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Paylean in Market Swine

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Paylean® in Market Swine As Joel Salatin once said, “we don’t ask how to make a pig happy, we ask how to grow it faster, fatter, bigger, cheaper, and that’s not a noble goal” (Salatin, 2015). Technology is slowly beginning to take over the world around us and is affecting everything that people do, from what they eat to what they wear. As the world continues to advance, more concerns and discussions about what is taking place in the world around us keep surfacing in everyday conversations. Pork producers typically have the same common goal of efficiently producing lean, quality pork in order to keep the pork industry strong and vibrant when compared to other animal products. With this new goal in mind, the meat production industry has led to the top choice being an overall more lean market hog, and many people believe that feeding Paylean® will help pork producers achieve this common goal, in turn saving the pork industry. A common discussion in the agricultural industry today is the usage of Paylean® in market pigs. Although this substance has been around since the early 2000s, some people believe it is not well-digested by pigs, it affects the health of the pig, and it changes the flavor of the pork that humans consume. Therefore, Paylean® has become quite a controversial product, with some believing it should be an illegal substance, especially in the market swine show industry. A common feed additive in the swine show industry today is a substance called Paylean®. Paylean® is a very popular feed additive that improves muscle tissue growth both effectively and efficiently. This feed additive contains ractopamine hydrochloride, which is a part of a class of compounds called phenethanolamines. This ingredient is a small molecule that increases the protein that affects muscle growth and improves the efficiency of feed intake. Paylean® was developed by and is marketed by the Elanco Animal Health Division of the Eli Lily Company. Paylean® impacts energy and fat metabolism within the animal’s body, with the principle effect being to redirect nutrients from fat deposition toward muscle deposition. Most people believe that Paylean® is either a hormone, steroid, antibiotic or a product of biotechnology, but in actuality, Paylean® is just a feed additive that builds muscle tissue (Schinckel, 2013).
Paylean® has become quite a hot topic among swine producers over the past decade, due in large part to the type of digestive system a pig has, which, in turn, directly affects the type of diet needed by swine. A pig contains a digestive tract very similar to that of a human and is considered monogastric. A monogastric organism has a one-chambered stomach, as compared to ruminants, which have a complex four-compartment stomach. The pig’s simple, monogastric stomach serves four main functions to the animal as a whole. These four functions include “storage of ingested feed and controlled release of its content into the duodenum, mechanical breakdown of ingested feed, disruption of chemical bonds of feed through the action of acids and enzymes, and production of the intrinsic factor required for vitamin B12 absorption from the small intestine” (Husveth, 2011). With this being said, market swine, along with other monogastric organisms, require a specific diet that functions best with their stomach.
Paylean® is to only be viewed as a management tool to improve the genetic potential of an animal; it is not a magic supplement and cannot substitute for genetic makeup or proper feed management. According to Elanco Animal Health literature, Paylean® fed at 18 grams per ton improved feed efficiency by thirteen percent, increased average daily gain by ten percent, reduced average daily feed intake by six percent and increased lean gain from anywhere between twenty-five and thirty-seven percent in research trials (Sterle, The Facts About Palean Ractopamine for Swine, n.d.). With this being said, however, increased protein, specifically lysine and other amino acids are needed in the diet to enhance lean tissue growth. A diet of at least sixteen percent crude protein is recommended.
A pig’s nutritional requirements become much greater while on ractopamine, but since many show pig diets are already high in protein and lysine, this does not really cause issues for those who raise swine. The majority of pigs that use Paylean® are show pigs, and since show pigs already have extreme muscling and leanness, it makes it more likely for them to reach their genetic potential. Keeping this in mind, large increases in production traits are not expected when it comes to the usage of ractopamine, however, some improvement is expected.
When feeding Paylean® to a market hog, it is important to remember that the results and response will not be constant over time. The producer will see the largest response in the first four weeks of feeding, during the repartitioning phase. Because of this relatively short time span, the producer does not need to feed Paylean® to the pig for an extended period of time in order to see a response. Feeding Paylean® longer than what is recommended (during the last seven weeks of the finishing phase) is illegal and will not result in an accurate response. It is also important to remember that Paylean® increases growth in both average daily gain and feed efficiency, which causes pigs to grow differently than before. The nutrition of a monogastric animal is very specific and confined to certain feeding procedures. In order for a non-ruminant to receive all nutrient requirements, the animal often has to be on a concentrate ration, which comes with numerous benefits to the individual animal. These benefits include a specific diet that is low in fiber yet highly digestible, is high in energy, requires only a small stomach capacity, does not require owners to feed the microorganisms, and allows the animal to grow and mature more quickly (Anderson, 2015). What exactly is a concentrate diet? A concentrate diet is a low fiber, highly digestible diet that is high in energy. This specific diet contains twelve percent or less of fiber and could possibly be high in protein. Most of the nutrients in a concentrate diet come from grains that contain eight to fourteen percent protein and is highly digestible (Anderson, 2015). Although this concentrate diet is preferred, many people in the market swine show industry feed whatever they choose to feed, not necessarily what is best for the animal to eat. Paylean® has been researched and evaluated for a lengthy period of time. During this extensive review, the Food and Drug Administration tested the product for both its safety and its effectiveness. It was not until both of these traits showed measurable gains that the product was approved for sale and distribution by the Food and Drug Administration. However, following label directions exactly as written is not only important, but critical, to the successful use of this product. The misuse of this product will only increase the skepticism on the part of the consumer. For example, Paylean® has only been approved for use in finisher hogs weighing between 150 and 240 pounds. Therefore, the product should only be used with hogs of this size. This is a part of the directions that is imperative to the success of the product. As previously stated, Paylean® is a feed additive that is made up of ractopamine, which is a “cardiac stimulator and possible carcinogen” (Minton, 2009) and “belongs to the class of beta-adrenoceptor agonists” (Minton, 2009). As a result, heart rate speeds up at a much faster rate and dilates the blood vessels of the pig. With this being said, animals are allowed to feed on this ractopamine substance until the time of slaughter, which means there is no required clearance time when using this substance. If there were a clearance period for this drug, the pigs being given this product would gain weight uncontrollably, and the market price for the hog would increase tremendously. According to Minton, research has shown that it takes a full week for ninety-seven percent of the Paylean® ingested by a pig to be excreted from the body following a one-time dosage of ractopamine. Therefore, every time pork is consumed, the consumer is eating ractopamine. Despite the fact that Paylean® provides many advantages to the swine and pork industries, its use does not come without drawbacks as well. Although there is not a clearing period when it comes to the use of Paylean® in market hogs, the label specifically reads that Paylean® is not to be used for human consumption. Individudals with cardiovascular disease are at higher risk when it comes to the usage of Paylean® and should avoid exposure to it if at all possible. Furthermore, Paylean® is such a risky substance to handle that handlers are advised to wear protective clothing as well as wash themselves thoroughly after handling Paylean®. In addition, pigs that are fed Paylean® must be handled and transported in a way so that stress is minimized to the fullest potential. Although the product helps produce a leaner, heavier muscled hog, that same hog is also more susceptible to stress that may be caused from transportation of the animal, handling the hog, or the amount and type of activity that comes with a market swine show. “Stressed pigs fed Paylean® may mimic the characteristics of the stress gene syndrome” (McMullen, 2007). Another disadvantage to using Paylean® is the increased dietary cost necessary to obtain a premium carcass in the show animal. The increased need for nutrients during the Paylean® phase of the animal’s diet is what constitutes the significant increase in the cost of feed for the pig. Furthermore, a show pig may not necessarily exhibit the enhanced attributes that are associated with the feeding of Paylean®, and depending on the characteristics of any particular market swine show or the desires of any particular judge, a show hog that has been fed Paylean® is not guaranteed to obtain a higher class ranking than another hog that has not been fed Paylean®. Many animal rights activists will argue that the use of Paylean® in market hogs is considered animal cruelty. When feeding Paylean®, producers have to take extreme precaution when it comes to the amount that they give the pig each feeding. Feeding too much Paylean® will cause the pig to become too tight in his legs and walk too stiff, yet feeding too little will not reach the goals that the producer wishes to reach. When animal rights activists see a producer feeding a pig too much Paylean®, they automatically assume that every pork producer does so in order to injure the pig to where it cannot walk. Many of these activists also argue that Paylean® causes pigs to become more stubborn and emotional, which causes the pigs to be beaten when it comes time to go to market because the animals will not listen to or respond appropriately to the producer’s commands. This type of behavior can lead to clear evidence of stress hormones in the pig and can cause them to stress out and possibly die. Although some of these aspects may be true, quite a few of these statements are actually false. I know this because of personal experience. I have fed my own show pigs Paylean® in the past and know the effects of this substance. Paylean® can cause muscle stiffness in a hog if too much is fed to the animal. With this being said, however, although the pig looks like it is in major pain, the pain it is actually suffering is very minor. Swine producers feed Paylean® to their pigs very carefully for this particular reason. Throughout my many years of showing market hogs and feeding Paylean®, I never witnessed a hog go through a behavioral change while on the substance. Pigs are naturally smart and can sense when something is not normal around them; this causes the animals to react differently when new pigs and different people are introduced into their environment. Being in a new or different place can result in peculiar behaviors being displayed by the animal as well. Because of this natural intelligence found in pigs, increased peculiar behaviors are often seen in show rings. With this increase in peculiar behaviors, there also comes an increase in concerns expressed by those seeing these behaviors in the show ring. However, the questionable behavior portrayed by show pigs may not be directly related to the feeding of Paylean®; it could be a direct result of the change in the pig’s environment or the addition of other show animals that the show pig is not accustomed to. However, it is quite important to note that Paylean® and a stress positive pig are not a good combination. Paylean® also has a major effect on the overall carcass of the hog and pork that humans are consuming. When taking pork into consideration, it is very important to understand that coloring of the raw product plays a huge role in safe consumption. With this being said, many people believe that lighter-colored pork is the best for consumption when in reality it is the opposite. When choosing raw pork, the consumer wants to purchase pork with a more reddish-purple tint to it in order to obtain a better taste after the meat goes through the cooking process. According to an article on the pig site, ractopamine hydrochloride was found to give pork loin chops the better-valued reddish tint consumers should look for, when compared to the coloring of pork chops. (Influence of Paylean (Ractopamine Hydrochloride) on Pork Quality, 2013) With this being said however, the effect that Paylean® has on pork color is barely noticeable to consumers, so many people typically do not worry about the use of this substance in the pork that they are consuming. Another common issue about the use of Paylean® in market hogs is the fact that many people believe that it dramatically affects the marbling of the carcass. Marbling is commonly known as the fat cut inside of the meat, which provides extra flavor and value to the carcass as a whole. Marbling typically makes the meat juicy and tender if it is properly handled and prepared for consumption. Research shows that marbling, as well as intramuscular fat levels of pork loin, is not directly affected by the use of Paylean®. This study showed that feeding eighteen grams per ton of Paylean® actually decreased the visual marbling scores of the loin muscle by 7.2 percent. (Influence of Paylean (Ractopamine Hydrochloride) on Pork Quality, 2013) While studies may show that ractopamine hydrochloride may have some effect on the marbling of the pork humans will be consuming, it is clear that the change is so minute that it does not make much of a difference, so there is no real need for concern. Paylean® cannot replace genetic improvement or take a pig with poor genetic makeup and replace it with good genes. However, this feed additive does enhance swine productivity and is effective in improving the genetics of a market show hog. The swine industry is constantly looking for ways to improve the genetics of show animals, and they will find any possible way to do so, often starting with Paylean®. It should be noted that Paylean® does not have the ability to turn any animal into an ideal animal; however, it is capable of improving some qualities that the pig is lacking. Proper care for a market show hog, along with Paylean®, can work hand in hand to help improve the animals’ performance. When feeding Paylean® it is of high importance to understand that all pigs will respond differently to the substance in terms of side effects. With this being said, most pigs with an average amount of muscle will respond the same in terms of days until there is an obvious change in the way the hog looks overall. Typically, there is a physical change noticed in hogs that are fed nine grams per ton of Paylean® within seven days. When it comes time to determine how much of the substance to give a pig, the owner must take into consideration the soundness of the pig, stress status of the pig, amount of natural muscling, and desired appearance. As previously stated, Paylean® can have a huge effect on the mobility of the hog based on the skeletal structure and soundness, can cause more stress to the pig due to a higher metabolism, can make a pig have too much muscle if the pig already has a lot to begin with, and can cause a hog to look more powerful than one had desired. With this being said, it is important to feed Paylean® very carefully and take the overall structure and health of a pig into consideration before making any final decisions. While many pig producers feed Paylean® to market hogs to increase their chances of winning at a market hog show, Paylean® does not necessarily need to be given to every market hog. There are numerous reasons for this. Not all pigs are structurally sound enough to handle the increased growth rate and increased muscle mass that will result from the feeding of Paylean®. With this being said, a simple structural flaw, or skeletal flaw, may worsen after the addition of Paylean® to the animal’s diet, which could possibly cause the pig to become immobile. In the pig show industry, it is very important to have a correctly structured, sound, mobile hog that has the correct body proportions, so it commonly takes an individual that has been in the industry for a while to know what to feed to get this ideal hog. Additionally, it is possible for a market hog to be too lean, decreasing the value of pork bellies. Pork bellies is the part of the pig from which bacon comes and is typically one of the most valued parts of a hog. It is important for swine producers to understand that experience is probably the most important aspect to consider when determining if the use of Paylean® is warranted. As pork producers continually work with pigs, they grow in their own personal experience. As their personal experience with the use of the product increases, so does their knowledge about the product and how it affects different types of pigs, whether it be the breed of the pig, the structural makeup of the pig, or the genetic makeup of the pig. Research is helpful in understanding products that are used in the field of agriculture, but it is not the only thing that should be taken into consideration and certainly should not replace the knowledge gained from personal experiences. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Paylean® in the show industry in December of 1999 specifically for market hogs, there is still much debate on this highly controversial product and the topic of whether or not this special substance should be allowed. The legal amount of Paylean® that can be given to a market hog ranges between four and a half to nine grams per ton of complete feed. As a matter of fact, there are still some states that ban the use of Paylean®. Ohio did not allow the substance to be used in any livestock show in the state until 2002, three years after the FDA legalized the use of the substance in the United States as a whole. Due to the many controversies surrounding the use of Paylean®, the FDA specifically states that the owner of the pig must follow the feeding directions exactly as they are labeled on the container. Sadly, many people abuse the rules as set forth by the FDA concerning the feeding instructions of Paylean®; these people choose to feed their pigs the way they want to feed rather than as directed, and this issue may cause many more problems for the show industry as a whole. The use of Paylean® in market hogs is a commonly debated topic in the agricultural industry today. More specifically, it is commonly debated in the show industry. Many people believe that ractopamine hydrochloride needs to be illegal primarily because it is harming the pigs and affecting the meat that humans are consuming. However, Paylean® has many benefits hat animal rights activists refuse to see, starting with the fact that it produces a higher quality pig, which will lead to higher profits for the rancher in the end. Paylean® will forever be a part of the market pig industry, but people need to learn and understand that concerns are minimal and the need to worry about the safety of the animals and the safety of the food available for human consumption is greatly reduced, as long as swine producers feed their pigs the substance correctly, according the rules and regulations set out by the US Food and Drug Administration. References
Anderson, M., Dr. (2015, October 12). Animal Management. Lecture presented at Intro to Animal Science in Sam Houston State University, Huntsville.
Borgoon, K., Dr. (n.d.). Feeding Paylean to Show Pigs. Retrieved June 08, 2006, from http://www.purinamills.com/purinamills/media/PDF/Show%20Chow/Feeding%20Strategies/Pig/FEEDING-PAYLEAN-TO-SHOW-PIGS.pdf
Egyetem, D., Egyetem, N., & Egyetem, P. (2011). PHYSIOLOGICAL and REPRODUCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION|Digital Textbook Library. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.tankonyvtar.hu/en/tartalom/tamop425/0010_1A_Book_angol_05_termeleselettan/index.html
Influence of Paylean (Ractopamine Hydrochloride) on Pork Quality. (2013, March 29). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.thepigsite.com/articles/4236/influence-of-paylean-ractopamine-hydrochloride-on-pork-quality/
Minton, B. (2009, August). Additive Used in U.S. Meat Production May Be Too Dangerous Even for CodexA Vegan Health Article from All-Creatures.org. Retrieved October 5, 2015, from http://www.all-creatures.org/health/additive.html
Moser, B. D. (1985). The Use Of Fat In Sow Diets. Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition, 201-210. doi:10.1016/b978-0-407-00339-2.50017-0
Salatin, J. (2015). Pig Quotes. Retrieved October 4, 2015, from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/pig.html
Schinckel, A. P., & Richert, B. T. (2013). Impact and Use of Paylean in Market Pigs. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/swine/porkpage/nutrient/paylean/ImpactPaylean.html
Sterle, J. (n.d.). The Facts About Paylean. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.81742…...

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...imports of products into a country cannot provide an accurate market potential of the product. The market potential of a product manufactured by a firm depends on the total demand of the product and the total supply of the market. One thing to take a look at is quantity demanded. The quantity demanded of any product by customers is not constant. It varies with the price of the product. For example a decrease in price usually increases the quantity demanded. When a new product enters a new market through importation there is an increase in its price. This is due to the additional costs of shipping the product from the country it was manufactured in and the import duty and other taxes imposed by the nation. Therefore, a company could be exporting a lot of products to a new market but be losing profit margins because of increased expenses. To estimate the market potential of a product it is essential to look at the actual customers are. Another thing to consider is why they want the product and how the price affects them. Another reason is that they may be making the product domestically. Even when basic need is identified, research look for current trade flows to see what level of activity is in place. Just because goods are currently imported doesn’t mean they will be imported in specific countries. Initial screening evaluated the basic need for a product or service in a specific market. It evaluates markets relevant to product characteristics. This is a......

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Market

...Current Market Conditions Competitive Analysis The demand for electric motor vehicles is an established and ever growing market worldwide and we must consider that it will eventually develop into a competitive market with similar electric vehicle products.  A paramount challenge for Tesla and our potential launch as competition in the electric vehicle market is meeting realizing the break even point is possible given production capacity.  Demand for functional, quality electric vehicles is high and one consideration that has given stockholders pause in considering their investment is determining whether Tesla can meet production requirements to break even and eventually profit. There is a strong demographic for customers of electric cars as there are many Americans interested in saving money on fuel consumption and being more ecologically responsible with lessened emissions and carbon footprint. California is a stronghold for the electric automotive market because of higher gas prices and belief system of those who live there. The electric vehicle (EV) market is growing fairly rapidly according to new analysis from the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research — with more than 320,000 new EV registrations in 2014, bringing the total global market up to 740,000 vehicles. These numbers will continue to grow as fuel prices continue being instable and as new EV makers figure out ways to capture potential buyers with state of the art design and performance technology. ......

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Swine Ndustries

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Swine Flu

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Premium Essay

Swine

...SWINE FLU Jennifer Lee Gary HCS/457 March 7, 2012 Reginald Bernard “SWINE FLU” Influenza, or “flu”, as it is more commonly known, is a ubiquitous in the disease profile of any developed or developing country. Many thousands of people fall victim to seasonal flu each year, recovering just as quickly. Only the very debilitated or immunosuppressed have life-threatening squealed. Flu also shows a “cyclic” trend where “epidemics” of flu occur every 6-7 years. In these years greater than an average expected number of people fall ill due to flu but these epidemics last only about a year or two Recently, (or as research shows not so recently), a new strain of influenza has come to light called “swine” flu. Also called pig or hog flu, this strain of influenza causes respiratory disease in pigs, hogs and other swine. The symptoms manifested are barking cough, poor appetite, lethargy and malaise. Alarmingly, this strain of influenza is readily transmissible to humans and causes much the same symptoms in humans as it does in pigs. Origin of the H1N1 Strain The origins of swine flu are unclear. Many researchers say that the outbreak was first localized in March of 2009 in a village in Mexico, when...

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