, заказ, design [di'zamj work Design work was carried out in time. construction [kan'strAk/MnJ проектные работы n We can (not) reduce the строительство construction time. construct V Syn. build qualify v project строить ['procfeekt] n industrial project подходить, соответствовать 1. объект (строительный) 2. проект промышленный объект

рассмотрение, обсуждение (представить) на рассмотрение на рассмотрении рассматривать, обсуждать рассматривать просьбу Мы считаем необходимым ,.. учитывая все это ... одобрение, утверждение одобрять 47

46

сторона, участвующее лицо party |'pa:ti:| n The two parties agreed to collect initial data. to make a decision product capacity ['prDcUkt ka'paesiti] The product capacity of the plant depends, among other things, on the quality of raw materials. per prp The product capacity is ... tons per year. experience [iks'pianans] n

to inform smb of (about) smth to inform smb that The customer informed the supplier that they were ready to discuss the DPR. accept v to accept equipment to accept a report I accept that... It is accepted that... acceptable [sk'septabl] a Are the terms and conditions of the contract acceptable to you? appreciate [s'prijieit] v We appreciate your help. We fully appreciate your difficulties. (economic) benefit benefit ['benaftt] (by/from) v We hope our countries (will) benefit from our cooperation. cooperate [кэи'орэгей] v We are ready to cooperate on the terms acceptable to both parties. cooperation n endeavour [m'deva] n We are ready to assist you in this endeavour. expert n draft contract team [ti:m] n ■ A team of highly qualified experts will go to your country to collect initial data. to work out to work out an agreement (plan) tentative I'tentativJ a The parties reached a tentative agreement on further cooperation. a tentative decision amount [s'maunt] n

сообщать кому-л. что-л. (о чём-л.) сообщать кому-л., что...

принимать решение производственная мощность за, в

принимать принимать оборудование принять, одобрить отчет Я допускаю, что ... Так принято, что ... приемлемый, подходящий ценить, понимать, осознавать

опыт (жизненный), практика, квали фикация We have enough experience in this kind of work, wide a lot of smth to have some experience in doing enough smth no not much turn (to) V Syn. обращаться (к) approach They turned to the company for assistance. assistance [a'sistans] n помощь, содействие technical assistance техническое содействие to render assistance оказывать содействие Syn. to give assistance Russia renders technical assistance to developing countries. conclude [kan'khrd] v Ant. заключать cancel расторгать The contract concluded by the parties was successfully executed. contact [ksn'taekt] v Please contact us for our catalogues. обратиться к кому-л., установить inform [m'faml v связь (позвонить, написать сообщать, послать телеграмму) пись-мо, извещать, информиро48 вать

(экономический) эффект; польза получать выгоду, пользу, помощь сотрудничать, способствовать, содействовать сотрудничество зд. предприятие специалист, эксперт проект контракта группа

разрабатывать, составлять выработать соглашение подробный, предварительный, ориентировочный предварительное решение количество, объем, сумма 49

The amount of work Is going to be rather big. to the amount of involve [in'vtjlv] v to involve the interests of others Constructing a project involves proving its feasibility. time limit(s) We agree to reduce the time limit of the designing by two months. terms and conditions (of a contract) The terms and conditions of the contract suit our customer. to raise a point The point was raised in the letter. to go by to go by the rules Let's go by their decision. to go down The prices have gone down. to go over smth We must go over the document carefully. to go up Prices for this type of equipment have gone up lately. reduce [n'dju:s] (to, by) v prices to reduce taxes time limits We can reduce the time limits by two months. in (more) detail Let's discuss the point in (more) detail. specification [,spesifi'keif(a)n] n We refer you to the specifications in Appendix III. as per specification detailed specifications attach (to) v

на сумму включать в себя, подразумевать, предполагать (наличие чего-л.) затрагивать интересы других срок условия (контракта) поднимать вопрос следовать, руководствоваться подчиняться правилам снижать(ся) (о ценах, сроках и т.д.) просматривать, повторять (что-л. сказанное) повышаться (о ценах) сокращать, снижать (до, на)

Syn. enclose (with) Do you want the documents to be attached to the letter? equipment [I'kwipmantj n

оборудование (как правило, употребляется в ед. ч.)

This equipment is reliable in operation. process(ing) equipment provide технологическое оборудование обеспечивать [pra'vaid] v You will provide the materials for the construction. provision [pre'vryi] n under the provisions of the положение контракта contract layout n согласно положениям контракта general layout original [3'nd3(a)nl] a расположение (оборудования), original provision suggest [sa'cfeest] v планировка, план We suggest (that) we (should) look at генеральный план this problem tomorrow. We suggest первый, первоначальный sending this paper under separate cover. зд. первоначальный вариант предлагать, советовать Compare: to suggest Мы предлагаем подготовить документы немедленно, (т. е. выдвигаем предложение) Мы предлагаем послать этот документ отдельной почтой. We suggest preparing the documents immediately.

(более) подробно спецификация в соответствии со спецификацией подробные спецификации прилагать (к документу)

We suggest that the documents (should) be prepared immediately. to offer We offer to prepare the documents Immediately. Мы предлагаем подготовить доWe offer assistance In preparing кументы немедленно, (т. е. предлаthe drawings. гаем свои услуги, чтобы выполнить эту работу) или: Мы предлагаем помощь в подготовке чертежей.

50 51

preliminary [pn'limin(8)n| a preliminary talks /remarks Syn. tentative to get in touch with Syn. contact Can you get in touch with the organization? design organization thorough ['Элгэ] a The document needs a thorough study. efficient [i'fij(a)nt] a

предварительный предварительные переговоры/ замечания связаться с, установить контакт

проектная организация тщательный 1. эффективный, рациональный, работающий с высоким коэффициентом полезного действия 2. квалифицированный умелый, знающий, исполнительный рабочий отрицать, отвергать Нельзя отрицать тот факт, что ... стоимость уверять, заверять конкурентоспособный 1. конкурировать 2. соревноваться технологический технологический прогресс технический отдел устаревший условия платежа аванс заранее аванс в размере...

She is an efficient secretary, an efficient worker deny [di'nai] v You can't deny the fact that... cost n What's the cost of the job? assure [s'Jus] v We assure you that we shall fulfil our obligations. competitive [kam'petrtrv] a Goods sell well if their prices are competitive. compete [kam'ph] v The companies will compete on the market. technological [Декпэ'к>…...

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