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Full Circle
THE INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE FOR THE UBUNTU LINUX COMMUNITY

ISSUE #90 - October 201 4

Photo: miss_millions (Flickr.com)

P R I S O N AR C H I T E C T BUILD YOUR OWN OPEN SOURCE PRISON
Fu ll Ci rcle M a g a zi n e i s n e i th e r a ffi li a te d wi th , n o r e n d o rse d b y, Ca n o n i ca l Ltd .

full circle magazine #90

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HowTo
OpenConnect to Cisco p.1 4

Full Circle
THE INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE FOR THE UBUNTU LINUX COMMUNITY

Linux News

p.04

BACK NEXT MONTH
LibreOffice p.1 5 Command & Conquer p.1 2 Arduino p.25 LinuxLabs p.XX

Broadcast With WCS

p.1 7

Linux Labs

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Review

p.36

My Story

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BACK NEXT MONTH
Blender p.XX Letters p.40 Tuxidermy p.41 Q&A p.42

BACK NEXT MONTH
Inkscape

BACK NEXT MONTH
Ubuntu Women p.XX Ubuntu Games p.44

Graphics

p.22

Security

p.XX

The articles contained in this magazine are released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. This means you can adapt, copy, distribute and transmit the articles but only under the following conditions: you must attribute the work to the original author in some way (at least a name, email or URL) and to this magazine by name ('Full Circle Magazine') and the URL www.fullcirclemagazine.org (but not attribute the article(s) in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you must distribute the resulting work under the same, similar or a compatible license. Full Circle magazine is entirely independent of Canonical, the sponsor of the Ubuntu projects, and the views and opinions in the full circle magazine #90 2 magazine should in no way be assumed to have Canonical endorsement. contents ^

E D I T O R I AL

This magazine was created using :

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WELCOME TO ANOTHER ISSUE OF FULL CIRCLE. o Python or Blender again this month I'm afraid. Greg has injured his back and Nicholas is now officially a father. Feel free to drop them both some encouraging emails. I've written up a HowTo on using WebcamStudio this month. It stemmed from me trying to stream my Euro Truck and X-Plane adventures with Stream Studio, but I wanted more control over the video output. Hence, WebcamStudio. I wasn't having much luck with it to be honest, but the developer, Karl, was very helpful over Google+ and I finally got there in the end with video, audio and text merged into one video output. Mark continues to show us how to use Inkscape, and my current Arduino project (the laser trip wire alarm) is coming to an end. There are still a couple of months left of that project before I start a new one. And this month Alan shows you how to finally get your kernel up and running. Another one from me is a review of MEGA file hosting. It's 50GB free, has a Linux client and leaves Google as the odd one out with no Linux client as yet for Google Drive. Oscar reviews the game Prison Architect. I've played this in the past and it's really quite fun, and the developers are continually adding new stuff each month. Check out their YouTube channel (Introversion Software) for their monthly update videos. For my fellow virtual pilots I've written a piece on how to install plugins for X-Plane 1 0 (now finally up to 1 0.3 on Steam) and then show how to use a plugin to show your position, in real time, on a map.

Full Circle Podcast

Released monthly, each episode covers all the latest Ubuntu news, opinions, reviews, interviews and listener feedback. The Side-Pod is a new addition, it's an extra (irregular) short-form podcast which is intended to be a branch of the main podcast. It's somewhere to put all the general technology and non-Ubuntu stuff that doesn’t fit in the main podcast.

All the best, and keep in touch!
Ronnie ronnie@fullcirclemagazine.org

Hosts:

• Les Pounder • Tony Hughes • Jon Chamberlain • Oliver Clark http://fullcirclemagazine.org

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HP I S THE N EW O PEN STACK LEADER: WHAT D OES I T M EAN FOR RED H AT? ed Hat (NYSE:RHT) is the largest distributor of commercial Linux products and the undisputed leader in the Linux enterprise market. The company also was the first to achieve the psychological billion dollars in open-source product sales. It therefore comes as a surprise to learn that Red Hat could slowly be losing its grip on the opensource universe. A recent report on the top OpenStack contributors revealed that HP (NYSE:HPQ), the leading server vendor, has, for the first time, surpassed Red Hat, longtime leader of the OpenStack platform, as the top contributor of code to the open-source platform. HP contributed 20% of new code to the OpenStack platform over the last year compared to Red Hat's 1 7%. That's quite a big change from a year ago when Red Hat was the top contributor with

1 9% and HP generated just 1 3% of code. OpenStack is a set of opensource software tools that allows users to build and manage their own cloud platforms

record" processing – without customers feeling the pain of a migration. IBM has worked with SUSE and other Linux distributors to make sure that many Linux tools and applications are available on Source: both X86 and Power-based http://seekingalpha.com/article/25 systems, and that they work in 23745-hp-is-the-new-openstackexactly the same way. This means leader-what-does-it-mean-for-red- that using Power might be as hat?source=cc simple as moving data or changing Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht a pointer to where data might be found. Does this mean enterprises might be IBM WANTS ENTERPRISES TO of all sizes their X86 well served by re-hosting applications?

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uring the event, the IBM Power Architecture folks discussed the Power 8 architecture and how it can accelerate performance for many workloads. They also discussed IBM's work with several Linux distributors, using Flash memory as extensible memory rather than either cache or as a replacement for rotating storage media for processing on some new System p computers, and how the combined platform can easily support many Web, Big Data and Analytics, and "system of full circle magazine #90

Source: http://www.zdnet.com/ibm-wantsenterprises-to-consider-power-870000341 00/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht

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MK902 II LE IS A TINY U BUNTU PC WITH A ROCKCHIP RK3288 CPU ikomagic launched a new TV box with a Rockchip RK3288 processor and Google Android software this summer. It’s called the MK902 II, and I’ve got one

sitting on my desk waiting for me to find the time to put it through the paces. While the box is designed to let you run Android apps on a TV, it’s basically a tiny computer… and, if you don’t want to use Android, there’s a Linux model. Rikomagic UK is now selling the MK902 II LE (Linux Edition) at its Cloudsto store for £1 1 0 ($1 79) and up. That price may seem a bit high when you can get an Android model for $1 1 5. But at least you won’t have to install Linux yourself, and Rikomagic UK tells me there are a few small differences in the hardware for the Linux Edition model. The MK902 II LE features a RK3288 quad-core processor, 2GB of RAM, 8GB to 1 6GB of storage, a microSd card reader, 802.1 1 n WiFi, HDMI output, 4 USB ports, Gigabit Ethernet, AV, and SPDIF jacks. It ships with Xubuntu 1 4.04, which is basically Ubuntu Linux with the Xfce desktop environment. Source: http://liliputing.com/201 4/09/mk9 02-ii-le-tiny-ubuntu-pc-rockchiprk3288-cpu.html Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht contents ^

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NEWS LINUX-READY INDUSTRIAL PCS ARE TOUGH AS NAILS
EN Micro announced two rugged, Linux-ready box PCs with 3rd Gen. Intel Core i7 CPUs: the video storage oriented “BL70S”, and the wireless focused “BL70W.” The BL70S and BL70W are fanless industrial computers that operate from -40 to 85°C, and feature aluminum fins that facilitate conduction cooling. Earlier MEN Micro box computers had much the same appearance, including the circa-201 1 , AMD GSeries based BC1 . Both computers support Linux, as well as Windows 7 and WES7.

external, hot-pluggable HDD/SSD shuttles. The BL70W stands out with its four mini-PCI Express slots, each with a dual SIM card, and its wide support for wireless technologies. Source: http://linuxgizmos.com/linuxready-industrial-pcs-are-tough-asnails/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht

You'll find all the updated hardware support in Ubuntu 1 4.04, but Elementary replaces GTK 3.1 0 with the more cutting edge GTK 3.1 2, which gets Elementary a nice combined window bar/title bar that saves a bit of space and looks great with the rest of Elementary's very polished desktop theme.

Internet-capable platform. Back then, any task – ranging from word processing down to video editing – had to be done from locally installed software. Flash forward to now; web applications today have the ability to offer office suite functionality and make live edits to various forms of video/audio media. In this article, I'll explore the differences between locally installed Linux applications and their web-based counterparts.

You'd be forgiven for thinking Elementary is based on GNOME Shell. It looks a bit like GNOME A N ORSIFIED LINUX FOR Shell, with a clock in the middle of the top bar, an Applications menu WINDOWS AND OS X to the left, and some indicator apps Source: WOBBLERS to the right. In Luna, the top bar was black by default, which made it http://www.datamation.com/openirst things first: the name. The look even more like GNOME Shell. source/web-software-vs.-nativelinux-software-1 .html next Elementary OS was Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht codenamed Isis – as in the Egyptian Source: goddess of magic and life. That was http://www.theregister.co.uk/201 4 until Islamic State became a thing, /09/26/elementary_freya_review/ B UILDING A LINUX LAB AND and the distro’s team decided such Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht Although the computers have ITS GREAT POTENTIAL IN associations were unwanted. Now many features in common, the it’s Freya, as in the Norse goddess BL70S is designed for storage WEB SOFTWARE VS. N ATIVE EDUCATION of love and, er, war. applications such as video t was 1 995, and I had received an recorders or content servers, while LINUX SOFTWARE email from my brother James Conflict aside, what a nice the BL70W supports wireless computing, “whether used alone or update to last year's Luna release n years past, it wasn't uncommon asking if I’d ever heard of Linux. I connected to a display computer,” of Elementary Freya is shaping up to rely on a particular operating had, but barely. A high school to be. The Norsified Elementary says MEN Micro. The BL70S is system because of the software it student at my alma mater had built a web server with Linux. builds on Ubuntu 1 4.04, though, as provided. Mind you, this was notable for its 4-port gigabit always, the Elementary developers before the popularity of web-based Eventually, out of curiosity, I Ethernet switch, Power over purchased a copy of Red Hat 6.0 pick and choose when it comes to Ethernet (PoE) support, and applications that can work on any (which pre-dates Red Hat the distro's base tools. full circle magazine #90 5 contents ^

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Enterprise Linux or RHEL), and got LINUX F OUNDATION it running with GNOME on a LAUNCHES REFERENCE Hewlett-Packard Vectra 75, which PLATFORM FOR ‘CARRIERhad a Cyrix processor upgrade installed. RHEL 6.0 had a Mozilla GRADE’ NFV browser, OpenOffice 1 .0, and some other software I’d never heard of. he Linux Foundation launched its Open Platform for NFV At that time, I was the Project, designed as a “carriertechnology director at Franklinville grade, integrated, open-source Central School in western New reference platform intended to York State. I worked there for 26 accelerate the introduction of new years and retired in August 201 3. I products and services.” shared it with my IT staff, and we built a machine that we toyed Founding members of the around with that could read Yahoo program include a long list of Mail using the browser, but we companies participating in the couldn’t use it with Lotus Notes software-defined networking and which was our workplace official network function virtualization email system. Then, in early 2001 , space, including “Platinum” after talking to a content filtering members AT&T, Brocade, China vendor about my displeasure with Mobile, Cisco, Dell, Ericsson, content filters in general, the Hewlett-Packard, Huawei, IBM, vendor said, "Why don’t you build Intel, Juniper Networks, NEC, Nokia your own?" So, I said, "With what?" Networks, NTT DoCoMo, Red Hat, And, he answered, "Linux!” Telecom Italia, and Vodafone. “Silver-level” founding members Source: include 6Wind, Alcatel-Lucent, http://opensource.com/education ARM, CableLabs, Cavium, /1 4/9/linux-education-publicCenturyLink, Ciena, ClearPath, school ConteXtream, Coriant, Cyan, Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht Dorado Software, Ixia, Metaswitch Networks, Mirantis, Orange, Sandvine, Sprint, and Wind River.

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http://www.electronicsweekly.com /news/design/embeddedsystems/linux-micro-computerruns-android-ubuntu-201 4-1 0/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht

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LINUX MICRO COMPUTER RUNS ANDROID AND U BUNTU e have discovered another Linux computer module, the HummingBoard from Israeli firm SolidRun. The HummingBoard allows you to run many open-source operating systems – such as Ubuntu, Debian and Arch, as well as Android and XBMC. It is powered by single or dual ARM9 core Freescale i.MX6 processor with 51 2Mbyte or 1 Gbyte of memory. Graphics comes from a Vivante GC880 GPU core which supports OpenGL ES 3.0 API, and capable of outputting multiple 1 080p videos. There are two USB ports and an Ethernet network port, as well as a standard array of interfaces for UART, GPIO, SPI with two CS, I2C. There is also an optional 802.1 1 Wi-Fi interface. Source:

EVIL PATENT TROLLS

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POISED TO ATTACK O PEN STACK, SAYS LINUX PROTECTION SQUAD group established to shield Linux from patent trolls has warned OpenStack will be the next big target for intellectual property hoarders. The Open Invention Network (OIN) reckons the open-source cloud is ripe for plucking by trolls, who would easily be able to box off and claim core technologies as their own. That would see developers and customers using OpenStack forced to hand over fistfuls of cash in royalties – following either cases or, more likely, closed-door deals that avoid the expense of court. Keith Bergelt, OIN chief executive, told The Reg OpenStack lacks an IP rights protection policy beyond its basic Apache licences to protect itself. contents ^

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“It creates a potential situation H OW GNOME 3.1 4 IS for mischief and for people to start WINNING BACK inventing ahead of where core DISILLUSIONED LINUX USERS technology is being invented,” he said. “I have more than a little NOME 3.1 4 is now out. It’s a concern this could be a flash point release full of polish from the or a battleground.” desktop environment once preferred by most Linux According to Bergelt, there’s distributions – and almost a story nothing to protect the cross licensing of technologies between of redemption. After arguably OpenStack’s sub projects. That’s a losing its way around GNOME 3.0, GNOME is back with a vengeance. problem because OpenStack meetings are open, so anybody can GNOME Shell has matured attend, take notes and walk away immensely since their immature to file a patent in an area of launch. Thanks to solid releases like prospective development. GNOME 3.1 4, GNOME will once It’s a problem Bergelt said he’s again be the default desktop on Debian, pushing out Xfce. GNOME raised with OpenStack’s legal 3’s “classic mode” offers enough affairs committee, whose official familiarity to be the default members are drawn from Canonical, SUSE, Hewlett-Packard, desktop on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, too. AT&T, and Rackspace, with two unofficial members from IBM and GNOME 3.1 4 includes several Red Hat. redesigned applications. The Weather app has been reworked Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/201 4 with a new layout, and now uses GNOME’s built-in geolocation /1 0/02/oin_openstack_warning/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht features to automatically display the weather for your current location.

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getting in the way so it can display BM's Power Systems platform more of your documents at once. It has been given a boost with the also supports high-resolution announcement of a partnership displays and offers improved between Linux firm Suse and accessibility features. database developer MariaDB to drive a wider variety of applications GNOME now has multitouch on its Power8 systems. Announced support, too. Gestures involving at the IBM Enterprise201 4 event in multiple fingers can be used to Las Vegas, the first fruit of the navigate the desktop interface. partnership is set to be a version of Evince, and GNOME’s image the MariaDB Enterprise MySQL viewer, Eye of GNOME, now database optimised for the Suse support pinch-to-zoom. Linux Enterprise Server 1 2 platform on Power8 servers. The Photos app gained support for Google accounts, meaning The partnership agreement will photos uploaded from Android, also provide customers with access through Google+ or via Picasa, are to enterprise-class support from now integrated. It already allows both Suse and MariaDB. Suse Linux you to access photos from Enterprise Server 1 2 is due for Facebook and Flickr. Photos can release sometime in the fourth also now access local photo servers quarter of 201 4, but the two firms over the DLNA protocol. did not indicate when the optimised version of MariaDB is set Source: to be available. However, Suse and http://www.pcworld.com/article/2 MariaDB stated that their intention 691 1 92/how-gnome-3-1 4-isis to go further and enable IBM winning-back-disillusioned-linuxcustomers to be able to run a wider users.html variety of applications on Power8, Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht and have more flexibility and choice within their existing IT IBM POWER SYSTEMS GET A infrastructure.

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CoreOS is an "existential threat" to Red Hat, Canonical, and Suse, The Linux Foundation and edX according to some suggestions. never publicly set any specific Source: The question for Red Hat in targets for the Introduction to http://thevarguy.com/open-source- particular will be whether it can Linux MOOC, but it's a pretty safe application-software"Working with MariaDB in our embrace this new way of delivering bet they're happy with the strong ecosystem of partners companies/1 0071 4/linuxLinux while keeping its revenue response so far. As of this week, offers our customers new and certification-rising-popular-tough- model alive. innovative ways to make the most 270,000 users, representing more get-says-linux-f from their existing IT investments, than 1 00 countries, have registered Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht Linux vendors, particularly Red while accessing the latest and most in the course, according to the Hat, have built their businesses on Linux Foundation. That's solid powerful computing applications meeting the needs of operations WHAT' S COREOS? AN evidence of the demand for free, and technologies." professionals. Developers, as I Internet-based, instruction in using EXISTENTIAL THREAT TO wrote recently, have been a Linux. Source: http://www.v3.co.uk/v3secondary concern. LINUX VENDORS uk/news/2374246/ibm-powerAnd while taking the MOOC may systems-get-a-boost-with-suseThat strategy worked great pen-source has never been impress some employers, the Linux linux-and-mariadb-backing while operations ruled, but as shy about eating its young – Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht Foundation is hoping its developers have increasingly taken or, in the case of CoreOS, its old. Certification Program will prove control, the ops-first strategy looks more persuasive as a measure of increasingly suspect. Indeed, While sometimes dismissed as LINUX FOUNDATION : expertise in open-source systems Gartner estimates that 38 percent the newest entrant in the "just CERTIFICATION M ORE administration and programming. of total IT spend comes from enough operating system" One figure that may help convince pageant, CoreOS threatens to outside IT today, and will balloon POPULAR B UT TOUGH TO employers and the channel that the displace incumbent Linux to 50 percent by 201 7 as lines of G ET certification means something is business take more responsibility distributions with a minimalist the sub-60 percent rate at which for their systems. approach that seeks to emulate he Linux Foundation's how Google and other Web "Introduction to Linux" MOOC applicants have successfully completed the exams to date, Source: companies manage distributed on edX has enjoyed impressive according to the Linux Foundation. systems. CoreOS uses Docker to http://www.infoworld.com/article/ popularity since launching in the That statistic may reflect, in part, a handle the addition and 2692889/open-sourcesummer. And the organization's low level of preparation among software/coreos-an-existentialmanagement of applications and Certification Program for openstudents in the course, but it also threat-to-linux-vendors.html services on a system. source engineers, which went live speaks to the certification's Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht in August, is also rising in stature, seriousness, and bodes well for Indeed, by changing the very according to data the Foundation candidates who are hoping a definition of the Linux distribution, full circle magazine #90 8 contents ^

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certificate will mean something to employers.

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NEWS D RONE DEVELOPERS GET BIG OPEN -SOURCE BOOST FROM LINUX FOUNDATION , VENDORS LIKE 3D ROBOTICS AND B OX rones are a hot topic right now, attracting not just big names like Amazon and Google, but thousands of independent developers who want to use aerial technology for fields like conservation, commerce, search and rescue, and scientific research. On Monday, those developers got a big piece of good news: the Linux Foundation and ten companies announced the “Dronecode Project,” which will offer a huge repository of opensource code for people to build aerial operating systems, navigation tools and other features for unmanned aircraft. While Linux code is already part of many drone-related projects, the new initiative consolidates many of these assets under one roof, providing a common platform as well as communications and governance tools. And, of course, the code will be available to

anyone who wants to use it. The Dronecode Project will be overseen by the Linux Foundation, but it is also receiving some highprofile industry support, including from Chris Anderson, the former Wired editor who now runs the robot company 3D Robotics, and Box CEO Aaron Levie. The project is moving quickly, according to Jim Zemlin, executive director of the Foundation, who says 1 ,200 developers are already working on Dronecode, and that some projects are receiving 1 50 contributions of code a day. Source: http://gigaom.com/201 4/1 0/1 3/dr one-developers-get-big-opensource-boost-from-linuxfoundation-vendors-like-3drobotics-and-box/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht

dropping support for ext2, ext3 and ext4 file systems – the file systems used by the vast majority of Linux systems. Now, I hear what you're saying. "Isn't ChromeOS... Linux? Don't they simply get full support for these file systems for free?" Yes, it is. And, yes, they do. Which begs the question... why, on Earth, would anyone think this is a good idea? After digging through issue #31 5401 (titled "Drop support for ext2/3/4 from Files.app") a bit, it turns out there are two reasons given for dropping ext2/3/4 from ChromeOS. One, as stated by one contributor, is that it is simply an unnecessary feature: "Every feature comes with complexity. Complexity adds maintenance cost, QA cost, slows down development, and adds surface of security exploits. We should add a feature only if its benefit clearly outweighs its cost, but this particular feature was slipped in for some historical reason." Two things made me giggle there:

• The notion that having support for ext3 is a possible security issue is just plain silly. Note that there isn't actually any security exploit that people are concerned about there – just the nebulous threat of possible security problems because, you know, software is involved. In other words... pointing at an invisible boogie man that nobody has reason to believe even exists. Also, if there is an exploit in these critical file systems, it would undoubtedly be fixed at an astounding speed. • The idea that ext2/3/4 support was a feature that was added to ChromeOS "for some historical reason." Maybe that historical reason is that, just maybe, you got it for free. You know. 'Cuz Linux. Source: http://www.networkworld.com/arti cle/2824764/opensourcesubnet/chromeos-disses-linuxusers-drops-ext2-3-4.html Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht

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CHROMEOS DISSES LINUX USERS, DROPS EXT2/3/4 ometimes people make decisions that are so baffling – and so far out of left field – that you are left simply... dumbstruck. Case in point: ChromeOS is full circle magazine #90

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M ACHINE VISION COM AND CAMERAS GO LINUX ision Components has launched two Linux-based, smart machine vision cameras, and contents ^

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a COM built around a Xilinx Zynq SoC, each supporting up to 4.2MP video. Over the last decade, smart cameras for machine vision have been transitioning from DSPs to systems that combine DSPs or FPGAs with ARM or x86 processors running Linux. The latest to join the Linux camp is Ettlingen, Germany based machine vision manufacturer Vision Components, which, with its latest “VC Z” cameras, has switched from a DSP-based system to a tuxified ARM/FPGA combo. Thanks to the Xilinx Zynq, the company was able to accomplish this with a single system-on-chip. The VC Z is available in a VCSBC nano Z computer-on-module, which also appears to act as the foundation for the new VC nano Z and VC pro Z cameras. The company’s VC cameras, which are still available, incorporate freely programmable DSPs combined with the proprietary VCRT operating system. The new VC Z devices switch to the Zynq running Linux, thereby using less board space while becoming more easily programmable, says Vision Components.

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Source: http://linuxgizmos.com/machinevision-com-and-cameras-go-linux/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht

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CANONICAL D ETAILS PLANS FOR U NITY 8 I NTEGRATION KDE PLASMA 5 N OW IN U BUNTU D ESKTOP AVAILABLE FOR U BUNTU 1 4.1 0 (U TOPIC U NICORN ) buntu users now know for certain when Unity 8 officially arrives on the desktop flavor of the distribution. Users might have noticed that Ubuntu developers have been putting much of their efforts into the mobile version of their operating system, and the desktop has received less attention than usual. They had to focus on that version because most of the things that are changed and improved for Ubuntu Touch will eventually land on the desktop as well. Not all users know that the desktop environment that is now on Ubuntu Touch will also power the desktop version in the future, and that future is not very far ahead. In fact, it's a lot closer than users imagine. full circle magazine #90

Source: http://news.softpedia.com/news/C anonical-Details-Plans-for-Unity-8Integration-in-Ubuntu-Desktop4621 1 7.shtml Submitted by: Silviu Stahie

are usually KDE-specific. Source: http://news.softpedia.com/news/K DE-Plasma-5-Now-Available-forUbuntu-1 4-1 0-Utopic-Unicorn-462042.shtml Submitted by: Silviu Stahie

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he new KDE Plasma and KDE Frameworks packages are now out of Beta and users can test irtualbox 4.3.1 8 has been them in various systems, including released, and brings many Ubuntu. In fact, installing the latest different fixes for major operating KDE is quite easy now because systems such as Ubuntu Linux, there is a PPA available. Windows, and Mac OS X. The potential misbehavior after A lot of users are anxious to use restoring the A20 state from a the latest Plasma desktop because saved state has been fixed, it's quite different from the old virtualbox does not crash anymore one. We can call it "the old one", in Linux hosts with old versions of even if the latest branch, 4.1 4.x, is the linux kernel, a few remaining still maintained until November. warnings in the kernel log if memory allocation fails have been The KDE developers split the fixed and the GNOME Shell on project into three major Fedora 21 is not prevented components: Plasma, Frameworks, anymore from starting when and Applications. Plasma is actually handling video driver display the desktop and everything that properties. goes with it, Frameworks is made up of all the libraries and other Thanks to this maintenance components, and Applications release, Ubuntu users have now gathers all the regular apps that the possibility to use legacy full-

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screen mode under Unity without experiencing multi-screen issues. Another important issue related to Unity that has been fixed with the release of 4.3.1 8 version is the quirk in full-screen mode Unity panels caused by mini-toolbar code changes in last release. Source: http://www.unixmen.com/virtualb ox-4-3-1 8-released-lots-fixes/ Submitted by: Oltjano Terpollari

NEWS

Chris Schlaeger, director of kernel and operating systems at Amazon Web Services, in his keynote talk at LinuxCon and CloudOpen Europe today in Dusseldorf. Founder Jeff Bezos “quickly realized that [...] he needed a sophisticated IT infrastructure,” Schlaeger said. That required expensive proprietary infrastructure with enough capacity to handle peak holiday demand. Meanwhile, most of the time the machines were idle. By building their infrastructure with open-source software, and charging other sellers to use their unused infrastructure, Amazon could cover the up-front cost of data center development. Source: http://www.linux.com/news/featur ed-blogs/200-libby-clark/791 472amazon-web-services-aims-formore-open-source-involvement Submitted by: Libby Clark

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he creator of systemd, Lennart Poettering, had some very harsh words to say about the Linux community and about one of its role models, Linus Torvalds. It might seem that the Linux community in its entirety is all about rainbows and bunnies, but the truth is that it's made up of regular people and the likes. Most of the other communities are formed in this way and Linux is no exception. The problem is that Linus is pegged as one of the people responsible by Lennart Poettering. There has been some small friction between Linux and systemd, when asked what he thought about systemd, just a couple of weeks ago, Linus Torvalds was actually very tactful about it. Source: http://news.softpedia.com/news/S ystemd-Creator-Say-LinuxCommunity-Is-Rotten-Points-atLinus-Torvalds-as-the-Source461 21 9.shtml Submitted by: Silviu Stahie

TEN YEARS OF U BUNTU : H OW LINUX’S BELOVED

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NEWCOMER BECAME ITS CRITICIZED KING

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AMAZON WEB SERVICES AIMS FOR M ORE O PEN SOURCE I NVOLVEMENT n 2006, Amazon was an Ecommerce site building out its own IT infrastructure in order to sell more books. Now, AWS and EC2 are well-known acronyms to system administrators and developers across the globe looking to the public cloud to build and deploy web-scale applications. But how exactly did a book seller become a large cloud vendor? Amazon's web services business was devised in order to cut datacenter costs – a feat accomplished largely through the use of Linux and open-source software, said

n October of 2004, a new Linux distro appeared on the scene with a curious name—Ubuntu. Even then there were hundreds, today if not thousands, of different Linux distros available. A new one wasn't particularly unusual, and for some time after its quiet preview announcement, Ubuntu went largely unnoticed. Today, Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu, estimates that there are 25 million Ubuntu users worldwide. That makes Ubuntu the world's third most popular PC operating system. By Canonical's estimates, Ubuntu has roughly 90 percent of the Linux market. And Ubuntu is poised to launch a mobile version that may well send those numbers skyrocketing again. Source:http://arstechnica.com/info rmation-technology/201 4/1 0/tenyears-of-ubuntu-how-linuxsbeloved-newcomer-became-itscriticized-king/ Submitted by: Arnfried Walbrecht contents ^

SYSTEMD CREATOR SAYS LINUX COMMUNITY I S ROTTEN , POINTS AT LINUS TORVALDS AS THE SOURCE full circle magazine #90

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Written by Lucas Westermann

C O M M AN D & C O N Q U E R starting using Bower to install and manage various versions of Foundation and Twitter Bootstrap in various projects. As such, I will cover installing Bower, configuring it, and then configuring Grunt to utilize foundation (after it was installed with Bower). run the following command: npm install -g bower

B o we r bower install -save-dev

I

CLARIFICATIONS received some feedback on my last article from the author of the script. As I find some of his corrections/clarifications important, here are the two main corrections (there were others that, while relevant when I was writing the article, are difficult to implement after the fact): • Where I said that the line /bin/sh set the environment for Linux, he suggested a more accurate description would be “assigning the default interpreter (here /bin/sh) in order to execute the script”. • “This pattern can also be a basic regular expression” - He pointed out to me that regular expressions are the default, and you would need the option -F in order to find a literal “.” in the PDF.

(That command may require a sudo if it fails as a normal user).

CONFIGURE B OWER
This will result in a bower.json file (similar to the package.json file from npm). It can be done interactively, or you can simply copy a framework file and edit it. The interactive method will be run using the following command: bower init

WHY?
You may ask why anyone would want to use Bower to install something like Foundation or Twitter Bootstrap - and the answer is relatively simple. It’s their supported method for installing SASS versions of their frameworks. This means you’ll receive SASS files of Foundation or Bootstrap, enabling you to enable/disable features, and minimize the overhead of your website. It also gives you an automated system for getting the newest versions.

You can also use --save, which will add the package to the dependencies list in the bower.json file. Since these frameworks fall under development, it makes more sense to put it in devDependencies (with --save-dev). An example: bower install foundation -save-dev

Now you’ll be expected to fill in certain information; it’s all relatively straightforward - if you have specific questions, bower’s documentation should suffice.

This will install foundation into bower_components within your project’s folder, and add a line to your bower.json file that looks like this:
"foundation": "~5.4.5"

I

n recent months, I’ve dedicated a few articles to web design aspects (Node.js, npm, SASS), and now I’d like to add even more information to this. I’ve recently

I NSTALL B OWER

I NSTALLING PACKAGES

This is the line that tells bower it needs to install foundation as of version 5.4.5, in case you need to re-configure or update the project.

Once the bower.json file is created, you’re ready to install new Assuming you’ve configured packages. To do this, and configure npm as explained in Issue #87, then the json file for it, you can use the you’ve done everything required to following command: full circle magazine #90 12

U SING FOUNDATION FROM B OWER WITH G RUNT contents ^

COMMAND & CONQUER
If you followed along the last article I wrote on Grunt, this should seem pretty straightforward. What you need to do is point Grunt to the foundation folder, under bower_components. This means that you’ll need to add (or edit) the foundation line in the project object of your Gruntfile.js. It should look like this: project: { css: [ 'bower_components/foundation/ scss/foundation.scss' ], js: [ 'javascripts/*.js' ] },

have covered: Installing Node.js, npm, grunt, bower, and a framework such as Zurb Foundation. If you combine this information with my articles on setting up git repositories, you’re all set to configure your next web project in a relatively robust way or to create a repository containing your basic setup for any and all future projects. If anyone is interested in further web design articles, please do let me know by email at lswest34+fcm@gmail.com. If you have any other suggestions or requests, feel free to email me those ideas too.

PYTHON SPECIAL EDITIONS:

http://fullcirclemagazine.org/issue-py01 / http://fullcirclemagazine.org/issue-py02/

Assuming you also want to include the javascript from foundation, you’ll also need to add it to the js area, though generally importing the foundation.min.js file directly into your webpage should suffice. If you use lots of javascript files and want them merged, you will need to point Grunt to each of the files in turn, and configure it to merge and compress them. And this (along with my previous articles) concludes using SASS within your web project. We

FURTHER READING

http://bower.io/ - Bower website containing documentation. http://foundation.zurb.com/ - Zurb Foundation website, containing information on using the Foundation framework.

http://fullcirclemagazine.org/pythonspecial-edition-issue-three/

http://fullcirclemagazine.org/pythonspecial-edition-volume-four/

Lucas has learned all he knows from

repeatedly breaking his system, then having no other option but to discover how to fix it. You can email Lucas at: lswest34@gmail.com.

http://fullcirclemagazine.org/pythonspecial-edition-volume-five/

http://fullcirclemagazine.org/pythonspecial-edition-volume-six/ contents ^

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Written by Lev Lazinskiy

H O W-TO
Enter the following into a terminal: sudo apt-get install openconnect

O p e n C o n n e c t T o A C i s c o VP N terminal output should look something like the image below. stable, secure, and reliable connection.

any businesses and universities use Cisco AnyConnect as their VPN solution. Although there is a native Linux client offered by Cisco, it is not very well supported, and in some cases the user does not have access to the client. Fortunately, there is a simple solution to this problem – thanks to OpenConnect. OpenConnect is a client for Cisco’s AnyConnect VPN. It is free software, and is released under the GNU LGPL v2.1 . Getting connected to an AnyConnect VPN is easy with OpenConnect and the TUN/TAP kernel module that is built into the Linux kernel.

Keep the terminal window open while the VPN session is active. Network resources such as shared CONNECT TO THE VPN folders, NAS drives, servers, and workstations should now be OpenConnect has many available. To close the VPN session, optional arguments that can be type Ctrl+Z into the terminal passed in the connection string. window. Abruptly killing the These arguments are explained terminal window without properly well in the OpenConnect closing out of the VPN session can documentation. The basic structure lead to issues when attempting to of the connection string that reconnect in the future. These enables the VPN connection is issues can typically be resolved by shown below. In a terminal, enter: restarting the machine. sudo openconnect yourvpn.example.com

EXTERNAL LINKS
Cisco AnyConnect VPN http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solu tions/enterprisenetworks/anyconnect-securemobility-solution/index.html OpenConnect http://www.infradead.org/opencon nect/ TUN/TAP http://www.kernel.org/doc/Docu mentation/networking/tuntap.txt

ACTIVATE THE TUN
MODULE
Enter the following into a terminal: sudo /sbin/modprobe tun

OpenConnect prompts for a username and password. Once these are authenticated, the VPN connection is established, and the

As we have seen, OpenConnect makes it easy to connect to a Cisco AnyConnect VPN. If your employer or educational institution utilizes AnyConnect, this tool enables full access to network resources with a

Lev is a graduate computer science

I NSTALL OPENCONNECT full circle magazine #90

student at NOVA Southeastern University, and works as a systems engineer for a software company in Cincinnati, OH. He has been using GNU/Linux for over 1 0 years.

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Written by Elmer Perry

H O W-TO

Li breO ffi ce Pt.42 - Referen ces & Ra n g es
A relative cell reference is a set of offsets from the current cell. If you put a reference to C4 in cell D6, the reference is to the cell one column to the left and two rows up. If you copy this reference to other cells, say D7, it will refer to the cell C5, which is one column to the left and two rows up from D7. Let's create an example to clear up any confusion. Create a new Spreadsheet document. In the cells B3 and B4 put the values 1 5 and 46. In the cells C3 and C4 put in the values 1 1 and 1 4. Select cell B5 and enter the following formula (yes, the equal sign [=] is necessary):
=B3+B4

didn't have to work for very long in Calc before I needed to use cell names to reference values in different cells. This need was followed by those same reference names failing to do what I was expecting from them. While referencing cells is not complicated, it sometimes requires a little thought about what you're trying to accomplish. At its heart, there are two reference types: relative and absolute. Relative references refer to a set of offsets from the current cell. Absolute references refer to the exact (or fixed) cell, column, or row. With these two types we can show references in four different ways. Cell references can even cross between sheets. Sometime, you will need to reference more than one cell. This is done with cell ranges. You can make a cell range relative or absolute just like the cell reference. You can even name a cell range.

relative cell reference would have shifted to accommodate the change. So, when we make a relative reference, it will move positions, keeping the same offsets, when copied to a new location.

=D2*D1

ABSOLUTE REFERENCES
An absolute cell reference is fixed. If you make an absolute reference to cell C1 , then no matter where you copy that reference, it always refers to C1 . We create absolute references by adding the dollar sign ($) before the column or row we want to remain absolute. For example $C$1 is an absolute reference to the cell C1 . Let's do another example to illustrate absolute references. Imagine we need to multiply a group of numbers by a factor. In cell D1 we put 0.75. This is our factor. In D2, D3, and D4 we put 1 0, 20, and 30. In the E column, we will put our calculations. In cell E2 put the formula:

This will give us the answer 7.5, which is correct. However, if we copy the formula in E2 to E3 and E4, we get answers of 200 and 600, which are wrong. If you look at the copied formulas, the references shifted. This is because we used a relative reference. We do want the first number to shift when we copy, but we need D1 to stay fixed. Edit the formula in E2 and change it to
=D2*$D$1

RELATIVE REFERENCES

When you press enter, it will show a total of 61 , the sum of the two values in B3 and B4. Now, right-click B5 and copy. Select C5, right-click, and paste. In C5 you get the total 25, the sum of the two values in C3 and C4. See how the reference shifted to the new column? Since we didn't change rows, the row references stayed the same. However, if we did, the full circle magazine #90

We still have the right answer in E2. Now, copy the formula in E2 to E3 and E4. We get the answers 1 5 and 22.5, which are the correct answers. If you look at the copied formulas in E3 and E4, you find the reference to D1 remained fixed.

FOUR WAYS TO REFERENCE CELLS
With this in mind, this gives us four different ways we can reference a cell. They are relative, absolute, and two partially absolute references. contents ^

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• D1 – Relative, from cell E3, it is one column left and two rows up • $D$1 – Absolute, from any position references cell D1 • $D1 – Partially absolute, column D is fixed but the row is relative • D$1 – Partially absolute, column is relative but the row is fixed to 1

from the cell E2 in the MyData sheet.

NOTE: If the sheet name contains spaces, surround the name with single quotes, as in 'My Sheet'.C3. Just like other references, the reference to the sheet is absolute or relative depending on whether we put the dollar sign ($) in front of it.

right corner of the cell range. For example A1 :C2 represents a range of six cells: A1 , A2, B1 , B2, C1 , and C2. However, the range can also represent just one column or row as in C2:C1 00 or B3:H3. The same rules for relative and absolute references apply to cell ranges. You can create a full or partial absolute reference. You can even apply a range across sheets. Let's say you need a cell range of all the A1 cells on all the sheets named Sheet1 through Sheet1 0. You would use the cell range Sheet1 .A1 :Sheet1 0.A1 . For convenience, you can name a range. To name a range, select a range of cells in the sheet. Insert > Names > Define brings up the “Define Name” dialog. Give the range a name. Keep in mind that

REFERENCE CELL IN ANOTHER SHEET
To reference a cell in another sheet, we use dot notation to add the sheet name to the reference. For example, Sheet1 .A1 . This is handy if you need to carry a calculation or figure from one sheet to another. To illustrate, we will rename our current sheet, add a new one, and create a reference from one to the other. Right-click on the tab for the current sheet and select “Rename Sheet.” When prompted, name the sheet MyData and click OK. To create a new sheet, click on the plus (+) at the end of the sheet tabs. Select cell A1 in the new sheet. Type in
=MyData.E2

CELL RANGES
Sometimes, you need to reference a group of cells rather than just one. For such cases, we use cell ranges. A cell range is created by separating two cell references with a colon (:). The left cell references the upper left corner of the cell range, and the right cell references the lower

cell range names can contain only letters, numbers, and underscore (_). Note the use of absolute references in the Range field. You can adjust your range as needed, manually or by clicking the range button and selecting the range with the mouse or cursor. The Scope field allows you to define whether the named range applies to the entire document or just a certain sheet. Click OK to save the range with the new name. Cell references and ranges are fundamental when you begin to work on more complex sheet layouts, functions, and formulas in Calc documents. Understanding how relative and absolute references work can save time and prevent mistakes when copying formulas and references. While simple, incorrect use of references can lead to the wrong answer.

Elmer Perry's history of working, and programming, computers involves an Apple ][E, adding some Amiga, a generous helping of DOS and Windows, a dash of Unix, and blend well with Linux and Ubuntu. He blogs at http://eeperry.wordpress.com

which will pick up the value of 7.5 full circle magazine #90

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Written by Ronnie Tucker

H O W-TO

B ro a d c a s t i n g W i t h W e b c a m S t u d i o
Channels and Mixer. I’ve not used the Channels tab much myself, but it will come in handy if you want to automate your broadcast a bit by having playlists and such like. Mixer I’ll get to later. Desktop, Text, and Audio. This article will really focus only on the Desktop, Text, and Audio inputs. There are also inputs for animation effects. The right column is for output. The middle of the WCS window Here you choose from: SkyCam, is the Sources. It’s here you’ll add V4L2Loopback, Audio, Record, your inputs using the buttons just UDP, and WSVideoDevice. I’ll use above that middle column. You can SkyCam, Audio, and WSVideo in choose from: media, media folders, this tutorial, but you can easily DVB-T, URL stream, IPCam, DVCam, record your output (rather than stream/broadcast it) using the Record button. Click it and choose where to save the file. Click it again to stop recording. It’s as easy as that. Below the Output items, and once you add an input, you’ll get Properties tabs. These let you add effects and what-not to your inputs.

here are several applications out there in Linux land which will let you stream/broadcast your desktop, windows, games, etc. Webcam Studio is different in that it will, like the others, let you stream, but it has the added bonus of letting you mix many different inputs into one single output. You could, for example, have a window input (let’s say, a game), an input from your webcam (you), the audio from your game, the audio from your microphone, and an input which will overlay text on the screen. Webcam studio will let you input all that, arrange it as you like (in a preview), then output it to whichever broadcast service you like (Twitch, YouTube, Google Hangouts, etc.) using the WSVideoDevice (aka: fake/virtual webcam).

you load/save studios and choose a master output from FFmpeg, AVConv, and GStreamer. The last button is to clean up used RAM. I’m told by the creator, Karl Ellis, that it’s best to use GStreamer so that’s what I’ve set my WCS to use as output, but feel free to try the others as maybe they’ll perform better for you. The left column is the preview window with two tabs below it:

H OW I T’S D ONE
When you start WebcamStudio (WCS from here on in), you have a clean slate to work from (right). Along the top are buttons to let full circle magazine #90

STARTING A STUDIO
I’m planning to broadcast a single window with some audio and text. So, first things first, let’s add the window as an input.

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HOWTO - BROADCASTING WITH WEBCAMSTUDIO
Click the Desktop input: You’ll see a Desktop window appear in your Sources panel, and tabs in your Properties panel. The desktop window has a couple of options along the top (more settings, refresh, etc.) but we want to click the last icon to make sure this desktop input is using Gstreamer: full desktop, or part of a desktop, but you won’t be able to select a single window which is a handy feature as – even if you move something over the chosen window – only the contents of the chosen window are shown. The GStreamer output will let you check the ‘Enable Single Window Capture’ in the Desktop tab in Properties:

the preview looks OK, that’s the main thing. Let’s preview this in VLC. Click the SkyCam button in the Output panel. This will ask for your password, it’s to set up a virtual webcam. Next, click the WSVideoDevice button:

I’m going to choose my Home window that I’ve got open. Before doing a test, let’s set a few things. Click the Mixer tab in the left panel and set the width and height to what you’d like to output. I’m going to choose 800 x 560. When you’ve done that you must click the Apply/Reset button. Why choose GStreamer? Well, if you don’t you can still broadcast a Now click the blue PLAY button in your desktop output. full circle magazine #90

You may want to tweak the width/height in the desktop output Whatever I do inside my Home window too, but you’ll see a preview of your final output in the folder (scroll up/down, open a top left of the WCS window. Don’t folder, etc.) will be broadcast to VLC from WCS. worry that your desktop output looks a bit squished up. As long as

It may not seem like it, but you now have a virtual webcam running. To check this, load up VLC and, in the menu, go to Media > Open Capture Device. Where it says ‘Video device name’ click the drop down menu to choose the /dev/video0 and click Play.

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HOWTO - BROADCASTING WITH WEBCAMSTUDIO LET THERE B E SOUND
Adding sound is a similar procedure. You click the Audio input:

WHAT’S THE SONG ?
Now you know that someone is going to ask what the song is that’s playing.Let’s show them the name with some overlaid text. Click the Text input:

Your audio input window will appear, but it needs tweaking like the desktop one did. Click the Audio Source icon and select your audio source:

going to play an audio file and click PLAY on my audio input (above). Click PLAY on the audio input and a curious thing happens. Your preview will black out. This is because the audio input (with no video) is equal with the video. You need to change the Layer setting for the desktop output to 1 . It’s at the bottom of the desktop output window. Now your video is playing above the audio input. I’ve set my audio input to broadcast whatever my computer is playing, so I’m

To have your audio as part of the output, don’t forget to click the ‘Audio Output’ button in the Voila! Video and audio from two Output panel on the right. different sources in one output. You can drag the white on black Checking the audio (live) in VLC speaker icon to raise/lower the is a bit tricky, but check it using the volume. The green bars will Record button (in the Output raise/lower with your audio to let panel). It will prompt you for a you know the audio is actually location and name. You can then being input. To save on CPU usage, stop the audio and play the you can click the X beside the PLAY recorded video to make sure it has button to disable the waveform recorded the audio. from being created. full circle magazine #90

This is a big input window which lets you enter text to display, change the X/Y coordinates of where the text should display, how big the text should be (width/height) and the font and color. Remember though, like the audio input, you’ll need to change the Layer setting to 2 this time as it

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needs to be above the video.

HOWTO - BROADCASTING WITH WEBCAMSTUDIO

And there you have it. Three separate input sources in one virtual webcam output (right). There’s a lot more you can do with WCS. You can apply video effects to your input; have your text flash or wobble around the screen; add animations to your output; tweak the Opacity to have things faded on top of one another. Lots, lots more. Click your input window then check the FX/GSFX tabs for effects. Keep an eye on your layers though. If something doesn’t show initially it might need a higher Layer setting.

EXTRA! EXTRA! READ ALL ABOUT IT!
Our glorious news reporters are now posting regular news updates to the main Full Circle site. Click the NEWS link, in the site menu at the top of the page, and you'll see the news headlines. Alternatively, look on the right side of any page on the site, and you'll see the five latest news posts. Feel free to discuss the news items. It's maybe something that can spill back from the site into the magazine. Enjoy!

Ronnie is the founder and (still!)

editor of Full Circle. He's a part-time arts and crafts sort of guy, and now an Arduino tinkerer.

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U

Written by Mark Crutch

H O W-TO
“unset”. The quickest way to unset the fill or stroke is to right-click on the relevant swatch in the status bar at the bottom of the Inkscape window. Towards the bottom of the context menu will be an option for “Unset fill” or “Unset stroke”. Select this item and the corresponding color swatch will be replaced with the word “Unset”. You can also unset the fill or stroke using the “?” button in the relevant tab of the Fill and Stroke dialog.

I n ks c a p e - P a rt 3 0 or stroke on your object has side the clone itself. effects. An unset fill is rendered in black which is often bad enough, but an unset stroke doesn't render at all which can be disastrous if the object you want to clone is all stroke and no fill – making it effectively disappear from the screen! Because strokes are trickier to illustrate (an invisible object doesn't make for a great screenshot), we'll start by just considering unset fills, and come The yellow clone has inherited back to strokes later in the article. its shape, size and stroke from the parent object, but carries its own As a demonstration I've drawn fill color. We can extend this two identical circles, then unset further by creating additional the fill in the bottom one. You can clones from that one parent and easily spot it because the fill has giving each of them their own been drawn as solid black. It's color. important to note that “black” and “unset” are not the same thing, though, even if they appear that way on screen. Next, I've cloned each circle, then set the fill color for each clone to yellow. As you can see, the top clone ignores the fill that's been set, just like all the clones we looked at previously. The bottom clone, on the other hand, has replaced the black “unset” fill with the color that's been set on

sing clones makes it easy to create identical copies of objects or groups in your image. As we saw last time, breaking your groups down into smaller chunks to clone lets you add a little variety, and you can always draw extra objects on top of your clones to further distinguish them. But you can't make significant changes to a clone – altering the shape of a path, for example – without first converting it to a normal copy. Although you can't make significant changes to clones, they're not entirely inert either. I've already shown how they can be rotated, flipped, scaled and skewed independently of their parent objects. But there's one other little trick in the clones' arsenal which requires a bit of effort to set up, but can be well worth it for some situations: clones can change their fill and stroke separately from their parents. You can't just take any old clone and give it a new fill and stroke, though. Instead, the parent object has to have its fill and/or stroke

Unfortunately, unsetting the fill full circle magazine #90

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HOWTO - INKSCAPE
When dealing with something as simple as a circle, there's probably no real benefit in creating clones like this compared with simply duplicating the parent and changing the fill. But the parent object is rarely as simple as a circle, and these clones can still also be rotated, flipped, scaled and skewed independently. Furthermore, the fills don't have to be simple colors: you can use patterns and linear or radial gradients, too. Admittedly the Inkscape UI struggles a little with anything other than simple colors as the gradient editing handles tend to appear out of place, and the pattern scaling handles don't appear at all – but SVG itself allows for all these possibilities. Taking our previous example, let's mix it up a little to demonstrate some of these capabilities. First I've converted the parent circle to a path, then tweaked its nodes to give a more interesting shape. Then I've squashed, skewed and rotated some of the clones, and given others different fills or transparency. They're all still clones – a change to the parent path will affect them all – but combining transformations with an unset fill lets them each take on a distinctly different appearance.

different colored T-shirt. In this example, I've cloned a group of five objects – four shapes inside a larger rounded square. The circle and triangle have their fills unset, whereas the star and square have them set to specific colors. You can see that in each clone the shapes with the fixed colors appear the same as the parent, but those with the fill unset use the color that's set on the clone itself.

If you really want to get extra colors into your clones, there are ways to do it by being underhanded and devious. One approach is to stack identical clones on top of each other, each In the previous article, I was set to a different fill color, then use extolling the virtues of cloning clipping paths to only show the groups rather than single objects, relevant parts of each clone. so you'll be pleased to hear that Another technique I've used in the you can use unset fills in cloned past is to create a filter in the groups as well. Any objects within parent that “rotates” the color of your group that have their fill unset one of the unset objects – more on will be given the clone's color, that when we get onto filters later whereas other objects will be You'll notice that both the circle in this series. For this example, cloned as normal, inheriting their however, I kept it simple: I and the triangle take on the same fill from the parent. This ability to managed to use two colors in the color in each clone. One major mix normal and unset fills within unset objects by using a linear the parent can be very useful if you limitation of this approach is that gradient as the fill. By creating a SVG considers all unset fills in a require a few similar copies with couple of extra stops in the clone to be identical. There's no just part of the design changing gradient and setting them to the way to apply two colors to your color with each clone – consider clone and have one affect the circle same colors as the start and end creating some characters for a points, I created gradients like this, whilst the other affects the crowd scene, each of which has a to allow me to fake the appearance triangle. Or is there...? full circle magazine #90 23 contents ^

HOWTO - INKSCAPE

of having two separate fill colors.

The second rule is not to panic if you do lose track of your object. Just use the View > Display Mode > Outline menu to switch to a mode where even the most invisible of Inkscape objects appears as a skeletal outline. Even in this mode you can still select and manipulate your objects, and they will remain selected when you switch back to another display mode. With an unset stroke in your parent object or group, you can now set not only the stroke color (or pattern, or gradient) on each clone, but also its width, join style, end caps and dashes. In fact, at a minimum you have to set the color and width if you want the stroke to

be visible. Unfortunately, you can't set markers on a per-clone basis – if you want arrows or chevrons marking the nodes of your path, they have to be set on the parent object. With unset strokes, you now have another method of getting an extra color into your clones. With a little lateral thinking, you can even usurp the stroke to provide a second fill color, if that suits your needs better. In this final example, I've used an unset fill on the left hand shape, that's clear enough. But where is the right hand shape coming from?

in this case – effectively creating a 40px wide rectangle. Then I used a path to clip that “rectangle” to the shape I wanted, before finally unsetting the stroke. On each clone I have to only set the stroke to the color I want, with a 40px width, and my second “filled shape” appears. You can also perform a similar trick using masks, which can be particularly useful for faking a gradient in your clones. The ability to use different fills and strokes on clones can make them extremely versatile, at the expense of leaving you with black areas or invisible lines in your parent object. Being able to set only two “parameters” on each clone can be limiting, but hopefully you've seen how, with a little lateral thinking, the use of masks, gradients, clipping and filters can let you break that restriction to some degree.

At the start of the article I did promise to come back to unset strokes. Whereas an unset fill is rendered in black, making it easy to see and work with, an unset fill is also rendered in black, but with a width of zero! If your object has a fill – even an unset one – it will still be visible on screen. But, if you unset the stroke of an object with no fill, it will disappear from view entirely. For this reason my first rule of working with unset strokes is to unset them as the last step. Work with a colored stroke while you're creating your parent object or group, and unset it only at the last minute.

full circle magazine #90

You've probably already guessed that there's an unset stroke involved, but how does that turn into a shaped fill in the clones? The trick was to draw a single vertical line in the parent and give it a really large width value – 40px

Mark uses Inkscape to create three webcomics, 'The Greys', 'Monsters, Inked' and 'Elvie', which can all be found at http://www.peppertop.com/

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Written by Ronnie Tucker

H O W-TO

Ard u i n o reach. So, with the laser on, I place an obstruction to the beam and the LDR registers the loss of the laser. Next time we meet, we’ll (hopefully!) have a working laser tripwire alarm… Code: http://pastebin.com/AjFDajHm

ast month, our circuit could determine whether a code entered via keypad was right or wrong. This month, I’ve added to it using a simple IF/ELSE statement to do one of two things. I’ve added an LED and an integer called ‘armed’. Initially ‘armed’ equals zero, and armedLed equals A0. I’m now having to tweak the rules to use the analog pins for digital components as I’m quickly running out of pins all together! The main crux of this ‘armed’ change is the IF/ELSE command that’s embedded in the existing IF/ELSE command in the guessPassword() section of the code. Basically here’s what’s happening: if the password is correct and armed=0 (in other words: the system is off) then it will clear the screen, display ARMED!, change armed to equal 1 , and light the red LED. Finally it will display “Code to disarm:”. Otherwise, armed must equal 1 (system is on) so display DISARMED!, make armed=0, and display “Code to arm:”.

I have to admit to my faults and I spent hours trying to figure out why my IF/ELSE wasn’t working properly. Rookie mistake: I forgot to use == in the IF statement.

To test that the LDR is actually registering anything, you’ll notice that I’ve reintroduced the serial code (again, using 9600 baud rate). In the main loop, I have the code do an analog read from pin A1 and After getting success with print the result to the IDE serial armed/disarmed, I went and dug window. In other words, the out one of my 37-in-1 sensors and a number that the LDR is returning photoresistor (a Light Dependent via its analog pin. With no laser and Resistor, LDR for short). The LDR at room lighting, the serial window goes to A1 with a 220 ohm resistor shows a stream of numbers on one leg and taking its other leg averaging 400-450. When I cover to ground. The laser sensor goes to the LDR, it drops to as low as 1 00the positive LED leg and to ground. 1 50. With the laser on, and pointing Now, when the system is armed, directly at the LDR, the serial the laser flicks on and is made to output shoots up to a touch over point at the LDR. 1 ,000. Almost the maximum it can

Are there any similar projects you’d like me to try? Drop me an email at: ronnie@fullcirclemagazine.org. Remember: I’m a beginner, don’t ask me to design the next NASA rover!

Ronnie is the founder and (still!)

editor of Full Circle. He's a part-time arts and crafts sort of guy, and now an Arduino tinkerer.

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H O W-TO

W ri t e F o r F u l l C i rc l e M a g a z i n e
REVIEWS G AMES/APPLICATIONS
• • • • • • •

T

G UIDELINES he single rule for an article is that it must somehow be

document. • Images should be JPG, no wider than 800 pixels, and use low compression.

linked to Ubuntu or one of the many derivatives of Ubuntu (Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Lubuntu, etc). • Do not use tables or any type of bold or italic formatting.

When reviewing games/applications please state clearly: title of the game who makes the game is it free, or a paid download? where to get it from (give download/homepage URL) is it Linux native, or did you use Wine? your marks out of five a summary with positive and negative points

RULES

• There is no word limit for articles, but be advised that long articles may be split across several issues. • For advice, please refer to the

If you are writing a review, please follow these guidelines : When you are ready to submit your article please email it to: articles@fullcirclemagazine.org

Official Full Circle Style Guide :

H ARDWARE
• • • • • • •

http://url.fullcirclemagazine.org/75 d471 • Write your article in whichever software you choose, I would recommend LibreOffice, but most importantly - PLEASE SPELL AND

When reviewing hardware please state clearly: make and model of the hardware what category would you put this hardware into? any glitches that you may have had while using the hardware? easy to get the hardware working in Linux? did you have to use Windows drivers? marks out of five a summary with positive and negative points

TRANSLATIONS
If you would like to translate Full Circle into your native language please send an email to ronnie@fullcirclemagazine.org and we will either put you in touch with an existing team, or give you access to the raw text to translate from. With a completed PDF, you will be able to upload your file to the main Full Circle site. full circle magazine #90

GRAMMAR CHECK IT!

• In your article, please indicate where you would like a particular image to be placed by indicating the image name in a new paragraph or by embedding the image in the ODT (Open Office)

You don't need to be an expert to write an article - write about the games, applications and hardware that you use every day.
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Written by Alan Ward

L I N U X L AB code directories and the files contained within, we can find a series of files whose purpose we can quickly understand. Files with extension .c are clearly source code files in the C programming language, and those with extension .h are header files for the same code. In part 2 of this series, we also learned that the Makefile we find in each directory and subdirectory is a file that gives the compiler instructions on how to compile the source code: which source files to compile, how the output files are to be named, and what compiler parameters are to be appended. When we peruse each Makefile, we can see that the file in each directory refers only to the source code placed in that directory. This means there is a separation between the different parts of the kernel source tree: each directory or subdirectory may be compiled independently. When we come to the concept of kernel modules, we will see this means we will be able to compile just a single module at a time, without having to compile full circle magazine #90

C o m p i l i n g A Ke rn e l - P a rt 3 the entire kernel if it is not necessary. But what about the Kconfig files we can also find in each directory? The Kconfig files are instruction files targeted at the kernel configuration system. The Linux kernel is a very large piece of code. In fact, it hit 1 5 million lines of code back in 201 1 (see http://arstechnica.com/business/2 01 2/04/linux-kernel-in-201 1 -1 5million-total-lines-of-code-andmicrosoft-is-a-top-contributor/) and 1 7 million lines in June 201 3 version 3.1 0 (http://www.extremetech.com/co mputing/1 7591 9-who-actuallydevelops-linux-the-answer-mightsurprise-you). These two references are quite interesting, by the way, since both address the question of who contributes to the kernel source code. With such a behemoth to compile, we will need some sort of automated configuration system. This is where the Kconfig files come in, giving instructions on which options are available in each directory, and helping create a giant kernel configuration script. For example, in source directory security/selinux, the Kconfig file contains the stanza: config SECURITY_SELINUX_BOOTPARAM bool "NSA SELinux boot parameter" depends on SECURITY_SELINUX default n help This option adds a kernel parameter 'selinux', which allows SELinux to be disabled at boot. If this option is selected, SELinux functionality can be disabled with selinux=0 on the kernel command line. The purpose of this option is to allow a single kernel image to be distributed with SELinux built in, but not necessarily enabled. If you are unsure how to answer this question, answer N.

n the first part of this series, we saw what the Linux kernel is, and in the second chapter we saw the various ways of obtaining the source code and the other pieces we need to compile it. Now that we have all the bits and required pieces, in this third part we are about ready for the main course: configuring, compiling and installing the kernel. In this part, I will be using specifically the version of the kernel source code from the Ubuntu repositories. There will be few differences if the reader should choose to use the version downloaded directly from the Kernel.org project. One reason to do so would be to work on the most recent kernel version – or even, if we are feeling really adventurous, on a release candidate for the next version.

THE KERNEL CONFIGURATION SYSTEM
If we take a look at the source

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LINUX LAB

which the new kernel can be configured to accept or not the “selinux” boot parameter that allows the Security Enhanced Linux kernel module (SELinux) to be deactivated at boot. Naturally, this is not a very good idea on a production system, which is why the default option is “n” - for “no”. In file net/ipv6/Kconfig, we find a more complex example: config INET6_TUNNEL tristate default n config IPV6_TUNNEL tristate "IPv6: IP-in-IPv6 tunnel (RFC2473)" select INET6_TUNNEL ---help--Support for IPv6-inIPv6 and IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnels described in RFC 2473. If unsure, say N.

• “N” to exclude the module from the new kernel. • “M” to compile the module as a loadable file, that will not be loaded into RAM at boot, but only if required during system operation. The second stanza depends on the presence of the above: if present, the user may configure support for RFC2473 tunnels in either modular or built-in forms. Now, we need to access the configuration script itself. However, before doing so, it is usually recommended to begin by clearing up any leftover configuration. To do so, issue:

$ make mrproper

As discussed in part 2, we have at least four different configuration scripts we can use. Two are based on text environments: “make config” and “make menuconfig”. Two more are based on graphical toolkits: “make xconfig” on the Qt toolkit, and “make gconfig” on the Gtk libraries. Take your choice – as a last resort, all of these scripts rely on the same Kconfig files. In my case, I will be using

since way back when (Slackware days, to be precise). This is what you should see something like the image shown below.

CONFIGURING THE KERNEL

Options within brackets are the boolean choice widget that allow us to activate “[*]” or deactivate “[ ]” a feature. Some choices may be forced upon us by other options we have taken previously, in which case the widget will appear as “-*-”. $ make menuconfig Options within keys correspond to the tristate widget, that allow us to largely because I am activate a feature directly within comfortable with this lightweight the kernel “”, as a loadable environment that I have been using module “” or deactivate the feature “< >”. In this latter case, the feature will not be available at all to the new kernel. Options with the “--->” tail on their description indicate a submenu that can be accessed with the ENTER key. Most navigation keys are indicated on-screen, the only prominent exception being the SPACE key that is quite useful to switch between option values. Most available options will not be immediately of use when

The first stanza concerns the module that allows the kernel to create tunnels through IPv6 address space. The user will, in this case, be shown a tristate option box, that will give several options: • “Y” to compile the module directly into the kernel. It will be included in the vmlinuz file and loaded at system boot, whether used or not. full circle magazine #90

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compiling our first kernel. I would suggest the reader leave the default options on, they are fine for typical use patterns. Instead, I would like to point out several specific features that may be more of interest. The first place I would stop at is the very first option presented in the menu, “64-bit kernel”. It does seem likely that one could compile a 64-bit kernel on a 64-bit platform (computer and operating system), since the appropriate C library functions will be available, and likewise for compiling a 32-bit kernel on a 32-bit system. However, it should also be possible in theory to go a little further in the Linux world, as for UNIX from which it is derived. In these systems, it should be quite possible to perform what is called “crosscompiling”, in which a program destined for one platform is compiled upon another. This holds both for compiling a 64-bit kernel on a 32-bit machine, and the opposite. Unfortunately, in practical terms my experience with the Ubuntu 1 4.04 distribution and kernel source code version 3.1 3.1 1 .2 leads me to say that things are broken and crosscompiled kernels will actually

compile, but will not run on the target computer (the new kernel will not find the init program, even with the appropriate “init=” kernel parameter). So the takeaway for the time being is indeed that we need to compile a 32-bit kernel on a 32-bit operating system, and a 64-bit kernel on a 64-bit computer. At the second option, “General setup”, we have access to several very basic choices for our new kernel. We shall leave most of these alone, except for “Default hostname” and “Arbitrary version signature”. These two options are the ones that stamp each kernel with the information that can be retrieved in the /proc virtual file system. Try this out on your computer, it can do no harm:
$ cat /proc/version_signature Ubuntu 3.13.0-24.47-generic 3.13.9

the “Arbitrary version” option. I have changed these in the screen capture (below), since it is always a GoodIdea ™ to give your kernels an identifying string. This can help understand later on what particular purpose you were compiling a particular kernel for. A version number can also come in useful when a series of kernels are compiled to try to solve a particular problem: they can be used to note and keep track of progress. Let us go back up to the initial menu level, and enter the “Processor type and options”

configuration setting. This is where the heavy lifting starts, and we can fine-tune our new kernel to the hardware we wish to run it on. This section also gives us a feeling for the extreme range of different physical architectures the Linux kernel handles: specific microcode for Intel and AMD range processors, software options such as Linux as a guest virtual machine operating system within Linux itself, etc. If we stop a minute at the “Symmetric multi-processing support” option, this is where we can deactivate multi-processor support within the kernel. Some of

In my case, no hostname is indicated on which the kernel has been compiled, so whoever compiled kernel 3.1 3.0-24 for Linux Mint left the Default hostname option at its default “(none)” value. On the other hand, the “Ubuntu 3.1 3.0-24.47-generic 3.1 3.9” character string is what they had in full circle magazine #90

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us still remember when multiprocessor support was a (paid) extra on a Windows system, even the server variants. In any case, it is standard in the Linux kernel since the 2.0 version series. Though it can be deactivated, this really makes little sense at this point in time. Most current processors contain multiple cores, or at the very least HyperThreading which makes a single core appear to the operating system to contain various logical cores (usually two per physical core). SMP is the subsystem that handles all this. On the other hand, when compiling a kernel for a very limited processor on a machine with very little RAM, it is possible to remove this part of the kernel and release a few tens of kBytes of RAM that otherwise would be occupied.

Going down to the “Processor family” sub-menu, we are given the choice of a specific family of processors to compile for. If we have chosen to compile a 64-bit kernel, the choice is between the original Opteron/Athlon family, the older and newer Intel Xeon families, the 64-bit Intel Atom, and finally a default “Generic-x64-64” option. This latter is the most conservative choice, and possibly the best if our new kernel may eventually get executed on more than one computer. If we have chosen to compile a 32-bit kernel, the range of options is rather more vast, reflecting the evolution of the IA-32 processors over the years. The very early i386 has now been removed, and choices start at the i486, going on

up through the various generations of 32-bit Pentium I, II, III and IV processors, several variants by AMD and other brands, ending up with the Intel Core 2 and 32-bit Intel Atom. As a general policy, it is perhaps best to aim lower rather than higher, since more recent processors will usually have backward-compatibility with older offerings. Nowadays, compiling a kernel with the “PentiumIII/Celeron/Pentium-III Xeon” is probably a reasonable choice for most use cases (below left).

Pentium III had this deactivated within the hardware, so a kernel that has PAE activated cannot work on these processors. In order to compile a kernel with PAE deactivated, in the first place it must be a 32-bit kernel: 64-bit versions always contain a mechanism similar to PAE since these processors are built to handle more than 4GBytes of memory – this is one of the advantages of using numbers with more bits in your architecture.

When you have chosen the 32As mentioned in the first part of bit kernel option, navigate to this series, there has been some “Processor type and features”, and talk about the recent move by towards the last third of the list some distributions to include the there is an option called “High Physical Address Extension (PAE) Memory Support” (shown below feature by default in default right). This needs to be activated in kernels. Some versions of the order to access the full contents of

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a 4 GByte RAM memory, or to go further up to 64 GBytes. If the 64 GByte option is on, the PAE option will be inserted into the menu a bit lower down. If the High Memory Support is either off (use up to 3 GBytes of RAM) or at the 4 GByte choice, PAE should be automatically deactivated. Finally, if you wish to examine and/or configure the additional drivers contributed by Canonical to the kernel source, navigate back to the main menu and you will find a separate “Ubuntu Supplied Third Party Drivers” sub-menu (shown below) that contains some of their input. Naturally, this is included

only with the version of the kernel To start this quite lengthy code from the Ubuntu repositories. process, issue the command:
$ make When you are satisfied with your choices, exit the configuration and the default Makefile target menu, saving the configuration in of compiling the kernel will be the default file .config . executed. Initially, this command only the COMPILING THE NEW compiled in recent kernel proper, however versions of the KERNEL kernel source both the kernel and its modules are compiled and Compiling the kernel has two updated. different stages: compiling the kernel itself, and compiling the Be prepared for the processor loadable modules – though this to work quite hard and for an second part is performed only if extended period of time. It is the option for modules has been important to make sure ventilation activated, as it usually is. is adequate since the computer will tend to heat up (this is best done on a desktop machine, if at all possible), and will consume power liberally – so plug it in if running off the battery! On a dual-core Intel Core i5, the complete compilation process took about two hours: real 126m0.103s user 117m35.622s sys 13m31.106s

those parts that have changed. If our alteration affects only the kernel proper, all modules will need to be checked, but not compiled. Many subsystems of the kernel itself will not need to be recompiled – whole directories of the source code will be left unchanged. Compilation time will be significantly reduced, for example: real 5m51.928s user 2m19.265s sys 0m27.180s

On the other hand, if a modification has been made in one of the modules, we can specify that just the modules need to be checked for alterations and compiled if needed, and not the kernel itself. This is managed with command:
$ make modules

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If we make a change in the kernel configuration, such as changing the Arbitrary version character string as above, executing a new compilation process will need to compile only

and can considerably shorten compilation time, depending on the number of modules changed and the importance of these changes. For example, on my system: real 2m42.214s user 1m29.390s sys 0m16.867s contents ^

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LINUX LAB INSTALLING THE KERNEL
Once the kernel and modules have been compiled, they can be found in the very same subdirectories as the source files. For example, in the mm (memory management) subdirectory, you will find both memory pool routines source in mm/mempool.c, and the compiled object file mm/mempool.o . Once each source file has been compiled into an object, they must be linked together into an executable file for the kernel, and transformed into loadable module files for each module. The kernel itself is file vmlinux in the tree root, and should weigh in at about 1 58 MBytes. This file will need to be compressed and placed in directory /boot. Once compressed using gzip, bzip or LZMA, the kernel size can go down to the 5-6 MBytes that can be expected of Linux kernel files. As for the drivers, their compiled and linked loadable module files have extension .ko

(“kernel object”), and are distributed around the source tree side-by-side with the .c and .o files. For example, the IPv6 tunnel module will be found in compiled and linked form as net/ipv6/ip6_tunnel.ko. In order to execute our new kernel, we will need to perform four distinct actions: • The modules must be separated from the source files, and copied into directory /lib/modules//kernel. • The kernel itself must be compressed, and the compressed file placed in /boot. • The modules must also be integrated into an initrd (initial file system) compressed file, also placed in /boot. • We must also update the GRUB bootloader configuration so as to include the new kernel in the boot options. Luckily, there is a specific make target available to do all this automatically. Since we will be making changes in the system configuration, we will need to do it with administrator privileges – thus the “sudo” command. It is also the time when we can seriously break full circle magazine #90

things in our system, so proceed with caution and only when satisfied the previous steps have taken place correctly. Then, to install the modules in /lib (step 1 above), issue:
$ sudo bash # make modules_install

a table of the symbols in the kernel, and their corresponding positions in memory; • initrd.img-3.1 3.1 1 .2: the compressed file system (with modules generated from /lib) needed to perform initial system boot.

You will see each .ko file pass by NEW KERNEL on screen as it is copied over. Now, we are ready to do the kernel itself. Since the automatic install Issue: process has taken care of the GRUB configuration for us, all we have to # make install do now is reboot our computer. In and the script will perform steps the GRUB menu, the first entry we 2, 3 and 4 all together for you. You find is simply labeled “Ubuntu”, and this is the one corresponding to will now see the output of the our new kernel. At least one other GRUB configuration tool grubentry will be found underneath, mkconfig on screen, and in labeled “Ubuntu 1 4.04 LTS” or directory /boot the new files will similar. This is the older kernel, still make their appearance: • vmlinuz-3.1 3.1 1 .2 (or similar): the available as a backup just in case the new kernel does not work as compressed kernel; • System.map-3.1 3.1 1 .2 (or similar): expected.

TRYING OUT YOUR

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Boot into the new kernel -just hit ENTER- and hopefully the system should come up. In fact, it should be rather difficult to note that the new kernel is being used. However, if we open a terminal and use the uname command, we should see the description and compile date of our new kernel:
$ uname -a Linux alan-lenovo 3.13.11.2 #5 SMP Sat Jul 19 21:32:47 CEST 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

memory usage? In the next part of this series, we will be looking into how to make some changes and apply simple tweaks to our kernel, and how they affect system performance.

This information can also be found by listing file /proc/version , while /proc/version_signature contains the free-form “Arbitrary version” character string we entered during configuration:
$ cat /proc/version_signature Ubuntu 3.13.0-24.47-genericalan

If you have managed to follow us so far, congratulations! What you have just achieved is quite difficult - or nearly impossible for mortal humans - with most current operating systems. Now, have some fun and try out your new kernel. How does it compare with the old one? What about speed and

Alan teaches computer science at

Escola Andorrana de Batxillerat (high-school). He has previously given GNU/Linux courses at the University of Andorra and GNU/Linux systems administration at the Open University of Catalunya (UOC).

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HTTP://BIT.LY/1 RG1 QDE
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Written by Ronnie Tucker

R E VI E W

A

M E G As yn c
Assuming you did a default install then you’ll also see a new folder in your home directory, it’s called MEGAsync. Anything you put/save in this folder will automatically be uploaded to your MEGA cloud space. This folder acts just like Dropbox currently does. And, like Dropbox, you can access your files via the web interface. In the web interface, you can upload/download files and the MEGAsync folder will update accordingly. You can also use their Chrome/Firefox plugins, or their mobile apps, to access your space. Credit where it’s due. Dotcom and his crew have certainly put a lot of work into this. There aren’t many other hosting sites offering 50GB for free (with, of course, upgrade options), mobile/browser apps, a slick interface, and a pretty damn secure hosting service. Dotcom has regularly paid out bounty awards for people spotting bugs/vulnerabilities (http://mega.co.nz/#blog_1 9). My only criticism of MEGA is the lack of a timed update. My Internet upload speed is pretty dire, so I’d prefer my folder(s) to sync at 4am when I’m sleeping. I’m hoping that’ll be a feature in a future update. So, this just leaves you, Google, to give us a Linux client for Google Drive. Hello? Are you listening?

fter the notorious Megaupload was disbanded its founder, Kim Dotcom, founded MEGA. MEGA is a cloud hosting site which offers users a whopping 50GB of space for free. They’ve always said there’d be a Linux client, and now there is. Heading over to http://mega.co.nz/#sync you’ll be greeted with a choice of several Linux distros (both 32 and 64-bit) and a download button.

You’ll need to sign up for a free account on the site too. You’ll use these login details when installing MEGA. During the install you’ll also get to choose where to put your main MEGAsync directory (in /home/username by default) and if there are any other directories you want to keep sync’d to the cloud. Once it’s installed you’ll see, in your taskbar, a red circle with a white M in it. Clicking that gives you some basic stats on your MEGA account.

For Ubuntu (and variants) you’ll download a DEB file which you can double click to install as normal. full circle magazine #90

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Written by AURO KUMAR SAHOO

M Y S TO RY

am a very basic user and just migrated from Windows completely. My first encounter with Linux was in my office where I saw the servers were running on some other OS. When asked what it was, the reply was Red Hat Linux, and they told me it was mostly for IT and Computer people, and it had less support for multimedia – compared to Windows or Mac which support Adobe, Corel, and like programs. I am a Cinematographer who graduated from a Govt. Film school with in-depth knowledge on celluloid, chemical processing, and studying optics. When I entered industry in Odisha, India; I noted that it is slowly transforming to digital, and one part of my country (Mumbai) is almost digitized as far as multimedia creation is concerned. As a struggling cameraman, I came to Mumbai, and my surroundings were all digital, so slowly I started exploring digital

things, and, after 4 to 5 years, I’ve gained extensive knowledge in handling an OS (here Windows XP), re-installing it, installing programs like Adobe, Corel, etc, and understanding cleaning an OS, and maintaining system like defragmentation, cleanup, etc. During my self-gained knowledge (thanks to WWW and Google), I destroyed much of my data, many times. I install and uninstall programs, even OS, but I know only the very basics of computing by the way. Then I was gifted with a Laptop which had windows XP preinstalled, and I used it, but I was frustrated with its start up, slow processing, hanging and virus problems. These lead me to search for another OS which would be more stable, and which I could use for home computing like processing a word file, creating some presentations, viewing photos and videos, and listening to music. Truly speaking, I am unable to buy a Mac as it’s much costlier, so my Google search leads me to full circle magazine #90

Ubuntu. I had also seen it previously on my sister’s PC, but never thought of it, as when I asked what it was, she replied that she was doing programming for her engineering on it. So my impression was that it is an OS for programmers and advance system engineers or computer personnel, but not for basic users.

Then, after a year, when I asked a colleague, who is an IT professional, about a substitute OS, and explained my requirements, he suggested to me on an afternoon tea that Ubuntu would meet my needs as a home PC, and it does everything, and it’s free. It was December 201 3, and on I have spent much time in Windows sites, they were learning it – at home I read your constantly advising to upgrade XP PDFs all the time, like preparing for to 7 or 8 before April 201 4. exams. And I’ve spent much money (in India, internet is slow, and data I upgraded, but to Ubuntu plans are costly too and cloud 1 2.04. I went through their computing is still a nightmare, website, read how to install and except in big cities) – I have use the software center, etc. upgraded my XP with it, but I am happy because I now have the Now my 1 0 years previous era freedom of choice.

reappeared. As an experimenting guy, I started exploring it, and as a very new user and basic user, who never used even MS DOS, you can’t imagine what happened to me. When reading different articles, I didn’t understand it when they were writing about sudo, or get apt, etc. One day, in the software center, I found Full Circle Magazine (its 80th), and then I download all from zero to 79 and read them from the start. I got an introduction to Linux, and learned many more things, and about available distros. I downloaded Bodhi Linux, Kubuntu, LXDE, Lubuntu, Pinguy OS, Crunch bang and Ubuntu studio, and explored them all.

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MY STORY
I am installing a new Linux distro every 1 or 2 weeks for my own satisfaction, and I am now 2 months with Linux and more than a month with FCM. I am happy to choose and get programs to substitute for Windows for my home computing (I’m not yet prepared to suggest its use it in the office as I am still exploring the power of Linux), and I’m even creating home multimedia, even some level of professional multimedia creation is possible – with Ubuntu Studio. I have also posted some suggestions to Ubuntu and Canonical on their mail, and I want to suggest them to you too, and I’m hoping for some articles considering my knowledge is 0.1 % and mostly in Graphical representation as I am a very new user. 1 . Can we make Ubuntu more GUI than command-line, as I think a person having zero knowledge can start using Windows even without community support, and you can consider Android also. People using smartphones even don't know it is an OS, they just use it. They download apps from the

store, edit photos, share videos, etc.

was introduced. My suggestion is: can Ubuntu be installed with different desktop environments, So, personally I think Ubuntu and the user can then select one should be more user friendly rather during login – like (s)he can now do than as it is today. Just install it and with 2D & 3D Unity. use it. 4. I understand the differences 2. As everyone doesn't have between Deb and exe. Deb has internet, or may have only a slow many dependencies but can we internet, and as Ubuntu is only less make a package and when clicked than 1 GB (with much free space on the link, it offers to save or left over), you should add some install. So one can save the additional software's like Gimp, download files and can distribute Inkscape, VLC, to applications in them, or install them in offline the repository. Because I saw system. We should make available people install them and then applications in ISO files so one can removed them because they can't download all ISOs and write them play a mp4, or some image and to DVDs and make an offline audio files. repository easily. I also suggest that although there are many My suggestion is: can we add solutions like aptoncd, but there some more applications as we have should be programs like application space in a DVD. If there’s a problem backup, super backup, etc, like in in some countries, then we can the Android sector that saves make different distribution ISOs Android apps like Angry Birds, for USA, China, UK, India, etc. Gmail, Temple Run, etc.

6. I know many of my suggestions have answers, but I want Ubuntu to be more user friendly – even for those who migrated from another OS, or for a new one to Ubuntu or computers – without a fear of the commandline. Let the OS do most of its work through a GUI. 7. The last line I may suggest: can Ubuntu give users freedom to make one’s own OS; in a browser, ask what kernel they want, what software should be included, what desktop environment is needed. It will be then called Linux for freedom, or MY LINUX. Now, some personal problems; can you send it to the right person on my behalf, and help me please?

I am still confused on which distro to use; some say Debian is best, some say it needs skill and knowledge; some say Ubuntu as it is community driven, and some say As an example, openSUSE has 5. One of my strong suggestions it’s now gone its own way rather additional packages and languages is that as Ubuntu is a community than what users want and in ISO form to be downloaded for driven system, it should use collaborated with. Some say Mint systems which have no internet opinion polls during its release, at and other distros. As I told you connection. least for LTS, to establish what before, I have tried many distros, users want, what programs to be Ubuntu Studio I liked (as a 3. Many people migrated from included or removed. cameraman), Mint also I liked (now Ubuntu to other distros when Unity I am on Mint 1 6 and it’s fully full circle magazine #90 38 contents ^

MY STORY

loaded). Pinguy is also very feature loaded. I am now confused. When I first used Ubuntu, and when reading your previous articles and looking at my desktop, I got a different feeling, and I now think that Ubuntu has fixed itself on Unity. When I tried Mint, I got much more freedom to customize. I am confused which one to use, which is more stable. Ubuntu requires extra work after installatio, such as getting an image editor like GIMP, Raw, Darktable; a video editor like Pitivi, a software manager like Synaptic and Gdeb, or a video player like VLC, and Java, Flash, and multimedia codecs. MINT is mostly loaded and customisable. But Ubuntu is the parent on which Mint is based. I am confused, Ubuntu is less than a GB and it has much free space, then why don’t they provide other user interfaces along with Unity, or some more softwares (like Ubuntu studio)? I am now using a Lenovo B560 laptop and I posted a question in ‘ask’ but didn’t get any reply. I have finger scanner hardware, and it worked with XP but there is nothing in any distro of Linux which detects it. I have one ‘key recovery’

button located just near to the power button, but don't know how to use it with Linux, so some of my laptop’s potential is unused. Which Linux distribution do you prescribe for my Lenovo B560. Specification- Processor: Intel Pentium CPU p6200 @ 2.1 3GHz x 2 Memory: 2.8 GiB I have heard many times that there are Linux viruses in the wild As I am using only Linux Mint and have completely removed Windows, what is your basic security advice? I know you may be protective in making a statement, but should I really use any antivirus or firewall for accessing the internet, and for distributing some files by flash drive which maybe came from a Windows or any other Linux system. If yes, then please advise on some home computing system protection against viruses, worms, etc. How can I backup my applications which I have downloaded, as I am thinking about a fresh installation rather than upgrading, so I have to avoid redownloading these applications? full circle magazine #90

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LE TTE RS

If you would like to submit a letter for publication, compliment or complaint, please email it to: letters@fullcirclemagazine.org . PLEASE NOTE: some letters may be edited for space.

Join us on: goo.gl/FRTMl I

WEBMIN

am a new reader of Full Circle. I read the article on server install and management.with interest. I noted the use of Putty for remote management. While Putty is useful Webmin for Linux can be for remote shell access (ie, command-line instructions), a more downloaded from www.webmin.com. A cookbook effective solution for day-to-day and manuals are also available. server management is Webmin.

servers, I missed the ease of use of GUIs for management. I felt I had gone back to the 80s and DOS. Then I started to use Webmin for server management; it became easier and more effective.

bought Google Sketchup. That is what brought me back to Windows. I feel dirty everytime I boot up, especially when I pass by Linux and go into Windows to do something Linux could do. And if I get distracted and end up just looking at the internet on Windows, am I really cheating on Linux? Probably. But when I want to get stuff done, I use Linux. If I want to recover erased photos or an accidentally formatted drive, I'm in Photorec on Linux. If I want to make a standalone motion detecting camera out of an old IBM Thinkpad, I use Linux. If I want to upload firmware to my 3D printer, I use Linux. But, to be honest, I feel like it's like cheating on my wife; the mistress does things my wife won't... But I worry about viruses. That's my two cents.

facebook.com/fullcircle magazine twitter.com/#!/fullcirclemag linkedin.com/company/fullcircle-magazine ubuntuforums.org/forum display.php?f=270

What is Webmin?
"Webmin is a web-based interface for system administration for Unix. Using any modern web browser, you can set up user accounts, Apache, DNS, file sharing andmuch more. Webmin removes the needto manually edit Unix configuration files like /etc/passwd, andlets you manage a system from the console or remotely. See the standardmodules page for a list of all the functions built into Webmin, or check out the screenshots."

Once Webmin is installed on your server and set up, it can be accessed by a web browser from anywhere.

FULL CIRCLE N EEDS YOU !
Without reader input Full Circle would be an empty PDF file (which I don't think many people would find particularly interesting). We are always looking for articles, reviews, anything! Even small things like letters and desktop screens help fill the magazine. See the article Writing for Full Circle in this issue to read our basic guidelines. Have a look at the last page of any issue to get the details of where to send your contributions.

Neil

I

CHEATING t's a slippery slope, like smoking or drinking. You finally quit Windows, but little things suck you back in. "Come on man, just one drag… just one drink." You need one program for work, you want iTunes because the company gave you an iPhone. You full circle magazine #90

Peter Liwyj

source: www.webmin.com When I transferred from Novell and Microsoft servers to Ubuntu

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full circle magazine #90

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Compiled by Gord Campbell

Q &A

If you have a Linux question, email it to: misc@fullcirclemagazine.org , and Gord will answer them in a future issue. Please include as much information as you can about your query.

Can the Q Macriumfree version of an Reflect create

A
Q

image of a complete hard drive on a desktop machine running Ubuntu?

been identified, and fixed in versions for other operating systems.

I used Bluefish to Q website; however, create a I'm going

A
Q

A

I'm using an old laptop with an Intel Core 2 duo at 1 .5 GHz (Thanks to John P. at Macrium Have a look at Filezilla, one of with 2 GB of memory and an Intel Support) Yes, providing: several FTP options. 1 ) You boot from the PE rescue CD. GM965/GL960 graphics card, It runs Ubuntu 1 4.04. When using the 2) The system is MBR/GPT Chrome browser to navigate to the partitioned. LVM configurations Chrome Web Store, Ubuntu are not supported. In my effort to enjoy cycling completely freezes for about 1 0 even more and also improve seconds, and then the screen goes fitness, I bought a Garmin Edge blank and the entire system is Touring. Great, all excited and can't 1 00% unresponsive. I am running Ubuntu 1 4.04. wait to download maps and What should I do about reference points. Garmin web site (Thanks to vasa1 in the Ubuntu 1 4.04.1 ? tells me "Garmin does not support Ubuntu Forums.) Please type your OS, only Windows and Apple." chrome://settings in Chrome's Ignore it. It just includes the I despair! address bar and hit enter. Then go updates you have already to the bottom of that page and installed. Garmin Edge Touring is a click on Show Advanced Settings. standalone GPS navigator. It Then go to nearly the bottom of doesn't require a computer to the new page and see if "Use work; it may require a computer to hardware acceleration when Is the Adobe Reader for update its firmware and maps but available" is ticked. If it is, try the Ubuntu up to date? if the manufacturer doesn't Web Store after you untick that provide solutions for Linux then setting and restart Chrome. No, the Linux version of there’s little to nothing anybody Adobe Reader has not been else can do. Use it with a Windows updated since May, 201 3. Since PC for the occasional update you then, several vulnerabilities have might need. full circle magazine #90 42

Q

A
Q

with a third party hosting site. Can I use bluefish to upload and manage my site from their server?

TOP QUESTIONS AT ASKUBUNTU
* How would I speed up a full disk dd? http://goo.gl/In2QXr * How do I find number of NICs in my system? http://goo.gl/mN49HH * Where are my browser passwords stored? http://goo.gl/uBD3Kt * Why do I get "connection refused" errors connecting to a server via SSH? http://goo.gl/IbymB3 * What is the CVE-201 4-6271 bash vulnerability (Shellshock) and how do I fix it? http://goo.gl/ym8j0J * Identify the server I'm working at http://goo.gl/wy3YJz * Why does Ubuntu 1 4.04 keep shutting down when playing video? http://goo.gl/uqEIiO contents ^

A

A

Q&A
* How do I change the GRUB 2 menu? http://goo.gl/2hT2Wk * How to safely remove proprietary Intel driver http://goo.gl/3yaBBo

TIPS AND TECHNIQUES

A

Corporate versus personal computing s my client prepares to move to a new location, I'm seeing how the gap between home computing and corporate computing has become a huge chasm.

are weeks when it is not up to date. applications are email, web browsing and an office suite. My The company is not huge; I client's essential applications bought three, 2 TB hard drives to include Taxprep and Quickbooks, hold the extra backups, and that and a bunch more along the same will be more than enough storage. lines -- and none of them run under At home, there is almost that much Linux. A couple of the applications in various media files, with far include server components, so I fewer people. can't even suggest using Linux on the server. If a computer does not survive the move, we will have a credit card When there's a Quickbooks for at the ready to replace it, and an Linux, we will know that Windows image backup ready to restore. is doomed. When I buy a computer for home use, I agonize for weeks over the configuration.

Full Circle Podcast Episode 41 , Trusted To Fail!!
Welcome to our new format show, there are several changes from the previous format, the most important being we are now recording together at the Blackpool Makerspace in the office. This Episode we Test Ubuntu 1 4.04, Review of Official Ubuntu Server Book. Your hosts: • Les Pounder • Tony Hughes • Oliver Clark from the Blackpool (UK) LUG http://blackpool.lug.org.uk

Expectations are also rather different. If the Internet is not working at home for four hours, it's inconvenient, but we survive. At the office, if the network is down for four hours, all work stops. My Before the actual move, I need boss expects to shut down at the to make sure that all the in-wall old location at noon on a Friday, cables are working properly, that and be fully functional at the new the new server rack is ready to hold location sometime Monday the switches and firewall morning -- well, except for that computer, and that we have as computer that was destroyed in much backup as possible. At home, the move. And if it was the main my router knows about 20 devices, server, we should have the backup but there are no in-wall cables, no running by noon. switches, no dedicated firewall and no equipment rack. I think my The chasm extends to operating backup is pretty good, but there systems. At home, my essential full circle magazine #90

Gord had a long career in the

computer industry, then retired for several years. More recently, he somehow found himself "The IT Guy" at a 1 5-person accounting firm in downtown Toronto.

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H

Written by Oscar Rivera

U B U N T U G AM E S not going to get a polished experience ifyou buy it at the moment. What you will get is early access to a bullfrog-style Prison Management Sim (Simulation) that over 250,000 gamers have already thought is worth a look at.”

P ri s o n Arc h i t e c t now that I've played it? Most definitely. In fact, I considered paying a little extra to have a prisoner look like me by sending in a picture of myself. Unfortunately, by the time I decided to do it, that option had already sold out. However, according to the Introversion Prison Architect website, it's still possible to pay $50 to “Immortalize yourself, by getting a prisoner namedafter you, andsupplying the info for his rapsheet. Your prisoner will be in the final version ofPA, andeveryone will know that *YOU* helpedmake the game a reality.” These are a couple of examples of the added bonuses we get from playing Prison Architect while still an Alpha early-access release. This is not to say that Prison Architect is unplayable and filled with bugs; on the contrary, the game is in fact very smooth and entertaining.

ave you ever been to prison? Have you ever wondered what it's like to work at a prison? Better yet, have you ever had the oddball desire of building your own prison? Regardless, you may want to check out the video game Prison Architect. Prison Architect is a Construction and Management Simulation (CMS) video game released by Introversion Software, and is available for Linux, Windows & Mac OSX. As of September 25th 201 4, the video game Prison Architect is on its 25th Alpha release, although its initial Alpha release was exactly two years earlier in September 25th 201 2. It is currently available through the Introversion Store and through Steam as a Steam Early Access game. According to Introversion Software, Prison Architect is expected to stay Alpha for a long, long time. Here's what the developers had to say, as quoted on the Steam Store page: “Prison Architect is currently in Alpha, which means we haven't finishedit yet - it's full ofbugs andglitches, andyou're

Prison Architect is definitely worth taking a look at, and that's just what I did this month. I got lucky and found Prison Architect as part of the Humble Indie Bundle at the end of September. I ended up paying a third of the $30 price tag because it was part of the Humble Bundle. Would I pay the full $30

SO WHAT EXACTLY IS PRISON ARCHITECT?
The purpose of the game is to build your own for-profit prison from the ground up. You are in complete control of building your prison, which includes laying down the foundations, putting up walls, doors, windows, connecting the utilities, the toilets, the beds, the shower heads, etc. In short, providing everything a prison might need to be able to run itself. Not only must you build the prison, but you're also expected to micromanage the prison's economy, its staff, and the prisoners themselves. So, in a way, you act not only as the main architect but also as the warden (who by the way is the first person you hire). You contents ^

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UBUNTU GAMES

get grants for certain goals which you must accomplish thus enhancing and upgrading your prison while also making a little money. Besides these goals, it's also wise to try and get your prisoners released and rehabilitated enough so as to lower their recidivism rate through the use of programs such as education, workshop training, gardening, drug and alcohol counseling, etc. One thing you definitely don't want is prisoners escaping, getting killed (or killing staff members), having a bankrupt facility, or dealing with a riot (which is very hard to control once it gets going).

I played Prison Architect with my custom made desktop PC consisting of an AMD FX-61 00 All in all, the game is very 3.3GHz CPU, an Asus M5A97-EVO entertaining, and I highly motherboard, a Sapphire Radeon recommend it, as long as you keep HD 5770 graphics card, 8GB of in mind that it's still in Alpha stage. Kingston Hyper X RAM, and a 1 TB The $30 that you spend on the Seagate Barracuda hard drive. The On the Prison Architect bug game now will buy you every single software used was Ubuntu 1 4.04.1 forum, it is mentioned that (at the The game's graphics are nothing update from now on, including the LTS with Unity and AMD 1 4.6 Beta time) there are at least 3,000 bugs to brag about, but, although they official final release. Who knows, Catalyst proprietary graphics tracked so far. Personally, I haven't seem simple from a distance, when by then there might be a character driver. come across any bugs yet in my 40+ you zoom in then you can see some named after you. hours of play so far. Most of what I pretty detailed cartoonish artwork, thought were bugs were actually that can be funny at times, but it's not bugs but rather illogical steps I always informative. There doesn't took that once corrected made for a smooth playing experience. For example, after installing a 2nd Power Station for added Oscar graduated from CSUN, is a electricity, my entire grid was Music Director/Teacher, beta tester, Wikipedia editor, and Ubuntu Forums constantly going off, causing my contributor. You can contact him via: prisoners to quickly escalate to www.gplus.to/7bluehand or email: full-fledged riot because of a lack www.7bluehand@gmail.com of electricity in the entire prison. full circle magazine #90 45 contents ^

The solution is simple: if you install a 2nd power station, you need to make sure to have two separate grids, one for each power station. I didn't know this and simply added the 2nd power station – but kept everything connected in a single grid instead of two – which is what was causing my entire prison to short out after a few seconds. All it took to solve the problem was a little re-wiring so I could keep one power grid per power station instead of a single grid for two power stations. I've run into a couple of other similar problems that, once I followed simple logic, the problems went away almost instantly.

seem to be a soundtrack at all, or, for that matter, any type of background music. The sounds you hear are minimal when looking at the prison from afar, but, much like the graphics, the sound also gets more detailed as you zoom in. For example, when there's a fight going on, you don't really hear anything until you zoom in, then you actually hear the people fighting as well as the other prisoners cheering on.

Minimum System Requirements:

OS: Ubuntu 1 2.04 or later Processor: Intel Core2 Duo 2.4Ghz or Higher / AMD 3Ghz or Higher Memory: 4 GB RAM Graphics: Nvidia 8600 / Radeon equivalent (2009 era) Hard Drive: 1 00 MB HD space

M Y G AMING SETUP

L

Written by Ronnie Tucker

U B U N T U G AM E S by Sandy Barbour and is available from http://www.xpluginsdk.org/python _interface_latest_downloads.htm. What you’ll download is a ZIP file which should be unarchived to your X-Plane plugins folder. I have X-Plane via Steam, so I unarchived the ZIP file to /home/ronnie/.local/share/Steam/S teamApps/common/X-Plane 1 0/Resources/plugins. You may need to show hidden folders to see the .local folder. Your desktop window manager should have an option under View for this. So, if you go into your plugins folder, you should see a folder called PythonInterface.

X- P l a n e 1 0 P l u g i n s
On loading X-Plane, you should now see Python Interface mentioned in the Plugins menu at the top of the screen. (http://github.com/der-On/XPlane-FlightPlanner/wiki/Quickstart-Guide), but here’s the basics. Download the Python file from http://github.com/der-On/XPlane-FlightPlanner/raw/master/python_interf FLIGHT PLANNER ace/PI_flight_planner.py and save/copy it to Plugins > I’m a complete beginner at XPythonScripts (shown bottom left). Plane and flight simulations, so I like to see my position, in real-time, If you don’t have a PythonScripts folder, then you’ll need to make on a map. The site X-Plane Flight one. In that same folder, save/copy Planner is completely free, and the file http://github.com/derexcellent for this. It’s at http://xplane.anzui.de:3000/flight- On/X-Plane-FlightPlanner/raw/master/python_interf planner. Let’s install their Python ace/flight_planner_server.sh and script to use X-Plane outputs to plot our location, in real-time, on a http://github.com/der-On/XPlane-FlightGoogle Maps style map. Planner/raw/master/python_interf The site gives good information ace/flight_planner_server.py. on installing the script

ast month, I reviewed X-Plane 1 0; this month, I thought I’d show how to extend X-Plane using Python and several other scripts. Before doing anything else, you’ll need to install Python. I would recommend installing the package named ‘python’ via your package manager (or a terminal), but be sure to install some version of Python 2.7. As of writing, I have 2.7.5-5ubuntu3 listed in my package manager.

PYTHON I NTERFACE
The Python Interface is written

full circle magazine #90

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UBUNTU GAMES

Now, open a terminal and cd into your PythonScripts folder. Once in there, do:
./flight_planner_server.sh

Planner site (the pink plane beside the big yellow one is me). If I was to move off from there (in X-Plane) and taxi to the runway, you’d see it in real-time in the Flight Planner site.

(shown in the screen capture below). Fly With Lua goes into your Plugins folder, and Real Terra Haze goes inside the Fly With Lua folder.

If there’s interest in more XNow start X-Plane. Once XPlane, then next month I’ll discuss Plane has gone through some of its using the X-Plane Flight Planner loading, you’ll see it start to send site to plan your route; and then Be sure to click the + symbol info in your terminal. and check the ‘follow’ box – so that how to enter it into your flight it centers your plane on the screen. management computer (FMC). To stop the server you can run the file http://github.com/derNow that you’ve got Python On/X-Plane-FlightInterface installed, and you know Planner/raw/master/python_interf how to install a Python script, I ace/flight_planner_server_stop.sh highly recommend (if your machine (again from your PythonScripts can handle it) installing the Fly folder), but I usually just stop the With Lua plugin (http://forums.xserver by pressing CTRL+C in the plane.org/index.php?app=downloa terminal. ds&showfile=1 7468) which extends the scripting abilities of X-Plane. Shown below left I am in XWith it installed, you should install Plane, parked up at Glasgow Real Terra Haze (http://forums.xAirport (EGPH). plane.org/index.php?app=downloa ds&showfile=22387). It will give Below right is the X-Plane Flight you fantastic atmospheric effects

Ronnie is the founder and (still!)

editor of Full Circle. He's also a selftaught (part-time) artist who draws both serious and silly things. His work can be seen at: http://ronnietucker.co.uk.

full circle magazine #90

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M Y D E S KT O P

Your chance to show the world your desktop or PC. Email your screenshots and photos to: misc@fullcirclemagazine.org and include a brief paragraph about your desktop, your PC's specs and any other interesting tidbits about your setup.

I

'm a Linux user and I follow your magazine. This is Lubuntu 1 4.04x86_64 My PC is a notebook HP G62.

Screen: 1 5.6 inch LCD 1 366x768 pixels CPU: AMD Turion 2 P540 (DualCore) full circle magazine #90

GPU: AMD/ATI Radeon HD 4250 RS880 (open driver) RAM: 4 GB DDRIII HD: Sata 500 GB Other OS: Windows 7 ultimate x64

Daniele Spina

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MY DESKTOP

W

anting to show off one of my virtual machines. It's pulling 2 cores and 2GB of ram for the settings. Despite having Unity,

it's not as slow as 1 3.04 and 1 3.1 0 were. Sporting the Numix GTK theme as well as the Numix Circle icon set with a Google Now Conky full circle magazine #90

theme, and a ChromeOS wallpaper. Dual Core CPU 2GB of RAM Ubuntu 1 4.04.1 VirtualBox Don McCollough

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H O W TO CO N TRI B U TE
FULL CIRCLE NEEDS YOU! FCM#89
Deadline :
Sunday 09th Nov. 201 4. Release : Friday 28th Nov. 201 4. A magazine isn't a magazine without articles and Full Circle is no exception. We need your opinions, desktops, stories, how-to's, reviews, and anything else you want to tell your fellow *buntu users. Send your articles to: articles@fullcirclemagazine.org We are always looking for new articles to include in Full Circle. For help and advice please see the Official Full Circle Style Guide : http://url.fullcirclemagazine.org/75d471 Send your comments or Linux experiences to: letters@fullcirclemagazine.org Hardware/software reviews should be sent to: reviews@fullcirclemagazine.org Questions for Q&A should go to: questions@fullcirclemagazine.org Desktop screens should be emailed to: misc@fullcirclemagazine.org ... or you can visit our forum via: fullcirclemagazine.org

Full Circle Team Editor - Ronnie Tucker ronnie@fullcirclemagazine.org Webmaster - Rob Kerfia admin@fullcirclemagazine.org Podcast - Les Pounder & Co. podcast@fullcirclemagazine.org Editing & Proofreading Mike Kennedy, Gord Campbell, Robert Orsino, Josh Hertel, Bert Jerred, Jim Dyer and Emily Gonyer
Our thanks go to Canonical, the many translation teams around the world and Thorsten Wilms for the FCM logo.

Getting Full Circle Magazine:

EPUB Format - Recent editions of Full Circle have a link to the epub file on the downloads page. If you have any problems with the epub file, you can drop an email to: mobile@fullcirclemagazine.org

Issuu - You can read Full Circle online via Issuu: http://issuu.com/fullcirclemagazine. Please share and rate FCM as it helps to spread the word about FCM and Ubuntu Linux.

Google Play - You can now read Full Circle on Google Play/Books. Either search for 'full circle magazine' or click this link: http://play.google.com/store/books/author?id=Ronnie+Tucker

full circle magazine #90

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...Environmental Scan Paper The business environment of an organization reveals much about its competitiveness and the possible influences on the success of its strategies. The focus of this paper will be an environmental scan of the internal and external environments of two real-world firms, their competitive advantages and company strategies for creating value and sustaining competitiveness, measurement guidelines for verifying strategic effectiveness and their evaluation. Internal and External Environments Environmental scanning of the internal organizational environment focuses on company culture, employee-employee, manager-employee, and manager-manager, manager-shareholder interactions, in addition to organizational structure, natural resources’ access and brand awareness, among others (Schneider, 1995, p.70). Environmental scanning of the external organizational environment focuses on the analysis of the industry/immediate environment, national, and macro-environments. Analysis of the industry environment appraises the competitive Environmental Scan Paper The business environment of an organization reveals much about its competitiveness and the possible influences on the success of its strategies. The focus of this paper will be an environmental scan of the internal and external environments of two real-world firms, their competitive advantages and company strategies for creating value and sustaining competitiveness, measurement guidelines for verifying strategic...

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...Research or Interview Paper Instructions You can choose 1 of the following two options for your Research or Interview Paper. Your paper will be 7 double-spaced pages for the main content (not including the cover page and reference page). Your choices include: 1. A research paper Steps for writing the research paper: a) Choose a topic in Managerial Economics. b) Submit the topic and the outline of the paper to the instructor anytime for approval. c) A minimum of 3 references besides the textbook are required. Liberty University library has excellent resources for your search for journals. http://www.liberty.edu/index.cfm?PID=178 OR 2. An interview paper Steps for writing the interview paper: a) Choose a topic in Managerial Economics. b) Design at least 5 questions according to the topic. c) Submit your questions to the instructor for approval. d) Contact a local or non-local company for an interview. e) Conduct the interview for answers to your questions. f) The paper must have 3 parts: • The description of the company; • Interview questions and answers; and • Your comments. *The research paper is to be done individually, not as a group. **Do not wait until the last module/week to work on the paper. Do it as early as possible. ***A paper that was written for other classes would not be accepted......

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...Week 4 Student Name Kaplan University HR420 Employment Law Introduction This is generally one paragraph. The easiest way to explain this section is to think of it like a brief overview of the topics you will be discussing in your paper. The introductory paragraph is designed to set up the rest of the paper by offering your reader a glimpse of what is to come. The goal here is to grab your reader’s attention and make him/her want to read the rest of the paper. Type your paper in the third person (no I, my, we, you, our, your…) Describe a BFOQ and when are they legally permissible? Answer to question #1 with supporting arguments-minimum one paragraph. Your response should be written in your own words, using your own thoughts, ideas, and opinions. Include information from the chapter reading assignment and the case study to help support your points. Be sure to let your reader know where you got your supporting information by including a citation afterward. An example of a citation for your textbook is (Scott, 2008). What is sex-stereotyping? Include examples with your description? Answer to question #2 with supporting arguments-minimum one paragraph. Your response should be written in your own words, using your own thoughts, ideas, and opinions. Include information from the chapter reading assignment and the case study to help support your points. Be sure to let your reader know where you got your......

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