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BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR:
A RAMSAR SITE OF BANGLADESH
Volume I: Wildlife (Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals)
IUCN, International
Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges. IUCN works on biodiversity, climate change, energy, human livelihoods and greening the world economy by supporting scientific research, managing field projects all over the world, and bringing governments, NGOs, the
UN and companies together to develop policy, laws and best practice. IUCN is the world's oldest and largest global environmental organization, with more than 1,200 government and NGO members and almost 11,000 volunteer experts in some 160 countries. IUCN's work is supported by over 1,000 staff in 45 offices and hundreds of partners in public, NGO and private sectors around the world. www.iucn.org
About IUCN
Biodiversity of
Tanguar Haor:
A Ramsar Site of Bangladesh
Volume I: Wildlife
(Amphibians,
Reptiles, Birds and
Mammals)

Biodiversity of Tanguar Haor:
A Ramsar Site of Bangladesh
Volume I: Wildlife
(Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals)
Research and Text
Technical Editor
A. B. M. Sarowar Alam
Mohammad Shahad Mahabub Chowdhury
Dr. Istiak Sobhan
Dr. Reza Khan
Ishtiaq Uddin Ahmad
Md. Aminur Rahman
The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, administration, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The views expressed in this publication are authors' personal views and do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN.
Fishing Cat, Common Tree Frog
Monirul Khan, Ronald Halder,
This book is published with financial support received from Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
(SDC) under the 'Community Based Sustainable Management of Tanguar Haor Project, phase-II' of Ministry of
Environment and Forest (MoEF) of Government of Bangladesh.
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)
© 2012 IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged.
Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
Alam, A.B.M.S., Chowdhury, M.S.M. and Sobhan, I. 2012. Biodiversity of
Tanguar Haor: A Ramsar Site of Bangladesh Volume I: Wildlife, IUCN Bangladesh, Dhaka,
Bangladesh, Pp. xi+234.
978-984-33-5057-2
Sheikh Asaduzzaman
Baer's Pochard, Peacock Softshell Turtle and
A.B.M. Sarower Alam and Reza Khan
Intent Design, www.intentdesign.net
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)
Bangladesh Country Office
House 11, Road 138, Gulshan 1
Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
Tel: 880-2-9890423, 9890395
Fax: 880-2-9892854
E-mail: info.bangladesh@iucn.org
Published by:
Copyright:
Citation:
ISBN:
Layout:
Cover Photo:
Cover Photo by:
Design by:
Available from: www.iucn.org/bangladesh Contributors
Md. Hasibur Rahman
Shahriar Rahman
Marufa Sultana
M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun
Mohammad Abul Kalam Azad
Alison Darcy
Md. Wasim Newaz

Preface
Wetlands are amongst the Earth's most productive ecosystems. In Bangladesh these are of great importance because of the extensive food webs and rich biodiversity they support. In the past, wetlands have been undervalued. However, in recent times, awareness increases of the fact that natural wetlands provide many services toward mankind through various functions, products e.g., fish, fuelwood, timber, rice, and attributes
i.e., biodiversity, aesthetic beauty, cultural heritage and archaeology.
Bangaldesh's most important freshwater wetlands occur in the Hoar Basin apart from the Ganges-
Brahmaputra delta, which is low lying plains in eastern Mymensingh and western Sylhet Divisions, in the north-eastern part of the country. Tanguar haor is located in two Upazillas (sub-districts) namely Tahirpur and
Dharmapasha of Sunamganj district in Sylhet Division. The Tanguar Haor basin, which is an area of 10,000 hectares of land, also supports about 60,000 populations with its resources.
Tanguar haor has outstanding conservation value, being a natural freshwater wetlands in the country,seasonally harbouring up to 60,000 migratory waterfowl along with many resident birds, more than
140 fish species and last vestiges of swamp forest. But the floral and faunal diversity of Tanguar Haor is under extensive threat because of unsustainable use of resources.
In 1999, Government of Bangladesh declared the Tanguar Haor Basin as an “Ecologically Critical Area” to highlight its ecological importance and to monitor its environmental quality. In 2000, the haor basin was declared as the country's second RAMSAR site – wetland of international importance.
With the declaration of Tanguar Haor as a RAMSAR site, government has its commitment to preserve the ecosystem and floral and faunal diversity including its migratory birds from illegal hunters. Government developed a comprehensive management plan – the Tanguar Haor Management Plan (THMP), which envisaged 'wise use' of its natural resources vis- -vas a plan to uplift economic conditions of the local people.
Importance were given to aware local community for preserving the natural resources and biodiversity and eventually protect it from degradation and overexploitation.
On the above context, IUCN Bangladesh has taken an initiative to carry out this recent study on biodiversity under the project ''Community Based Sustainable Management of Tanguar Haor''. The project is being implemented by the Ministry of Environment and Forest through IUCN Bangladesh Country Office with financial assistance from Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). As an outcome of the project this book is to share information on threatened and most important biodiversity with the local community in Tanguar Haor.
This is an expectation of IUCN Bangladesh that the book will be of immense help to monitor changes of important floral and faunal diversity of the Tanguar Haor. We also hope that this book help local people of
Tanguar Haor to categorize, understand flora and fauna, watch and take conservation initiatives by stopping overexploitation, hunting, poaching of natural resources. On the other hand, this book will also be a great source of material for the researchers who are currently or in future will continue their study on flora and fauna of Tanguar Haor. à March 2012
Country Representative
IUCN Bangladesh
Dhaka
Ishtiaq Uddin Ahmad vii IUCN Bangladesh would like to acknowledge the support from Swiss Agency for Development and
Cooperation (SDC) for carry out the project “Community Based Sustainable Management of Tanguar Haor,
Phase-II''.
We express our sincere gratitude to the Ministry of Environment and Forest for giving us the opportunity for conducting this recent study on biodiversity under this project.
We would like to express our gratitude to Nur Ali, President, Central Committee of Tanguar Haor Community
(CCC) and also the Chairman of four Union Committee (UCCs).
Thanks should be given to Mohammad Yamin Chowdhury, Deputy Commissioner of Sunamganj for his kind guidance and support in conducting the study.
The assistance of a number of persons had been essential during compilation and preparation of this book.
We specially acknowledge Enam al Haque, Dr. S.M.A. Rashid, Dr. Ronald Halder, Dr. M. Monirul Hasan Khan,
Suprio Chakma, Sayam U. Chowdury, Samiul Mohsanin, Saniar Rahman Rahul, CM Reza,
Thouhidur Rahman, Tania Khan, Philip D. Round, Nick Dimond, Kevin, Bill, Quazi Ahmed Hussain, Munir
Ahmed, M. Ahsanul Haq Khokan, and relevant staff of IUCN for their valuable suggestions and guidance and also permit us to use their own collected photos of different species from Tanguar Haor in this book.
Special thanks for all staff of Tanguar Haor project.
We humbly acknowledge the contribution of Bangladesh Bird Club (Bbc) for providing waterfowl census data conducted in different years of Tanguar Haor .
Sourav Mahmud,
March 2012
Dhaka
Research Team
Acknowledgements
viii
Bbc Bangladesh Bird Club beel more or less permanent bodies of water that remain in haors or floodplains during the dry season BNH
CBD
CBSTP
CWBMP
ECAMU
FGD Focus Group Discussion
GoB
GRIS Global Resistance on Invasive Species haor Backswamps or bowl shaped depressions between the natural levees of a rever, that are fooded every year by monsoonal floods from April until October haor basin A low lying region in northeastern Bangladesh where most of the country's haors occur
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
Kandas Hillocks,levees or (artificial)mounds, often used for habitation
Khal Small channel (natural/ artificial)
Khas land Government land
MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests
NCS National Conservation Strategy
NCSIP National Conservation Strategy Implementation Programme
NCSIP NCS Implementation Project No.1
NERP Northeast Regional Water Management Project
NERP
NGO
Ramsar site
RCS
RCSP
Reeds
SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Swamp forest Forest that is seasonally flooded with freshwater
Union Smallest administrative unit of local government in Bangladesh
WI Wetland International
Bangladesh National Herbarium
Conservation on Biological Diversity
Community Based Sustainable Management of Tanguar Haor Project
Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project
Ecologically Critically Management Unit
Government of Bangladesh
Northeast Regional Water Management Project (FAP 6)
Non Government Organization
Wetland of International Importance (Under the 'Convention of Wetlands of International
Importance, especially with regard to waterfowl', also known as the Ramsar Convention after the Iranian city of Ramsar, where it was launched in 1971)
Ramsar Convention Strategy
Ramsar Convention Strategic Plan
Tall, robust grass like vegetation of swamps; usually refers to the species
Phragmites karka, Common Reed
Acronyms, Abbreviation and Glossary ix Table of Contents
Preface vii
Acknowledgements viii
Acronyms, Abbreviation and Glossary ix
CHAPTER 1: Introduction 001
CHAPTER 2: Salient Geological Feature of Tanguar Haor 025
CHAPTER 3: Biodiversity Assessment Method 043
1.1 Diversity of Fauna in Tanguar Haor 004
1.2 Diversity of Flora in Tanguar Haor 006
1.3 Diversity of Phytoplankton in Tanguar Haor 009
1.4 Threats to Tanguar Haor 010
1.5 Economic Value of Tanguar Haor 014
1.6 Conservation Importance of Tanguar Haor 017
1.7 Wise Use of Ramsar Site 018
1.8 Preceding Exploration in Tanguar Haor 020
1.9 Organisation of the Book 024
2.1 Geomorphology 026
2.2 Habitation 029
2.3 Climatic Features 038
3.1 Study Sites 045
3.2 Wildlife Survey Methodology 046
3.3 Fish Survey Methods 048
3.4 Floral Survey Methods 050
CHAPTER 4: Present Wildlife Status in Tanguar Haor 053
CHAPTER 5: Species Profile 063
CHAPTER 6: Protocol for Biodiversity Monitoring 176
REFERENCES 191
APPENDICES 194
INDEX 227
4.1 Mammal 054
4.2 Bird 055
4.3 Reptile 061
4.4 Amphibian 061
5.1 Mammals 064
5.2 Birds 072
5.3 Reptiles 148
5.4 Amphibians 169
6.1 178
6.2 Biodiversity Monitoring Indicators for Tanguar Haor 179
6.3 190
Appendix I: Checklist and Census status of birds and other wildlife 194
Appendix II: Census status of Birds 218
Appendix III: Bird Ringing Program at Tanguar Haor 224
Community Based Biodiversity Monitoring
How Community get Benefited from Sustainable Resource Management

Chapter 1
Introduction
Bangladesh, located in the delta of one of the world's major river systems, is a land of vast water and wetlands. More than two thirds landmass of this country may be classified as wetlands according to the definition of the enunciated in the Ramsar Convention. Wetland ecosystems are of great importance to Bangladesh due to its extent and of the critical economic and ecological roles that play in sustaining life and livelihoods options in the country.
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 002
Tanguar Haor - Md. Abdul Quayyum
Tanguar Haor is one of the most important wetlands not only of Bangladesh but also of
South Asia (BirdLife International, 2012). It is a unique wetland ecosystem of great national importance in Bangladesh and has now gained international focus. The Government of Bangladesh declared Tanguar Haor as an
Ecologically Critical Area in 1999 considering its critical condition as a result of overexploitation of its natural resources and declared as a Ramsar site in 2000 (GoB,
2004). The rich biodiversity, notable occurrence of wildlife especially waterfowl is one of the most significant features that allowed this area to gain the designation as a
Ramsar site. Tanguar Haor is also extremely rich in terms of fisheries resources that play a critical role in Bangladesh's economy. It directly sustains the livelihoods of over
56,000 people from 88 surrounding villages and largely contributes to the country's food production and security.
A project titled 'Community Based
Sustainable Management of Tanguar Haor' is being implemented by the Ministry of
Environment and Forest through the IUCN
Bangladesh Country Office with financial assistance from Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation (SDC). To achieve the wise use principles of Ramsar
Convention, the project aims at setting up and completing a series of activities, one of which most importantly, is to conduct a study on biodiversity assessment and a study to improve ecosystem integrity. Among the other essentials, wildlife assessment is an integral part of the management plan to improve and restore ecosystem functions.
The most intensive series of studies carried out at Tanguar Haor prior to the NCSIP-1
(National Conservation Strategy
Implementation Project) was a project named
North-East Regional Project (NERP, 1990-93) under the Flood Action Plan. Under this study
(Wetland Specialist Study by FAP 6), the whole haor basin in greater Sylhet and
Mymensingh districts was studied in detail.
Moreover, it had also studied hydrology, fisheries and socio-economics of the region as well as producing a portfolio of investment plans for the wetlands. Subsequently, NCSIP-
1 studied the biodiversity of Tanguar Haor in late 1990s. Under this project small scale
Different scenes in different seasons
(summer, rainy season & winter) - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 003 winter bird census has been carried out by the 'Wetland International' voluntarily helped by Bangladesh Bird Club during this period.
Moreover, no single study has been conducted on wildlife involving the community people in Tanguar Haor.
Considering the lack of sufficient knowledge on wetland biodiversity of this region, an initiative has been taken through this present study to collate all the information available in literature and incorporate the results of research so far conducted by the IUCN and its partners. A comprehensive survey on biodiversity of Tanguar Haor has been conducted to understand the present status, habitat classification, population density and diversity of wildlife. During the wildlife survey, conducted between March and April 2011, the status of wildlife (focusing on waterfowl) including habitat condition, comparative analysis of some beels (beels- smaller wetlands, some of which combine forming a haor, in terms of water birds diversity) was studied. Consequently, another census on waterfowl has been carried out during
January 2012 which depicts a clear view on the status of this wetland.
The survey findings will act as a baseline which would be monitored time to time with some specific monitoring indicators.
Biodiversity monitoring will be done by biodiversity experts (baseline survey) and trained community people (ongoing monitoring). A user friendly monitoring format (See Table- 6.1, Chapter 6) has been developed for the community to perform biodiversity monitoring.
Based on Nishat (1993), Karim (1993), NERP
(1993a) and BNH (1997), it is estimated that a total of 200 wetland plant species, 141 fish species, 11 amphibians, 34 reptiles (6 turtles,
7 lizards and 21 snakes), 206 birds and 31 mammals occur in this haor (Gieson and
Rashid, 1997).
Wetland International (WI) conducts waterfowl census every year in different wetlands in
Bangladesh with the help of Bangladesh Bird
Club (Bbc). On an average fifty thousand individuals of around 70-80 species are found every year from the Tanguar Haor. Every winter about 60 species of migratory birds come to this Tanguar Haor as this haor is an ideal place for their food and habitat.
1.1 Diversity of Fauna in
Tanguar Haor
Black-tail Godwit Sayam U. Chowdhury
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 004
Based on DoZ (1997),
Nurazzaman (1997) and Khan
(1997) the estimated number of fish species is 141 under 35 families. The number is more than half of Bangladesh's total 260 freshwater fish species. The notable amongst these include Rui
, Mrigel
,
Shoal , Puti
, Chanda
, Boal and invertebrate Chingri or shrimp
, etc. The other important fish species are Aier
, Magur
, Baem
, Gutum
, Lasu
, Fali etc. In the 1999-2000 fiscal year, the government earned
Tk 70,73,184 as revenue just from fisheries of the haor (Talukder,
2006). Three species Channa barca (Pipla, or Tila Shol), Labeo boggut, Labeo nandina (Nandina) are considered as extinct, 16 species are critically endangered and 26 are endangered (Gieson and Rashid, 1997).
(Labeo rohita) (Cirrhinus cirrhosus or Cirhhinus mrigala)
(Channa striatus)
(Puntius ticto) (Chanda nama) (Wallago attu)
(Penaeus sp.)
(Mystus aor) (Clarius batracus) (Anguilla bengalesis) (Lepidocephalus guntea)
(Cirrhinus reba) (Notopterus notopterus) Different types of fishes
(Rui, gonia, gojar, chingri & meni)- from top to bottom - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 005
1.2 Diversity of Flora in
Tanguar Haor
Principle wetland habitats of Tanguar Haor include open water (with submerged and floating aquatic vegetation), seasonallyinundated mixed herbaceous vegetation, reed beds and rice fields. Hijol
/ and Koroch (old name ) were dominant species in swamp forests, but these have now disappeared except for an occasional isolated tree and nearly a pure formation in the
Rongchi 'forest', which is an 8-hectare stand of 800+ severely-lopped and old trees
(Gieson and Rashid, 1997). During last couple of years again species were replanted on . Different types of habitat and vegetation found in Tanguar Haor are as follows:
e.g.,
etc., are fully under water vegetations. Migratory dabbling ducks and some resident aquatic birds feed on parts of these vegetations.
e.g.,
etc., found in the Tanguar Haor are used as nesting sites by some aquatic birds such as Pheasant-tailed Jacana,
Bronze-winged Jacana, Purple
Swamphen, Whiskered Tern, etc. Rodents found in haor also live in and build nests inside such floating vegetation, especially
.
e.g.,
, etc.
Fish fingerlings often take refuge in such plants when others eat algae accumulated on these. Aquatic insects
Barringtonia
racemosa Milletia pinnata
Pongamia pinnata
Barringtonia racemosa
Kandas
Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton crispus, Najas sp
Ottelia alismoides
Eichhornia
crassipes, Utricularia aurea, Sylvania natans, Eichhornia
Trapa
maximowiczii, Echinochloa colona,
Hygrorhyza aristata, Limnophila indica



Submerged vegetations
Free floating vegetations
Rooted floating vegetations and snails also feed on these plants.
e.g.,
old name
, etc. These types of vegetation provide shelter and food source for some aquatic animals.
Local people also take some vegetation as food and some are used for making mats of various types.
e.g.,
, etc., are the main nesting ground of some resident ducks viz., Spot-billed Duck, Cotton
Pygmy Goose and some other aquatic resident birds.
e.g.,
etc., may be natural and locally introduced species consists of evergreen trees forming dense canopy. Some birds and mammals use this type of forest as roosting and nesting places. e.g.,
, etc., have been found around the Tanguar Haor which are the important source of food for the migratory ducks and fodder for cattle. e.g., etc., have been found in Tanguar Haor with rich species diversity. Many species of terrestrial birds take shelter in such vegetation and build nest or roost on the trees and bamboos.





Sedges and meadows vegetations
Reed vegetations
Fresh water swamp forest vegetations
Crop field vegetations
Homestead vegetations
Alternanthera philoxeroides, Clinogyne dichotoma ( Schumannianthus dichotomus), Eclipta alba, Enhydra fluctuans, Scirpus juncoides
Asclepias
curassavica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus heterophylla, Lippia javanica
Crataeva nurvala, Phyllanthus distichus, Trewia nudiflora,
Alternanthera
sessilis, Cotula hemisphaerica, , Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus cephalotes
Barringtonia
acuatangula, Bambusa arundinacea,
Dendrocalamus strictus, Musa paradisiaca,
Areca cathecu, Calamus tenuis, Caryota urens and Cocos nucifera, Albizzia procera,
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 006
Different types of plants-row-wise (
) - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
Rosa Clinophyla, Oxystelma esculentum, Limnophylla heterophylla, Ceratophyllum demersum,
Pongamia pinnata, Najas minor, Hygroriza aristata, Eclipta alba, Lippia alba, Asparagus racemosus
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 007
Different types of plants-row-wise ( (Flower)
(Flower), )
- A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
Salix tetrasperma, Persicaria sp., Asperagus racemosus , Lindernia antipoda, Commelina benghalensis,Cleome hassleriana, Nymphoides indica, Salvinia cuculata, Oxystelma esculentum Cyprus compressus
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 008
1.3 Diversity of Phytoplankton in
Tanguar Haor
In any aquatic ecosystem the phytoplankton works as the backbone of all zoo planktons that in turn keep the predatory animals alive in wetlands and other aquatic environments.
The phytoplankton communities of the
Tanguar Haor wetlands are very much linked with zooplankton and fish productivity.
Several studies have highlighted these issues.
One among these, Muzaffar and Ahmed
(2006) so far found 107 genera of phytoplankton representing five classes.
These are as follows: and .
.
and .
.
.
Blooms of dominated the phytoplankton community throughout the study period but were particularly acute during the early part of the high water period.






Chlorophyceae:
Xanthophyceae:
Chrysophyceae:
Bacillariophyceae:
Dinophyceae:
Cyanophyceae:
Radiofilum, Eudorina,
Gonium, Pandorina, Pleodorina,
Platydorina, Volvox, Pyrobotrys,
Sphaerocystis, Gloeocystis, Palmodictyon,
Nannochloris, Ulothrix, Chlorococcum,
Mycanthococcus, Golenkinia,
Dictyosphaerium, Characium, Pediastrum,
Euastropsis, Ankistrodesmus, Cerasterias,
Glaucocystis, Kirchneriella, Pachycladon,
Selenestrum, Trochiscia, Westella,
Coelastrum, Crucigenia, Scenedesmus,
Mougeotia, Eremosphera, Spirogyra,
Gonatozygon, Closterium, Pleurotaenium,
Cosmarium, Sirocladium, Micrasterias,
Staurastrum, Xanthidium, Arthrodesmus,
Spondylosium, Desmidium, Hyalotheca,
Sphaerosozma, Euglenoidea,
Trachelomonas Pyrobotrys
Botryococcus
Synura, Uroglenopsis,
Dinobryon, Gloeobotrys Phaeosphaera
Melosira,
Coscinodiscus, Biddulphia, Fragilaria,
Synedra, Navicula, Pinnularia, Nitzschia,
Amphora, Cymbella Suriella
Ganyaulux, Ceratium,
Peridinium, Glenodinium Attheya
Chrooccus , Gloeocapsa,
Synechocystis, Aphanocapsa,
Synechococcus, Microcystis, Merismopedia,
Eucapsis , Dactylococcopsis,
Coelosphaerium, Spirulina, Oscillatoria,
Borzia, Lyngbia, Schizothrix,
Trichodesmium, Anabaena, Nostoc,
Anabaenopsis, Nodularia, Tolypothrix,
Rivularia Gloeotrichia.
Microcystis
and and and
Butterfly, dragonfly, moth & snail-from top to bottom
- A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 009
1.4 Threats to Tanguar Haor
Tanguar Haor supports a spectacular array of flora and fauna but these are now facing serious threats due to natural resource depletion, habitat degradation, soil erosion, water pollution, forest degradation, and poaching of wildlife highlighted here.
The Swamp forests that once used to be common in Tanguar Haor have now become very rare due to clearing, cutting and other anthropological activities, and the last vestiges of it remains in area called Ronchi. On the other hand no natural regeneration of this forest is occurring anywhere in the wetlands.
1.4.1 Threats to swamp forest and reed beds
The reed beds have also been severely reduced because of continued over-harvesting for fuel and converting land into agricultural fields. As a result, certain aquatic species that used to be common in the area, have now become very rare or are fast disappearing.
This process threatens the integrity of the haor ecosystem (GoB, 2004).
Degradation of the conditions of swamp forests and reed beds has lead to several impacts on resource use and livelihoods of the local people. Swamp forest provides feed and shelter for fish population and therefore a reduction in fish production, animal diversity and the waterfowl population have been observed over the past few years.
Cut down of trees and vegetations - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 010
Harvesting of the last fish, dewatering of certain key areas, repeated fish harvest every year and leaving only a few fish for breeding are the most unsustainable methods used for fishing in Tanguar Haor. These have probably contributed to disappearance of a large number of fish in the natural ponds which would lead to genetic erosion and is a threat to indigenous fish species (GoB, 2004).
On the other hand, unsustainable use and destruction of swamp forests and reeds bring a negative effect to fisheries resources as it provides the shelter and feed to the fish.
Water pollution is another threat to floral and faunal species which sometimes occurs due to coal collection in Tekerhat point.
Thousands of boats continuously pollute the water through oil contamination which will ultimately affect the fish population,
1.4.2 Threats to fisheries
Tanguar Haor is extremely rich in fisheries resources. The varied number of fish species is linked with a complex network of food web in the entire ecosystem and so maintaining the integrity of the food web is a must for ecological balance of the haor and to increase fish production in Bangladesh.
Illegal fishing by fishing gears
- A.B.M.Sarowar Alam & Alison Darcy
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 011
1.4.3 Threats to wildlife
Tanguar Haor is well recognized and acknowledged as home to a large number of waterfowl, both resident and migratory. It provides a breeding area for many birds and other wildlife animals. The interplay of huge flocks of water birds and luxuriant swamp vegetation was used to attract naturalists and tourists. This glory is however now lost. Each year about 60,000-120,000 waterfowl visit
Tanguar Haor. They are mostly the migratory bird species. But this number is dropping continuously. During the last waterfowl survey in January 2012 only 28876 individuals of 47 species are observed in Tanguar Haor which is alarming.
This situation is mainly due to a combination of different natural factors: habitat degradation (e.g., disappearance of swamp forest and reed beds), shortages of food, human pressure and illegal hunting, decreasing numbers of fish species and polluted water (GoB, 2004).
Wildlife (birds and turtle) sized by local people A.B.M.Sar owar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 012
Over the past few decades many species of wildlife have disappeared. Some are threatened nationally and globally. For example, the globally threatened Pallas's Fish
Eagle ( ) has a population of about 2,500 to 10,000 which remain in the whole world. This species was included in 2009 IUCN Red List Category (as evaluated by BirdLife International- the official
Red List Authority for birds of IUCN) as a vulnerable one. The Pallas's Fish Eagle can only be found in Tanguar Haor area and a few areas of Bangladesh, builds nests only in
Tanguar Haor and in adjacent areas of tall trees along the periphery of haor during the winter season. It is threatened due to the destruction of its nesting sites. Conservation efforts can help to increase the number of this bird as well as other wildlife species.
In addition, the migrant fisher folk sometimes harvest turtles and tortoises for consumption and lead to over-exploitation of fish resources as well. At the same time, these temporary fishers build fishing camps which use fuel wood from swamp forests and the swamp
Haliaeetus leucoryphus vegetation (reeds) for construction of temporary hamlets which is also unsustainable in use and pose threats to birds and other wildlife species.
The conservation strategy should include a balanced approach to fishing (through restrictions by space and by time) that must protect swamp forests, reed beds as well as provide shelter for all the migratory birds which take refuge during the winter months.
But there are some limitations in implementing any conservation initiative.
According to the presentation by Ecologically
Critical Area Management Unit (ECAMU) -
Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management
Project (CWBMP) and Bevanger , (2001), the main challenges for biodiversity conservation at Tanguar Haor are: illiteracy of local haor dependent people; lack of community participation; poverty of the local haor dependant people; 1.4.4 Biodiversity conservation strategy: major challenges
1 et al



1. ECAMU-CWBMP,

accessed on 8 January 2012
Water pollution by coal and oil spillage - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 013

 biodiversity status may be disrupted after termination of the existing management system, because community motivation and system involvement is absent; and insufficient policy frameworks and legislative provisions for biodiversity conservation and protected wetland management. 1.5 Economic Value of
Tanguar Haor
Tanguar Haor systems have a great economic value as they provide various services without any investment towards nature making a vital contribution to human health and wellbeing.
Wetland ecosystems of this haor are a part of our natural wealth. According to the
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (2011), the set of Ramsar Factsheets outline the
'ecosystem services' the benefits of people obtain from ecosystems pr ovided by wetlands. They illustrate the great diversity of ecosystem services delivered by wetlands and their values which covers: flood control, groundwater replenishment, shoreline stabilization and storm protection, sediment and nutrient retention and export, water purification, reservoirs of biodiversity, wetland products, cultural values, recreation and tourism, climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, not all wetlands provide all of the services at a time. Different wetlands provide a range of services according to their type, size and location.
Economic evaluation of Tanguar Haor could be assessed as below through evaluation of services which the haor ecosystem provides:
Haor provides fishes and crops - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 014
1.5.1 Biological set up
Tanguar Haor is a large water logged area between levees or banks of large river systems at the foothill of the Indian
Meghalayan- Joyanti Hill Cherapunji rainforest, i.e, water is available here all year round, but the most important fact is that, water can be found here even in the dry season. Water supply varies from 7000 cubic meter/Sec to 220 cubic meter/sec in July and February respectively. The haor is enriched with clear water which is mainly due to low sediment levels in the water. In case of a river the water flows constantly, but in a haor the water flow is subdued which provides a shallow depth of water in most areas - a unique ecology.
The Tanguar Haor is different from others as no large river passes through it which is one of the major causes of low sedimentation.
However, in the monsoon, hill streams contribute some sedimentation in the upper edge of the haor and in adjacent cluster villages. This also creates a unique character to the beels which provides a good breeding ground and habitat for the shallow water fish.
Siltation trends are not significant hence it is considered that it does not hamper the habitat of fish species, instead adds some nutrients to the soil which has a positive impact on agricultural activity. The higher grounds, known locally as , located in between beels which is planted with wetland plants in order to restore wetland forests. In
, some agricultural practices are done by the local community but mainly use for grazing land for cows, buffalos and birds.
Fishes are known to breed here when these become submerged. Tanguar Haor includes rice-field habitats that play important ecological roles and support a range of biodiversity, including internationally
Kanda
Kandas important populations of migratory waterbirds. There is a great importance of Tanguar Haor for fish production, maintaining biodiversity, meeting local and regional demands and also serve as a good source of fish fry supply for other water bodies. Perennial flooded parts of the Tanguar Haor are rich in fish resources.
Unlike other haors, there are no major khals or rivers that directly connect with Tanguar
Haor. This provides the haor as a wetland of low sediment and with clear water which provides a good breeding ground for fish and act as a shelter for mother fish. Submerged vegetation is a good habitat for small and medium size fish, where as natural reeds and other vegetation provide a natural ecological balance for shelter of other mother fish.
Moreover there is a good abundance of food and biological environment to boost up the maturity of fishes that is greatly augmented by the supply of additional water from hill streams which keeps the reservoir on flow even during the dry season. The recent trend shows that 70% of households depend on fishing resources of the Tanguar Haor
Wetland resources play a critical role in the lives of those residing in and around Tanguar
Haor. Most economic activity carried out in the area, including commercial fishing, trade in fuel wood, hunting and trapping waterfowl, the harvesting and sale of grasses and reeds and farming is based on these resources.
Earlier studies confirmed that more than twothirds of households in Tanguar Haor are either directly or indirectly dependent on the haor. Fishing and farming are the principal occupations of people living in Tanguar Haor.
1.5.2 Large fishing ground
1.5.3 Occupational status of the haor people
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 015
Table 1.1: Involvement of local community in different occupation
Traditionally, in the winter season residents of
Tanguar Haor were able to graze their cattle in fallow land situated between paddy fields and the beels. Grasses, reeds, twigs and leaves were harvested for fuel and thatching.
Branches or whole tree-tops were collected from swamp forests for use in constructing enclosures, called or , which entice fish to breed in them. The Hijal
, a wetland tree species, is widely favored for this purpose. khola kathha
(Barringtonia racemosa)
Occupation
Percentage (%) of involved household head
According to NCS fisheries report
(1987)
According to Kabir and
Amin (2007) from field survey of 2005
According to household survey, IUCN (2008)
Agriculture 62 56 36.78
Fishing 8 15.7 21.56
Day labour 18 7.3 21.07
Businessman 2 2 7.55
Sand and coal collection -
-
3.4 others - 19 .3 9.87
1.5.4 Recreation, tourism and research
The natural beauty as well as the diversity of animals and plant life in Tanguar Haor makes it an ideal location for recreational activities, tourism and research work. Hundreds of ornithologists and bird watchers visit the area every year. There are a whole range of recreational activities associated with it's wetlands. The environment for tourism should be developed so that local community could benefit from it and generate income locally and nationally, from boating and other water sports to hunting, watching wildlife and even art and literature.
An estimation of economic activities of local community of Tanguar Haor area has been given below in Table 1.1. It is clear from this that occupational status is gradually changing. People of Tanguar Haor are becoming more engaged in fishing than agriculture. BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 016
1.5.5 Indirect value of Tanguar Haor
There are some activities which do not have direct value but play an important ecological role. Among them grazing of cows, buffalos, goats, harvesting reeds, vegetations and collecting fuel woods, singra and other food materials are very important especially for the local people. Usually for women, duck rearing is a good option in this area. Local habitants have these privileges without providing any fee. However, their unlimited access to these valuable resources should be kept under control to help restore biodiversity for future uses. 1.6 Conservation Importance of
Tanguar Haor
Tanguar Haor, listed in the Directory of Asian
Wetlands (Scott, 1989) has been identified by
Rasid and Scott (1992) as a key wetland site of international importance, especially because of its vital link in an international network of sites for migratory waterbirds.
Tanguar Haor fulfills at least three of the criteria established for declaring a wetland of international importance, as adopted by the
Montreux Conference of the contracting parties (Davis,1994), each of which alone is sufficient for proposing a Ramsar site. The three criteria met by Tanguar Haor are:
Human and waterfowl - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 017
Criterion 1:
Criterion 2:
Criterion 3:
Tanguar Haor qualifies for this criterion based on it hosting a critically endangered bird, several endangered, vulnerable and threatened floral and faunal species such as
Baer's Pochard, Pallas's Fish Eagle, Fishing
Cats, Bengal Rose, Ferruginous Pochard etc.
Tanguar Haor supports around 50,000 waterfowl, on an average, during the winter migratory season.
In 2001, a minimum of 2500 Baer's Pochard was counted, which represents 50%
(estimated global population is 5000 by
BirdLife International, 2001) and 90,900
(2002) Ferruginous Poachard from Tanguar
Haor, which represents 90% of the global population estimated (100000) by Birdlife
International, 2002.
A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.
A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports
20,000 or more waterbirds.
A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports
1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird.
1.7 Wise Use of Ramsar site
According to RCS (2010) an updated definition of wise use , has been given as bellow: Wise use of wetlands is the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches , within the context of sustainable development .
According to the Ramsar Convention Strategic
Plan (RCSP) 2009-2015, Goal 1 covers wise use of wetlands and the related benefits for biodiversity and human well-being. The strategies for wise use of all wetlands have been expressed as below:
To work towards achieving the wise use of all wetlands by ensuring that all Contracting
Parties develop, adopt and use the necessary and appropriate instruments and measures, with the participation of the local indigenous and non-indigenous population and making use of traditional knowledge, while at the same time ensuring that conservation and wise use of wetlands contribute to poverty eradication, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, as well as prevention of disease and of natural disasters.
2
3
1.7.1 RCSP 2009-15: GOAL 1. Wise Use
2. Including inter alia the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Ecosystem Approach” (CBD COP5 Decision V/6) and that applied by HELCOM and OSPAR (Declaration of the First Joint Ministerial Meeting of the Helsinki and OSPAR
Commissions, Bremen 25-26 June 2003).
3. The phrase “in the context of sustainable development” is intended to recognize that whilst some wetland development is inevitable and that many developments have important benefits to society, developments can be facilitated in sustainable ways by approaches elaborated under the Convention, and it is not appropriate to imply that 'development' is an objective for every wetland.
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 018
STRATEGY 1.1
STRATEGY 1.2
STRATEGY 1.3
STRATEGY 1.4
Wetland inventory and assessment
Describe, assess and monitor the extent and condition of all types of wetlands as defined by the Ramsar Convention and wetland resources at relevant scales, in order to inform and underpin implementation of the
Convention, in particular in the application of its provisions concerning the wise use of all wetlands. (CPs, advised by STRP and assisted by IOPs)
Global wetland information
Policy, legislation and institutions
Cross-sectoral recognition of wetland services Develop a global wetland information system, through partnerships, to be covered by voluntary contributions, to increase accessibility of data and information on wetlands. (CPs, Secretariat, advised by STRP and assisted by IOPs)
Develop and implement policies, legislation, and practices, including growth and development of appropriate institutions, in all
Contracting Parties to ensure that the wise use provisions of the Convention are being effectively applied. (CPs, Secretariat)
Increase recognition of and attention in decision-making to the significance of wetlands for reasons of biodiversity conservation, water supply, coastal protection, integrated coastal zone management, flood defense, climate change mitigation and/or adapation, food security, poverty eradication, tourism, cultural heritage, and scientific research, by developing and disseminating methodologies to achieve wise use of wetlands. (CPs, Secretariat, STRP, IOPs)
STRATEGY 1.5
STRATEGY 1.6
STRATEGY 1.7
STRATEGY 1.8
Recognition of role of the Convention
Science-based management of wetlands
Integrated Water Resources Management
Wetland restoration
Raise the profile of the Convention by highlighting its capacity as a unique mechanism for wetland ecosystem management at all levels; promote the usefulness of the Convention as a possible implementation mechanism to meet the goals and targets of other global conventions and processes. (CPs, Secretariat, STRP, IOPs)
Promote successful implementation of the wise use concept by ensuring that national policies and wetland management plans are based on the best available scientific knowledge, including technical and traditional knowledge. (CPs, Secretariat, STRP, IOPs)
Ensure that policies and implementation of
Integrated Water Resources Management
(IWRM), applying an ecosystem-based approach, are, included in the planning activities in all Contracting Parties and in their decision-making processes, particularly concerning groundwater management, catchment/river basin management, coastal and nearshore marine zone planning, and climate change mitigation and/or adaptation activities. (CPs, STRP, IOPs)
Identify priority wetlands and wetland systems where restoration or rehabilitation would be beneficial and yield long-term environmental, social, or economic benefits, and implement the necessary measures to recover these sites and systems. (CPs,
Secretariat, IOPs)
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
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STRATEGY 1.9
STRATEGY 1.10
STRATEGY 1.11
Research
Invasive alien species
Private sector
Incentive measures
1.7.2 Additional guidance on the implementation of the wise use concept
(1993)
Encourage Contracting Parties to develop a national inventory of invasive alien species that currently and/or potentially impact the ecological character of wetlands, especially
Ramsar sites, and ensure mutual supportiveness between the national inventory and IUCN's Global Register on
Invasive Species (GRIS); develop guidance and promote procedures and actions to prevent, control or eradicate such species in wetland systems. (CPs, STRP, other agencies,
IOPs)
Promote the involvement of the private sector in the conservation and wise use of wetlands.
(CPs, Secretariat)
Promote incentive measures that encourage the application of the wise use provisions of the Convention. (CPs, Secretariat, IOPs)
Research can be anything that expands upon basic knowledge. Particular areas that may deserve attention are both identification and quantification of wetland values, sustainability of wetland use, and landscape functioning and modification. Contracting Parties should take positive steps to acquire and, when possible, share any knowledge developed on wetland values, functions and uses.
Training
Training activities and transfer of appropriate knowledge should be an integrated component of all wise use projects. Those activities should be as catalytic as possible, and seek to train potential trainers at regional level who can then pass on their expertise to lower levels, and involve the cooperation of governmental and non-governmental organizations, using local resources and institutions whenever possible. Three broad types of training appear to be of particular relevance for wetland professionals:
Courses on integrated management
Courses on wetland management techniques Courses for field staff
In the study report on “Resour ce Rights,
Sustainable Livelihoods, Environmental
Security and Conflict Mitigation in South
Asia” of IUCN Asia, the management system of wetland in pre-colonial Bangladesh has been described as below (Waliuzzaman, et al.,undated): “Fisheries wer e traditionally managed and dominated as common property resources through complex systems of rights evolved in and enforced by local communities. It was during this period that the traditional property rights of fishers and non-fishers began to be regulated and restricted through statutory law. Leasing was often short-term, with few incentives to protect fish stocks and every incentive to maximise income by intensive fishing. Some fishers managed to become lessees but the majority did not and throughout the colonial period had practically no property rights in water or in fish.



1.8 Preceding Exploration in
Tanguar Haor
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 020
Leasing in Tanguar Haor was abolished by law in 2001 when the area was designated an ecologically critical area, and the lessee was removed in 2003. Tanguar Haor, currently and until 2011, is being managed by the
Ministry of Environment and Forests. The role of local communities in this new arrangement is in the process of being defined but it appears that the new regime will involve a measure of exclusion and further curtailment of their rights to access and use the wetland resources.” In another study on Tanguar Haor, Kabir and
Amin (2007) stated that most of the villagers depend on the haor for fishing, grazing, farming, and wetland vegetation for fuel. Most importantly, the haor is also used for rice
(staple food) cultivation during the winter flood-free season. Total exclusion of local people from the current management practices greatly impacted the local people whose livelihood depends on the resources of the haor. This study illustrates the importance of Tanguar Haor resources on local peoples, livelihood and their willingness, constraints and opportunities to participation in the haor management. Until now, limited research has been carried out on Tanguar Haor mainly by NERP (1993), the annual Asian Waterfowl Census, and
National Conservation Strategy
Implementaiton Project (NCSIP-1). All these studies have focused on fisheries, flora, fauna and socio economic aspect of Tanguar Haor area. In a study report of IUCN Asia on
“Sustainable Livelihoods, Envir onmental
Security and Conflict Mitigation” a brief on
Tanguar Haor resources was given. Tanguar
Haor has provided its inhabitants with nearly everything they need for their subsistence, including rice, fish, vegetables, pasture, wild fruit, building material and fuel. Fish is the most important of all the resources taken from haor waters, but area residents also harvest rice and a number of other crops and medicinal plants, both cultivated and wild, which are a major food source for the landless and destitute during the monsoon and the pre-harvest winter months. The ecosystem services provided by Tanguar Haor are yet to be fully documented. Tanguar Haor supports as many as 150 of an estimated total of 200 wetland plant species occurring in haor areas across the country. Tanguar
Haor is also home to 141 varieties of fish, more than half of Bangladesh's 260 freshwater fish species. This includes 55 fish species that are threatened in Bangladesh, of which 28 are endangered. Of these 28 endangered fish species, 17 are found only in
Tanguar Haor. In addition, 11 amphibians, 34 reptiles, 206 bird species and 31 mammals are found in the area (Giesen and Rashid,
1997). During the winter months, Tanguar
Haor sees the arrival of more than half a million migratory water birds. Winter is also the time when the Pallas's fish eagle nests in wetland trees and the Bengal rose blooms in the fields.
According to GoB (2004), a total of 208 bird species have been recorded at Tanguar Haor which is 30% of the total species recorded in
Bangladesh, 92 waterbirds, 33 are reed land/ grassland/ marsh dwelling passerine birds,
15 are birds of prey and 68 are birds of village groe and /or foothill forests. Of the total number of species 98 species are migratory and 110 are resident species. Two bird species are listed as rare under IUCN classification (
), two are indeterminate
( ) and four are listed by CITES (App.1;
Haliaeetus leucorhyphus and
Prinia burnesii
Pellorneum palustre, Chaetornis striatus
Haliaeetus
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 021 leucorhyphus, Falco peregrinus; App.2: Platelea leucordia, Sarkidiornis melanotos
Aythya nyroca
Anas penelope Fulica atra Larus brunnicephalus Tadorna ferruginea
Anas poecilorhyncha
Hydrophasianus chirurgus
Metopidus
indicus Gallinula chloropus Trachybaptus ruficollis Ardea cinerea
Milvus
migrans Haliastur indus
). Tanguar
Haor provides a habitat for various globally threatened wildlife species including 1 ambhibian, 3 turtles, two lizards, 4 snakes, 10 birds and 6 mammals.
A study on “The effects of the ood cycle on the diversity and composition of the phytoplankton community of a seasonally ooded Ramsar wetland in Bangladesh” has been conducted by Muzaffar and Ahmed
(2006). They investigated the seasonal variation in the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton assemblages in Tanguar Haor.
In another study, Muzaffar (2004) quantified diurnal time-activity budgets for Ferruginous
Pochard, wintering in Tanguar
Haor, Bangladesh.
In a presentation by Ecologically Critical Area
Management Unit (ECAMU) - Coastal and
Wetland Biodiversity Management Project
(CWBMP) Wild bird diversity of Tanguar Haor has been described as:
Migratory ducks like Eurasian Wigeon
( ), Common Coot (
), Brown headed Gull (
) and Ruddy Shelduck
( );
Resident waterfowls like Spot-bill Duck
( ), Pheasant-tailed
Jacana ( ),
Bronzed-winged Jacana (
), Common Moorhen (
), Little Grebe (
), Grey Heron ( );and
Raptor birds like Black Kite (
), Brahminy Kite ( )



and Pallas's Fish Eagle (
).
During the appraisal mission of Tanguar Haor wetland biodiversity conservation project,
Bevanger et al. (2001) stated findings from the Tanguar Haor management plan (THMP) in which major biodiversity threats for
Tanguar Haor were:
1) No control over exploitation of fisheries resources, habitat destruction (e.g., last vestiges of swamp forest are under threat), decline of fisheries production and introduction of exotic fish species
2) Waterfowl poaching and numbers of migratory waterfowl are dropping
3) Depletion of other natural resources, such as reed lands and swamp forest
4) Gaps in knowledge about biodiversity
5) Insufficient policy frameworks and legislative provisions for biodiversity conservation and protected wetland management A case study of Boateng (2010) explained that a formal institutional framework and management plan for Tanguar Haor wetland has been developed through the effort of local
Environmental NGOs, some government agencies and with the financial support from
IUCN.
A brief review of the existing laws, plans and policies related to the wetland management of Bangladesh are provided by Huq (1993),
Giesen and Rashid (1997), and GoB (2002).
For the management of Tanguar Haor, the most relevant of these are show in the table below :
Haliaeetus
leucoryphus
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 022
Table 1.2: Laws, policies and legislation on sustainable haor resource management
Year
Sectoral Laws, Policies and
Legislations
Specification of the Laws
1977
1982
1985
1992
1992
1995
1997
1997
1999
2000
The Haor Development Board
Ordinance
Protection and Conservation of Fish
(Amendment) Ordinance
Land Management Manual
National Conservation Strategy
Ramsar Convention (Ratified by
Bangladesh)
National Environmental Management
Action Plan
Tanguar Haor Management Plan
Notification of Ecologically Critical
Areas
Tanguar Haor Management Plan
(revised)
Environment Conservation Act (1995) and
Environment Conservation Rules (1997)
It requires the Board to prepare projects and schemes to develop the haors and other depressed low lying areas.
Very short duration of the Board mainly executed a few projects related to flood control, land reclamation and extension of agriculture fisheries.
Prohibits unsustainable fishing techniques, and calls for conservation of fish resources.
Guidelines for leaseholders, for sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources.
Recommendations for achieving sustainable development in all sectors. NCSIP -1 is implementation mechanism. Sustainable (Wise) use of wetland resources, if appropriate, with community based management.
Halt degradation: promote sustainable use, conservation of biodiversity.
Focus on EIA and protection of Ecologically Critical Areas.
Sustainable Management (wise use) of the haor dealing with community based haor management.
Enactment of the ECA clause in the Environmental
Conservation Act (1995) and Rules (1997)
Emphasis on implementation of wise use principle prescribed in Ramsar guidelines and community based haor management.
Sourece: Huq, 1993; GoB, 2002; Giesen and Rashid, 1997; Kabir and Amin (2007)
Brown headed Gull - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 023
1.9. Organization of the Book
The main target of this book is to share the information on biodiversity (flora, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) of and its changes due to various threats, which will ultimately alert local communities to improve their knowledge in biodiversity conservation.
The book begins with the Preface followed by
Acknowledgements, Introduction and Salient
Geographical Features of Bangladesh,
Biodiversity Assessment Method and Present
Wildlife Status of Tanguar Haor. The next species profile chapter will represent the most important and popular wildlife fauna
(Amphibian, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals) in reference to Tanguar Haor. This section of the book helps community people to be and to identify wildlife easily.
Tanguar Haor enthusiastic The last chapter of this book describes
Community led monitoring of wildlife and conservation practices. The reference section is followed by the appendices. In the
Appendix section, census status of waterfowl and other observation data on wildlife species have been provided.
This book is the volume one for wildlife of
Tanguar Haor which is focused mainly on birds. It will be followed by another two volumes which will focus on fish and flora
. We hope that this initiative will create awareness not only in Tanguar Haor community but also across the whole country.
This book will also contribute to policy level in
Bangladesh such as the development of any future legislation and establishment of conservation priorities. accordingly Migratory ducks - Sayam U. Chowdhury
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 024
Chapter 2
Salient Geological Features of Tanguar Haor
2.1 Geomorphology
Tanguar Haor is one of the largest wetland systems in the northeast region with relative natural state and located at 25 5' 25 North and 91 1 91 East. Approximately one-thirds lies in
Tahirpur Upazila and two-thirds lies in Dharmapasha Upazila, both of which are located in
Sunamgonj District of Sylhet Division (Figure 2.1). The haor consists of 46-50 beels of various sizes (Akondo, 1989; BFD, 2012). The area of Tanguar Haor including 46 villages within the haor is about 100 square kilometres of which 2802.36 ha is wetland (Banglapedia, 2006).The haor is located at an altitude of only 2.5-5.5 meters above mean sea level.
0 '' 0 ' ''
Figure 2.1: Map of Tanguar Haor
Map: Shahriar Rahman, IUCN
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 026
The wetland is bounded on the north by the
Shillong Plateau, an elevated block of Pre-
Cambrian Basement rock which has been draped over by late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. The south face of the plateau has been dissected by steep, V-shaped canyon that follows structurally controlled valleys. The southern escarpment of the plateau is bordered by the east-west rending Dauki
Fault, which forms a distinct lineament separating the lowlands in Bangladesh from the mountains in India (NERP, 1993b)
Most of the haor area is covered by the Young
Piedmont. Alluvial plain which comprises the alluvial fans of the Shillong plateau and also the adjoining basins and basin depressions.
The fan soils are poorly to imperfectly drained, strongly mottled brown, loamy sands to clay loams, poorly structured to strongly to very strongly acid reaction. The very poorly drained basin deposits comprise strongly reduced heavy clay lacking any sign of profile development. Tanguar Haor is located right at the foothills of the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from these features, location of this haor is another factor for its high biomass production. The haor system is mainly rendered with the blackflow of river waters from Baulai, Patnai and
Jadukata rivers. Few hill streams flow into the haor system but the major water thrust comes from the south because of the back flow. The hill streams do bring in some sediment but considering the volume of water held in the haor and the area of the haor itself, it is insignificant. Because of the low quantity of silt plus its dissemination during flooding season this haor is still deep enough compared to the other haors where the rate of sedimentation is comparatively higher.
Due to this backflow the water is relatively clean, free from suspending materials and with less residual matter. As a result the water is transparent and sunlight can penetrate to quite a considerable depth. This increases the lotic area of the water body facilitating the photosynthesis and making it the most productive area (with high biomass) within the northeastern haor basin. It is because of these important physical features that this wetland is still capable of maintaining the ecosystem to its near-natural state resulting in high biomass production.
The area of Tanguar Haor harbours some of the last vestiges of natural swamp forest and is totally flooded in the monsoon season. The floral diversity in this haor is very rich which makes it an ideal place for the migratory birds. As a result, every winter about 200 types of migratory birds come to this haor who make their temporary habitat here and some of these birds also find this area suitable for their breeding.
Tanguar Haor is also extremely rich in terms of fisheries resources and is considered as one of the largest and most important
“mother fishery” (centr e for recruitment and dispersal of fish and thus influence the fish production in adjacent floodplains) in the country for floodplain freshwater species. This haor is also a unique habitat for waterfowl.
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 027
Figure 2.2: Habitat Restoration Locations of Tanguar Haor
Koroj forest - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 028
Map: Mohammad Shahad Mahabub Chowdhury
2.2 Human Habitation
Tanguar Haor is a unique habitat for wetland plants, freshwater fish and wetland associated wildlife. It is made up of about 50 small, medium and large interconnecting beels some of which are perennial and others seasonal. The higher grounds located in between beels are locally known as . In the rainy season all the beels are united as kanda Table 2.1: Status of land ownership and its distribution in Tanguar Haor area one large lake, or haor, making Tanguar Haor the larger freshwater wetland in Bangladesh.
Deeper beels are connected with rivers in some places but these beels are also interlinked with each other which make a unique character of these beel elsewhere in the country. Additional information on some important habitation statuses and the status of land ownership (Table 2.1) and a resource map of Tanguar Haor (Figure 2.2) are given below: Distribution of land ownership
Land category
Area in Hectare
Khash land Private land Distributed land from Khash land Total
Beel
Reed
River
Fallow land
Seasonal fallow land
Cultivated
Seed bed
Human settlement area Khal/Nala/chara
Pond/Doba
524.07
163.49
348.41
13.07
1168.23
93.47
114.07
7.3
203.91
45.16
4.64
47.25
1.01
0.52
3617.21
3097.34
141.47
94.1
1.47
37.96
3123.16
265.02
0
46.54
783.19
141.62
4.76
1.57
2.33
0.45
3651.87
475.76
349.42
60.13
5568.63
3332.43
260.3
102.97
207.71
83.57
Source: Final draft report on “community based sustainable management of Tanguar Haor program
(CBSMTHP) by IUCN
Waterfowl - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 029
2.2.1 Beel
Beels of Tanguar Haor are unique because of good combinations between floral and faunal distribution. There are about 54 beels
(Tanguar Haor Resource Maping, 2007, CBS
& TSP, IUCN) in Tanguar Haor. Among them
16 are perennial. Total area of the beel is
3651.91 hectares. Some major beels are as follows which will represent the whole
Tanguar Haor:
The beel is located (25 8 54 ' N 91 4 3.8
E) almost in the middle of the Tanguar Haor and north-west of Tahirpur Upazilla. The beel is now declared a micro fish sanctuary and and may also be decarled as a bird sanctuary.
Rare and globally threatened Baer's Pochard and Baikal Teal are found at this beel.
Presence of these birds indicates the potentiality of this beel in terms of feeding, roosting and foraging ground. The beel is home to a few submerged, free-floating and rooted floating plants which is also a receptive feature for these wetland birds.
Newly planted and in the banks
(locally known as ) of the beel will be an added advantage for the birds and other aquatic wildlife. Gadwalls (51.82%) are found as dominant species of the beel and among the other duck the species presence of Tufted
Duck, Garganey and Eurasian Wigeon in this beel are remarkable.
0 ' ' 0 ' ''
Hijal Karoch kanda Hatirgatha Beel
Hatirgatha Kanda and flock of cormorant in Hatirgatha Beel - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 030
Figure 2.3: Different beels and its buffer zones
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 031
Map: Mohammad Shahad Mahabub Chowdhury
Lechuamara Beel
This beel (25 8 33 ' N 91 4 23 E) is closely associated with the Hatirgatha Beel and also situated in Tahirpur Upazila. This beel is a micro fish and bird sanctuary declared by Tanguar Haor project authority.
The beel is most prospective ground for water birds. Appropriate shallowness of water, presence of adequate submerged, freefloating, rooted floating, sedges and meadows, reed swamps plants along with other phyto and zooplankton etc, make this beel paradise for winter visitors as well as resident waterbirds. The beel provides breeding grounds and roosting habitat viz. and reed lands with particular vegetation e.g, Nal, Khagra, Hogla (
), Chailla ghash (
), Binnya ( ) for thousands of ducks, geese and other waterloving bird and wildlife species. Among the rare birds Mallard can be seen at this beel.
0 ' ' 0 ' ''
Kandas
Typha elephantina Hemarthria protensa Vitiveria zizanoides
Rupaboi Beel
This beel (25 8 8.7 N 91 4 17.2 E) is surrounded by Hatirgatha to the north, to the east by Chotainna Canal, to the south by
Sotterpuri Beel and to the west by a few agricultural lands. It is also in the of
Tahirpur. It is a micro fish sanctuary. Birds diversity and population status of this beel is not as noteworthy as Lecuamara and
Hatirgatha Beel, but presence of some reed land with , grasslands and bushy undergrowth makes this beel a suitable habitat for water birds. Red-crested Pochard,
Spotted Redshank, Great Crested Grebe and
Oriental Darter are some rare birds recorded from the beel while the survey was conducted
(2011).
0 ' '' 0 ' ''
Upazila
Nal, Khagra
Lechuamara and Rupaboi
A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
Kanda, Beel Beel, Kanda
(Top to Bottom) -
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 032
Rowa Beel
Although the beel (25 8 20.2 N 91 4 17
E) is not a designated bird sanctuary. It represents a large number of water birds. It was earliar declared as a micro fish sanctuary.
As a fish sanctuary, a large area is restricted as a no fishing zone. Fishing and other anthropogenic interventions are strictly prohibited in this zone. The periphery of the beel embraces huge aquatic weeds and existence of reed lands with Nal, Khagra and other reed swamp vegetation species allows the habitat to be suitable for water birds and other wildlife. Ruff, Common Redshank,
Eurasian Coot and Oriental Darter are some rare birds seen in this beel (4222 ind.).
0 ' '' 0 ' ''
Ballardubi Beel
The beel (25 8 12.9 N 91 5 28 E) is situated partly in both Tahirpur and
Dharmapasha Upazila and is connected to
Tekunna Beel through a channel. It is also declared as a fish sanctuary.
0 ' '' 0 ' ''
Rowa Beel, Kanda and Ballardubi Kanda, Beel (Top to Bottom) - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 033
Annar Beel
This beel (25 7 38 N 91 2 029 E) is connected with Tekunna Beel through a narrow strip like canal. It is also situated in
Dharmapasha . The beel supports few submerged, free-floating and rooted floating plants which attract ducks, egrets, herons etc.
The surrounding of this beel provide some nesting and roosting amenities for a few waders and other grassbirds.
0 ' '' 0 ' ''
Upazila
kandas
Tekunna Beel
This large shallow beel (25 8 34.1 N 91 1
43 E) is situated in Dharmapasha Upazila. It is a fish sanctuary and directly connected with Ballardubi and Sonadubi Beel. A few patches of cultivable/agriculture land exist around the beel. The of Tekunna Beel is a suitable roosting and nesting ground for water birds. Different varieties of herbs viz.
( ), Binnya (
) and Chailla ghash subsisted in the which attracted water birds to nesting inside the patch.
0 ' ' 0 '
'
'
'
kandas
Khagra Phragmitis karka Vetiveria zizanoides kanda
Tekunna and Annar Beel
A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
(Top to Bottom)
-
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 034
Bagmara Beel and Kanda
This is situated (25 7 46 N 91 5 47 E) in
Tahirpur Upazila. This area is very close to
Golabari and Joipur village. The bird species diversity of this beel is amazing although the population density is lesser than the other beels visited during the survey. The globally threatened and rare bird Pallas's Fish Eagle was found nesting in the terrestrial area adjacent to this beel. Among the other rare birds Black Bittern and Long-toed Stint are seen in the beel. Of the migratory birds, one species is summer visitor i.e. Common Hawk-
Cuckoo.
0 ' '' 0 ' ''
Berberia Beel
This beel (25 9 15 N 91 3 37 E) is a bird sanctuary declared earlier by the Tanguar
Haor project authority. It is located partly at
Tahirpur and Dharmapasha Upazila. Jhaji, pata sheola, kochuripana, Khudipana,
Shingara, panchuli, joina, shada shapla, chandmala, ichadal etc. make this beel a unique habitat for water birds, frogs and other wildlife. The beel has the desirable depth for dabbling ducks like Eurasian
Wigeon, Gadwall, Mallard and Northern
Shoveler etc. This is an ideal habitat for migratory waterfowl. Among the rare sightings from this beel is the significant presence of
Falcated Duck and Common Pochard. This beel is also declared as micro fish sanctuary.
It is also a excellent site for fish egg spawning too. Diversity of bird species of this haor is less than the other bird sanctuary. This is because of the anthropogenic disturbance.
People from the beel adjacent villages' viz.
Rupnagar, Indrapur, Kanda para, Bakatola,
Bangalvita previously came regularly and collected resources to meet their needs.
0 ' '' 0 ' ''
Bagmara Beel, Golabari Canal and Berberia Beel
(Top to Bottom) - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 035
Ulan Beel
This beel is located at the outskirts of Tanguar
Haor and situated at Tahirpur . In dry season almost half of the beel is transformed into agriculture land. This beel is surrounded by agriculture land. More than 1200 individuals of Black-tailed Godwit are found in the paddy field adjacent to this beel. Among the rare birds Bar-tailed Godwit and Pallas's
Fish Eagle were also found here during the survey. Upazila
Kalmar Beel
This beel is located at Dharmapasha .
The periphery of this beel is filled with and other species of the family of Poaceae.
Upazila
Khagra
Ulan and Kalmar Beel
A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
(Top to Bottom)
-
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 036
2.2.2 Kanda
Beels of Tanguar Haor retain water throughout the year. Intermediate place between the Haor basin and homestead land are called . There are about 180
(IUCN) in Tanguar Haor. These support the major plant communities during drier months. At the onset of monsoon or floods all these go under water transforming the entire wetland into a single sheet of water changing the whole scenario. The depth of flooding during monsoon ranging from 2 to
10 meters depending on the ground elevation. Usually reed swamp plants are found in these . is fairly deeply flooded during the rainy season and dry out during the dry season. There are many in the Tanguar Haor area which are land though some agricultural practices are done but mainly works as grazing land for cows, buffalos birds and fish to breed once they started submerged. kanda kandas kandas kandas kanda Kanda kandas khas
The major of Tanguar Haor are
Lachuamara, Rupaboi, Rowa Beel interconnected Ballardubi Beel ,
Tekunna and Annar Beel , Hatirghata
Beel and Berberia Beel .
Kandas
kanda Kanda kanda Kanda Kanda
,
2.2.3 River
Tanguar Haor is in North-East part of
Bangladesh, adjacent to the Indian border, is part of a wetland/floodplain complex of the
Meghna and Surma river basin. These two rivers are among the main tributaries of the
Brahmaputra river. This site is also influenced by Dhanu Baulai and Jadukata Rivers.
Meghalayan Hills are in the North from where a number of hill streams flow into the haor.
Other important haors like Matian, Shanir and
Thapner are very nearby and have some dependency with some degree of variation.
Total river area is 359.39 hectares.
2.2.4 Canal/Khal
About 44 narrow water canals slope down to the Tanguar Haor from Indian territory and
30% of these have constant flow throughout the year while rest only remain alive only in monsoon. These water flows (narrow canals and rivers) result in huge sediments to the beels and adjacent upland (villages).
Chattainna kanda - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
Baulai River - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 037
Chattainna Canal
2.3 Climatic Feature
This canal is located (25 8' 22''N 91 5 ' 12''
E) at Tahirpur and is
0 0
Upazila directly connected to Rupaboi Beel. Reed swamps, and other herb/shrub etc. are seen to have existed on both side of the canal which supports a number of rare birds like Ruddy-breasted
Crake, Indian Spot-billed Duck and other wildlife. Presence of Rare Glossy Ibis has attracted focus on this canal. A big forest patch was observed at the Joipur village end adjacent to this canal.
The climatic condition of Tanguar Haor is sub tropical-monsoon with three dominating seasons, summer, monsoon and winter.
Average annual rainfall is about 8000 mm in the northern part of Sunamganj with 65-69 % of the total rainfall occuring in the summer.
Evaporation enhances rainfall during the spring causing flash floods in Tanguar Haor.
Summer starts from the month of April to
Nal, Khagra, Dholkalmi, Phutki
Karach
Table 2.2: Rainfall, evaporation and temperature stations with periods of records
Data Type District Periods of Records
CL 121 (Mohanganj)
CL 127 (Sunamganj)
CL 49 (Laurergarh)
CL 124 (Pagla)
CL 123 (Netrokona)
CL 127 (Sunamganj)
CL --- (Sreemongal)
Sylhet
Station No. (Name)
Netrokona
Sunamganj
Sunamganj
Sunamganj
Netrokona
Sunamganj
Sylhet
1980-2006
1980-2008
1996-2010
1980-2004
2007-2011
2007-2010
1981-2010
Rainfall
Evaporation
Temperature
Source: BMD & BWDB,2010
June with the temperature ranging from 30.9
~ 33.4 C, monsoon from May to September and winter from October to February where the temperature ranges from 8.5 ~ 16.6 C.
Humidity is about 83% in wet season and
64% in dry season. Climatic data (Rainfall,
Evaporation and Temperature) for the following BMD meteorological stations has been collected for this study (Table 2.2).
0
0
Chattainna Canal - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 038
2.3.1 Rainfall
The north-eastern part of Bangladesh experiences higher rainfall than other parts of
Bangladesh due to its physiographic considerations. Total number of rainy days in
Sylhet (149) is more than that of Srimangal
(116) with higher annual normal rainfall
(4195.9 mm in Sylhet, 2354.8 mm in
Table 2.3: Average normal rainfall (mm) and number of normal rainy days at Sylhet and Srimangal
Month
Sylhet Srimangal
Amount of Rainfall
(mm)
No. of Rainy
Days
Amount of Rainfall
(mm)
No. of Rainy
Days
January 9.4 2 5 1
February 36.2 4 31.3 3
March 155.3 9 84.1 5
April 375.6
16
216.1 11
May 569.6 20 449.9 18
June 818.4 22 449.7 18
July 819.2 25 339.4 17
August 612.6 22 299.3 18
September 535.9 18 278.5 14
October 223.9 8 150 7
November 30.4 2 40.3 3
December 9.4 1 11.2 1
Annual Total 4195.9 % of Total 2354.8 % of Total
Mar-Oct 4110.5 97.96467981 2267 96.27144556
Apr-Oct 3955.2 94.26344765 2182.9 92.70001699
May-Oct 3579.6 85.31185205 1966.8 83.52301682
Source: BMD & BWDB, 2010
Srimangal). More than 80% of annual total rainfall occurs during the May to October period in both Sylhet and Srimangal area. The rainfall distributions in March to October,
April to October and May to October for
Sylhet and Srimangal stations show similar percentages (Table 2.3).
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 039
According to the rainfall analysis, highest rainfall occurs in the months from June to
August occurring at Laurerghar (CL 49),
Sunamganj (CL 127) and Mohanganj (CL
121) stations [Figure 2.4 (a,b,c)]. Highest average rainfall (1242.47 mm in August) was found at the Laurerghar station. The
Mohanganj station shows peak during the months of June and July with a sudden rise in the months of August and September.
Sunamganj station records show general trend of rainfall distribution similar to the other parts of the country.
Figure 2.4 (a, b & c): Monthly, maximum and average total rainfall (mm) at Laurerghar (CL 49),
Sunamganj (CL 127) and at Mohanganj (CL 121) stations from 1980 to 2008
2.3.2 Evaporation
Balance amongst rainfall, temperature and evaporation maintains the hydrometeorological system in Tanguar Haor area.
Evaporation from open water and transpiration from vegetation are functions of solar radiation, temperature, wind speed, humidity and atmospheric pressure, characteristics of the surrounding environment, and type and condition of vegetation. Monthly distributions of evaporation for Sunamganj shows average monthly evaporation of about 522.19 mm.
Highest monthly evaporation at Sunamganj station has been observed during the months of March to June and lowest during the months from December to February (Figure
2.5a).
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 040
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rainfall (mm)
Month
(a) Monthly Maximum, Average and Minimum Total Rainfall at Laurerghar (CL 49) from 1998 to 2010
Avg Max Min
(b) Monthly Maximum, Average and Minimum Total Rainfall (mm) at Sunamganj
(CL 127) from 1980 to 2008
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Rainfall (mm)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month
Avg Max Min
0
400
800
1200
1600
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rainfall (mm)
Month
(c) Monthly Maximum, Average and MinimumTotal Rainfall (mm) at Mohanganj (CL 121) from 1980 to 2008
Avg Max Min
Figure 2.5(a, b): Monthly evaporation (mm) at Sunamganj (CL 127) and Netrokona (CL 123)
Station from 2007 to 2010
Monthly average evaporation at Netrokona station (CL 123) shows the similar pattern as the Sunamganj station. The evaporation ranges from 647.19 ~ 940.73 mm with an average monthly evaporation of about 812.29 mm from the year 2007 to 2010 (Figure
2.5b).
2.3.3 Temperature
Temperature is an important meteorological parameter for maintaining ecological balance in Tanguar Haor . The Sylhet area has been experiencing temperature range from 9.68 ~
35.70C (from January to December).
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 041
Reeds - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
0
250
500
750
1000
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Evaporation (mm)
Month
(a) Monthly Evaporation (mm) at Sunamganj (CL 127) from 2007 to 2010
Avg Max Min
0
250
500
750
1000
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Evaporation (mm)
Month
(b) Monthly Evaporation (mm) at Netrokona (CL 123) from 2007 to 2010
Avg Max Min
Figure 2.6: Maximum and minimum temperature (0C) at Sylhet Station from 1981 to 2010
According to the historical monthly maximum and minimum temperature analysis (from
1981 to 2010), maximum temperature occurs in the month of March-April while minimum temperature occurs in December and January (Figure 2.6).
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month
Maximum and Minimum Temperature (oC) at Sylhet from 1981 to 2010
Monthly Maximum Temperature (2010)
Monthly Minimum Temperature (2010) Monthly Average Maximum Temperature (1981 to 2010)
Monthly Average Minimum Temperature (1981 to 2010)
Temperature ( C)o
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 042
Chapter 3
Biodiversity
Assessment Method
Biodiversity is a broad term and commonly defined through three different components: intraspecific genes (genetic diversity), interspecific species (species diversity) and ecosystems
(ecological diversity) (UNEP, 2003). Each of these have structural, compositional, and functional attributes. Identifying, measuring and monitoring of these are complex. To overcome this problem national and international initiatives are needed to identify simplified and significant methodologies of biodiversity assessment. During the study in Tanguar Haor, with special emphasis to species diversity, three main rationales, identified for biodiversity assessment, are as follows: Firstly, to conduct biodiversity surveys for establishing inventories;
Secondly, to conduct a gap analysis in our knowledge pertaining to Tanguar Haor; and
Thirdly, to monitor biodiversity changes.



Purple heron - Sayam U. Chowdhury
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 044
A survey of biodiversity has been conducted in the major sites of Tanguar Haor. Different methodologies were undertaken to study faunal diversity (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish diversity) and also for floral diversity. Collection of data was based on the direct observation of the faunal and floral diversity in the field. Further interviews with local people were taken to gather information regarding past records of some birds and other wildlife. With a description of study sites, the details survey methodologies are given below:
According to the statistics of GoB, around 50 beels occupied the haor, out of which major
3.1 Study Sites
12 beels were selected through a random primary assessment which involves identification of bird sanctuaries (e.g,
Berberia, Lechuamara), fish sanctuaries (e.g,
Rupaboi, Rowa, etc.), artificial no fishing zone, fishing zone, etc., to represent the whole haor's scenario. The selected beels are
Hatirgatha, Lechuamara, Rupaboi, Rowa,
Ballardubi, Tekunna, Bagmara, Chattainna,
Berebiria, Annar, Ulan, Kolmar located at
Tanguar Haor. The survey also includes some terrestrial grounds of Indrapur, Birendranagar,
Ratanpur, Binodpur, Paniakhali, Rupnagar,
Kandapara, Bakatola, Banglavita, Lamagaon,
Golgolia, Noagaon, Rongchi, etc. The following map shows the study areas where the survey was conducted.
Figure 3.1: Map showing the study areas for wildlife survey in Tanguar Haor
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 045
3.2 Wildlife Survey Methodology
Strip transect sampling
Focus Group Discussion
Literature review
The survey was focused primarily on waterfowls. In addition, other species of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals were also surveyed during the field visits.
Transect line (1 km) has been used during the survey of mammals, as strip transect sampling ( ) is the most suitable to estimate the population status and relative abundance of wildlife. Observation of all individuals at the line and estimation of the proportion has been conducted.
In this method the observer(s) slowly walks on a relatively straight line through the study area and counts the objects from both sides.
For Tanguar Haor boat surveys were conducted on the beels, and some terrestrial area. The initial location of the object is always needed to be considered, as the object might move after watching the observer(s). If any object is observed beyond the pre-decided observation-range, or if the object is coming from the back (in order to avoid duplication), the observation was not recorded. Focus group discussion was carried out through questionnaire surveys to collect data which was used in clarification of information obtained. An extensive review of literature on mammals of the Tanguar Haor was carried out to find a birds 3.2.1 Mammal survey methods
Buckland et al. 2001 kandas list of all species historically known to occur here. Individual number of mammals was recorded through direct field visits and surveys.
Data was collected by strip transect sampling, opportunistic survey and visual observation.
The methods are briefly described below:
Strip transect sampling has also been followed during bird survey. This survey was conducted in morning and afternoons when the birds are most active. Transects were located in areas which are suitable in terms of observation in each study site.
This method assumes that all objects in the strip are recorded, so the observer(s) is very careful in observing and recording the objects. Even then, the observer(s) may miss some of the objects in the strip, but it should not be more than 5% of the total objects, so that the error is statistically insignificant. The more areas covered in strip transects subsequently leads to a lower error in the result. Transects should be located predominately in places of the study sites where there is a probability of high biodiversity and hence a high number of objects. Even if any centre line of transect is slightly undulated, the observation-strip is maintained roughly straight by manipulating the observation distance to that particular area. The birds will be observed and identified properly and carefully, so that there is no misidentification. 3.2.2. Bird survey methods
Individual recorded
Strip transect sampling
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 046
Opportunistic survey
In the opportunistic survey, any important or interesting observation/information was recorded at any time while in the field. This method is suitable for recording the occurrences, relative abundance and distribution of different species of birds and other wildlife, especially for those species which are rare or uncommon.
Although the opportunistic survey is an informal way of collecting information, the outcome can be very useful. However, if this is not carried out with sufficient care, wrong information can be recorded and the results can be biased. The method gives the opportunity to record scatter but important observations and information on rare and/or threatened birds and other wildlife, which cannot be studied formally due to their rarity.
Identification of birds
Population status of birds
Diversity of birds
The birds were observed either through a pair of wide angle binoculars, telescope or by the naked eye. Notes were taken on ecological and ethological aspects of all observations.
The identification was based mainly on external morphology, calling (Mitchell, 1977), flight and sitting postures and behaviours.
Birds were identified with the help of key characteristics and illustrations guide Birds of
Indian Subcontinent by Grimmett,
(1999), Birds of South Asia The Ripley Guide by Rasmussen (2005) etc.
The status of birds was determined by direct field visit-method (Khan, 1980). The relative abundance of birds was assessed as: 'Very
Common' (seen in 80-100% of visits),
'Common' (seen in 50-79% of visits),
'Uncommon' (seen in 20-49% of visits), or
'Rare' (seen in =5
Formula of result calculation:10*100/20=50%= if 10 birds seen in one census, Marks=3
Pallas's Fish Eagle=20 seen=100%=No management is required in case of scored more than 80% (5) marks
If scored 4 management is going well
If scored 3 management is required
If scored 2 management is going down
In case of not seen Red Line's causes are clear
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 185
Bird's name Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:7500*100/15000=50%= if 7500 birds seen in one census, Marks=3
Ferruginous Pochard= if 15,000 individuals are seen=100%= No management is required in case of scored more than 80% (5) marks
If scored 4 management is going well
If scored 3 management is required
If scored 2 management is going down
In case of not seen Red Line's causes are clear
Ferruginous Pochard
Bird's name Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:40*100/60=66.66%=if 40 birds seen in one census, Marks=4
Oriental Darter=60 seen=100%= No management is required in case of scored more than 80% (5) marks
If scored 4 management is going well
If scored 3 management is required
If scored 2 management is going down
In case of not seen Red Line's causes are clear
Oriental Darter
Bird's name Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:7000*100/10,000=70%=if 7,000 birds seen in one census, Marks=4
Purple Swamphen= If 10,000 individuals are seen=100%= No management is required in case of scored more than 80% (5) marks
If scored 4 management is going well
If scored 3 management is required
If scored 2 management is going down
In case of not seen Red Line's causes are clear
Purple Swamphen
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 186
Bird's name Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines: 0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation: 60*100/100=60%=if 60 birds seen in one census, Marks=3
Purple Swamphen (Nesting)=100=100%= No management is required in case of scored more than 80% (5) marks If scored 4 management is going well
If scored 3 management is required
If scored 2 management is going down
In case of not seen Red Line's causes are clear
Purple Swamphen (Nesting)
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:40*100/100=40%=if 40 birds seen in one census, Marks=2
If Hunting 100 individuals =100% =Management is required if the number is over 20% (2)
Score 3 indicates to regular hunting
Score 4 indicate that hunters are desperate or there is no monitoring from the authority
Score 5 indicates very poor management
Hunting
Bird's Hunted
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:20*100/50=40%=if 20 birds seen in one season, Marks 2
Bird Hunter=If 50 Bird hunters are seen=100%= Management is required if the number is over 20% (2)
Score 3 indicates to regular hunting
Score 4 indicates that hunters are desperate or there is no monitoring from the authority
Score 5 indicates very poor management
Hunting
Bird hunter
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 187
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:30*100/50=60%=if 40 Turtles seen in one season, Marks=3
Turtle=50=100%= No management is required in case of scored more than 80% (5) marks
If scored 4 management is going well
If scored 3 management is required
If scored 2 management is going down
In case of not seen Red Line's causes are clear
Peacock Soft-shelled Turtle
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2, 41-60%=3, 61-79%=4, 80>=5
Formula of result calculation:10*100/20=50%=if 10 Turtles seen in one season, Marks=3
Turtle hunting=If 20 individuals are hunted=100%= Management is required if the number is over 20% (2)
Score 3 indicates to regular hunting
Score 4 indicate that hunters are desperate or there is no monitoring from the authority
Score 5 indicates very poor management
Hunting
Turtle
Turtles hunted
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-40%=2,41-60%=3,61-79%=4,80>=5
Formula of result calculation:5*100/10=50%=if 5 Turtle hunters found in one season, Marks=3
Turtle hunting=10 turtle hunters found=100%= Management is required if the number is over 20% (2)
Score 3 indicates to regular hunting
Score 4 indicate that hunters are desperate or there is no monitoring from the authority
Score 5 indicates very poor management
Hunter
Turtle hunter
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 188
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marking guidelines:0%=1, 1-50%=3, 100 >=5
Formula of result calculation: 50%=1 time census, Marks=3
Scientifically bird census=2 times every year=100%=If score 5, research works are going on regularly
Score 3 indicates that research is going on but not regular
Score 1 indicates no research is going on
Census
Waterfowl Census
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marks guidelines: 0%=1, 99%=5
Formula of result calculation: If biodiversity conservation festival organize once in a =100%=
Marks 5
Festival on bird conservation=once in every year=5 marks, Awareness works is going on
Score 1 indicates that there is no mass awareness on biodiversity conservation
Festival
Bird festival
Number Obtained marks
Census data: Marks:…………….
Marks guidelines: 0%=1, 1-50%=2, 51>=5
Formula of result calculation: committee in 4 villages=100%=Marks=5, committee in two villages=50%= 3 marks Biodiversity conservation Committee= committee in four villages every year=100%=
Marks 5, Biodiversity conservation committee is working well
Biodiversity conservation committee=2 committees in 2 villages per year=50%=Marks 2, biodiversity conservation committee is working slowly
Committee
Biodiversity conservation committee
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 189
6.3 How Community Benefit from
Sustainable Resource
Management?
The natural resources of Tanguar Haor are immensely important to the local community as the people are extremely dependent on haor resources. The sustainable management of the wetlands flora and fauna needs detailed understanding of specie composition, distribution patterns, estimates of productivity and direct and indirect values.
Sustainable forest (swamp forest and reed beds) management will help local people to continue collecting their variety of products and services and also assist in fish breeding.
These are both of considerable benefit to the community. Conservation of fish in the haor would increase fish production in the floodplains of
Bangladesh and subsequently directly boost up the economy of haor community as a vast proportion of the population in Tanguar Haor are connected to fishery.
In Tanguar Haor, local people are mainly engaged in agriculture. Conservation of fauna will help increase fertility of agricultural land,
e.g., wetland waterfowls, turtle and tortoises and indirectly help increase the fertility of agricultural land through their faecal deposition. A thorough combination of biodiversity and sustainable management will represent a healthy ecosystem in Tanguar Haor and therefore will help to protect the biodiversity of this haor for future benefits. Accordingly, it will directly or indirectly help the economy and livelihood of the Tanguar Haor local community. IUCN Bangladesh Country office
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 190
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Asia
APPENDIX 1: Checklist of Wildlife in Tanguar Haor
Status Code: NO-Not Threatened, LC- List Concern, C-Common, V-Very Common, R-Rare, U-Uncommon WWinter
Visitor, r-Resident, s-Summer Visitor, Vu-Vulnerable, EN-Endangered and NT-Near Threatened
APPENDICES
Mammals
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Family Name Bangla Name
National
Abundance
Status
IUCN Threatened Status
National Global
Mammals (Bangladesh has 124 species, Tanguar Haor has 19 Species)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Asian House
Shrew
Flying Fox
Indian
Pipistrelle
Indian
Pangolin
Golden Jackal
Bengal Fox
Jungle Cat/
Swamp Cat
Fishing Cat
Suncus murinus
Pteropus
giganteus
Pipistrellus
coromandra
Manis
crassicaudata
Canis aureus
Vulpes
bengalensis
Felis chaus
Prionailurus
viverrinus
Soricidae
Pteropodidae
Vespertilionidae
Manidae
Canidae
Canidae
Felidae
Felidae
Chika/
Chhucha
Badur/ Champ
Chamchika
Banrui/Pipilika bhuk Pati Shial/Shial
Khek Shial
Ban Biral/Woab
Mechho Biral/
Mechho Bagh
C
C
NO
NO
LC
LC
C
C VU LC
EN VU
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Name Code: markhan- Dr. Reza Khan, PR- Philip Round, EN- Enam Ul Haque, SUW- Sayam U. Chowdhury,
SD- Shimanto Dipu, SMAR- SMA Rashid
Fishing Cat Asian House Shrew Jungle Cat/ Swamp Cat
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 194
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Family Name Bangla Name
National
Abundance
Status
IUCN Threatened Status
National Global
Small Indian
Mongoose
Smooth
Coated Otter
Wild Boar
Small Indian
Civet
Three-striped
Palm Squirrel
Lesser
Bandicoot Rat
Greater
Bandicoot Rat
House Mouse
Common
House Rat
Brown Rat/
Tree Rat
Indian
Porcupine
Herpestes
javanicus
Lutrogale
perspicillata
Sus scrofa
Viverricula
indica
Funambulus
palmarum
Bandicota
bengalensis
Bandicota
indica
Mus musculus
Rattus rattus
Rattus
norvigicus
Hystrix indica
Herpestidae
Mustelidae
Suidae
Viverridae
Sciuridae
Muridae
Muridae
Muridae
Muridae
Muridae
Hystricidae
Benji/Nakul
Mosrin Ud/Ud
Biral/ Bhodar
Buno Shukar/
Shuar
Khatash/Kolkut
Teen-Dora
Kathbirali
Indur
Bora
Indur/Dhari
Indur
Nengti Indur
Ghorer Indur
Gechho Indur
Shojaru
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
R NO
R
R
C
C
NO
NO
NO
NO
C NO NO
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Indian Porcupine Smooth Coated Otter Small Indian Mongoose
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 195
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Fulvous
Whistling
Duck
Lesser
Whistling
Duck
Dendrocygna
bicolour
Dendrocygna
javanica
Raj Sorali
Sorali, Pati
Sorali
W r Birds
Whistling-ducks (Family DENDROCYGNIDAE, Bangladesh has 2 species, Tanguar Haor Has 2 Species)
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
IUCN
Global
Status
C R
C R
15.4 LC
15.4 LC
Ducks, Geese (Family ANATIDAE: Bangladesh has 29 species, Tanguar Haor has 23 species)
Greylag
Goose
Bar-headed
Goose
Ruddy
Shelduck
Common
Shelduck
Knob-billed
Duck
Cotton
Pygmy-goose
Gadwall
Falcated Duck
Eurasian
Wigeon
Mallard
Anser anser
Anser indicus
Tadorna
ferruginea
Tadorna
tadorna
Sarkidiornis
melanotos
Nettapus
coromandelianus
Anas strepera
Anas falcata
Anas penelope
Anas
platyrhynchos
Mete Rajhas,
Dhushor
Rajhans
Rajhans,
Dagi Rajhas
Chokachoki,
Khaira
Chokachoki
Pati chokachoki, Shah
Chokha
Nakta Has
Dhola Bali
Has, Bali
Hans
Piong Hans
Shikhajukto
Hans,
Falcate Has
Lalshir,
Eurasio
Shitihas
Nilshir,
Nilmatha Has
W R 11.5 R LC
W R 10.5 R LC
W
W
C 15.4 R LC
C 7.69 R LC r W
W
C
U
R
65.4
88.5
3.85 R
C
V
LC
LC
NT
W C 80.8 V LC
W R 3.85 R LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Knob-billed Duck Common Shelduck Bar-headed Goose
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 196
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
Birds
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Spot-billed
Duck
Baikal Teal
Common Teal
Garganey
Northern
Pintail
Northern
Shoveler
Red-crested
Pochard
Common
Pochard
Ferruginous
Duck
Baer's
Pochard
Tufted Duck
Eurasian
Wryneck
Anas
poecilorhyncha
Anas formosa
Anas crecca
Anas
querquedula
Anas acuta
Anas clypeata
Netta rufina
Aythya ferina
Aythya nyroca
Aythya baeri
Aythya fuligula
Jynx torquilla
Pati Hans,
Deshi mete has Baikal Tili
Has, Boikal
Hans
Patari Hans,
Pati Tilihas
Giria Hans
Lenja Hans,
Utture Lanja has Pantamukhi,
Utture Khunte
Has
Rangamuri,
Laljhuti Bhuti
Has
Bamunia
Hans, Pati
Bhutihas
Bhuti Hans,
Morcherong
Bhuti Has
Baerer Vuti
Has, Bora
Bhuti Hans
Tiki Has, Kalo
Hans
Eureshio
Gharbetha,
Metho
Kaththokra
r
W
W
W
W
W
C
V
C
C
C
C
69.2
3.85
3.85
84.6
23.1
80.8
C
R
R
V
U
V
LC
LC
LC
LC
LC
LC
W
R
C
W
W
W
C
C
15.4
7.69
69.2
3.85
C
R
C
R
LC
LC
NT
EN
C 73.1 C LC
W
Woodpeckers (Family PICIDAE, Bangladesh has 19 species, Tanguar Haor has 5 species)
W U 3.85 R LC
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Red-crested Pochard Spot-billed Duck Eurasian Wryneck
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 197
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
Birds
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Rufous
Woodpecker
Fulvousbreasted
Woodpecker
Blackrumped
Flameback
Lineated
Barbet
Coppersmith
Barbet
Eurasian
Hoopoe
Indian Roller
Common
Kingfisher
Stork-billed
Kingfisher
Whitethroated
Kingfisher
Celeus
brachyurus
Dendrocopos
macei
Dinopium
benghalense
Megalaima
lineata
Megalaima
haemacephala
Upupa epops
Coracias
benghalensis
Alcedo atthis
Pelargopsis
capensis
Halcyon
smyrnensis
Khaira
Katkurali
Badabi
Katkurali
Bangla
Katthokra
Gurkhood,
Dagi
Boshonto
Shekra
Boshonto,
Chhoto
Basanta Bauri
Hudhud, Pati
Hoodhood
Bangla
Nilkanto,
Nilkanta
Pati
Machranga,
Choto
Machranga
Meghhao
Dholagola
Machrang
r r C
C
19.2
23.1
R
U
LC
LC
Barbets (Family CAPITONIDAE, Bangladesh has 5 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 species)
Hoopoe (Family UPUPIDAE, Bangladesh has 1 species, Tangaur Haor Has 1 Species) r r
C
C
R
R
LC
LC
7.69
7.69
Rollers (Family CORACIIDAE, Bangladesh has 2 species, Tanguar Haor has 1 species)
Kingfishers (Family ALCEDINIDAE, DALCELONIDAE & CERYLIDAE, Bangaldesh has 12 species,
Tanguar Haor has 4 species) r U 11.5 R LC r C 3.85 R LC r r U
C 46.2
11.5
U
R
LC
LC
r C 38.5 U LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Rufous Woodpecker Indian Roller Stork-billed Kingfisher
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 198
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Pied
Kingfisher
Green
Bee-eater
Chestnutheaded
Beeeater
Common
Hawk-Cuckoo
Indian
Cuckoo
Plaintive
Cuckoo
Asian Koel
Greater
Coucal
Rose-ringed
Parakeet
Red-breasted
Parakeet
Little Swift
Ceryle rudis
Merops
orientalis
Merops
leschenaulti
Hierococcyx
varius
Cuculus
micropterus
Cacomantis
merulinus
Eudynamys
scolopacea
Centropus
sinensis
Psittacula
krameri
Psittacula
alexandri
Apus affinis
Pakra
Machhranga
Shobuj
Shuichora
Khoiramatha
Shuichora,
Patkileymatha
Shuichora
Chokh Gelo
Pakhi, Pati chokh gelo
Bou-kothakau
Pakhi
Papiya
Asio Kokil,
Kokil
Kanakuka,
Boro Kubo
Shobuj Tia,
Tiya
Modna Tia
Khudey
Ababil, Mete
Abail
r C 30.8 U LC
Bee-eaters (Family MEROPIDAE, Bangladesh has 4 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 species) r C 7.69 R LC
Cuckoos (Family CUCULIDAE; Bangladesh has 18 species, Tanguar Haor has 4 Species) r S
S
S C
C
C
C
3.85
3.85
4.1
26.9
R
R
R
U
LC
LC
LC
LC
Coucals (Family CENTROPODIDAE, Bangladesh has 2 species, Tanguar Haor has 1 Species r C 7.69 LC
Parrots (Family PSITTACIDAE Bangladesh has 7 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 Species) r C 19.2 LC
Swifts ( Family APODIDAE, Bangladesh has 7 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 Species) r C 34.6
R
R
U LC
Birds
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Plaintive Cuckoo Greater Coucal Green Bee-eater
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 199
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Asian Palm
Swift
Barn Owl
Oriental
Scops Owl
Brown Fish
Owl
Brown Hawk
Owl
Spotted Owlet
Large-tailed
Nightjar
Rock Pigeon
Spotted Dove
Eurasian
Collared Dove
Yellow Footed
Green Pigeon
Demoiselle
Crane
Cypsiurus
balasiensis
Tyto alba
Otus sunia
Ketupa
zeylonensis
Ninox scutulata
Athene brama
Caprimulgus
macrurus
Columba livia
Streptopelia
chinensis
Streptopelia
decaocto
Treron
phoenicopterus
Anthropoides
virgo
Nakkati, Ashio
Talbatashi
Lokkhi Pecha
Udoi
Nimpecha
Mecho Pecha,
Bhutum
Pencha
Kupokh
Khuruley
Pencha
Lenja
Ratchora,
Ratchara
Jalali
Kobutarev
Tila Ghughu
Eurashio
Konthighughu
Botkol/
Haludpa
Horial
Demojil
Sharosh
Birds
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57 r C 15.4 R LC
Owls (Family TYTONIDAE & STRIGIDAE Bangladesh has 15, Tanguar Haor has 5 Species) r C r C r U r C r C
3.85
7.69
3.85
3.85
3.85
R LC
R LC
R LC
R LC
R LC
Nightjars (Family CAPRIMULGIDAE, Bangladesh has 4 species and Tanguar Haor has 1 species) r C 3.85 R LC
Pigeons and Doves (Family COLUMBIDAE, Bangladesh has 17 species, Tanguar Haor 4 species) r C r C r C r C
11.5
42.3
11.5
3.85
R
R
R
U
LC
LC
LC
LC
Cranes (Family GRUIDAE, Bangladesh has 3 Species, Tanguar Haor has 1 Species)
Siddiqui et al. (eds.), 2008.
Rails, Gallinules and Coots (Family RALLIDAE; Bangladesh has 11 species, Tanguar Haor Has 8 species)
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Spotted Owlet Barn Owl Rock Pigeon
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 200
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Water Rail
Whitebreasted
Waterhen
Baillon's
Crake
Ruddybreasted
Crake
Watercock
Purple
Swamphen
Common
Moorhen
Eurasian Coot
Pin-tailed
Snipe
Common
Snipe
Black-tailed
Godwit
Bar-tailed
Godwit
Spotted
Redshank
Common
Redshank
Rallus
aquaticus
Amaurornis
phoenicurus
Porzana pusilla
Porzana fusca
Gallicrex
cinerea
Porphyrio
porphyrio
Gallinula
chloropus
Fulica atra
Gallinago
stenura
Gallinago
gallinago
Limosa limosa
Limosa
lapponica
Tringa
erythropus
Tringa tetanus
Panta Jhilli
Dholabook
Dahuk
Bailoner
Gurguri
Lalbook
Gurguri
Kura
Beguni
Kalem, Kaim
Pati
Panmurgi,
Dakab Paira
Pati Koot, Jal
Kutkut
Lenja Chega,
Kadakhuncha
Pati Chega,
Kadakhocha
Kalalej Jourali
Dagilej Jourali
Tila Lalpa,
Chitto Pi-oo
Pati Lalpa
Birds
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
IUCN Bangladesh, 2009. r U 7.69 R LC
IUCN Bangladesh, 2009.
W U 15.4 R LC
IUCN Bangladesh, 2009. r C 84.6 V LC r C 42.3 U LC
W C 92.3 V LC
Snipes, Sandpipers and allies (Family SCOLOPACIDAE, ROSTRATULIDAE, Bangladesh has 36 species,
Tanguar Haor 17 Species)
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 26.9 U LC
W R 3.85 R LC
W C 15.4 R LC
W U 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
White-breasted Waterhen Ruddy-breasted Crake Pin-tailed Snipe
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 201
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Marsh
Sandpiper
Common
Greenshank
Green
Sandpiper
Wood
Sandpiper
Common
Sandpiper
Little Stint
Temminck's
Stint
Long-toed
Stint
Curlew
Sandpiper
Ruff
Greater
Painted Snipe
Pheasanttailed
Jacana
Bronzewinged
Jacana
Black-winged
Stilt
Tringa
stagnatilis
Tringa nebularia
Tringa ochropus
Tringa glareola
Actitis
hypoleucos
Calidris minuta
Calidris
temminckii
Calidris
subminuta
Calidris
ferruginea
Philomachus
pugnax
Rostratula
benghalensis
Hydrophasianus
chirurgus
Metopidius
indicus
Himantopus
himantopus
Bil Batan
Pati Shobujpa
Shobuj Batan
Bon Batan,
Balu Batan
Pati Batan,
Chapakhi
Choto Chaha pakhi Teminker
Chaha Pakhi
Lombangul
Chaha pakhi
Gulinda Batan
Geoala Batan
Bangla
Rangachega,
Rangila Chega
Neu Pipi, Dal
Kukra
Dol
Pipi,Jalpipi
Kalapakh
Thengi, Lal
Gon/Lal thengi
Birds
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
W U 30.8 U LC
W C 26.9 U LC
W U 15.4 R LC
W C 42.3 U LC
W C 30.8 U LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W R 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 7.69 R LC
Jacanas (Family JACANIDAE, Bangladesh has 2 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 species)
Plovers and Lapwings (Family CHARADRIIDAE, Bangladesh has 16 species, Tanguar Haor has 5 species) r C 7.69 C LC r U 7.69 R LC
W C 26.9 U LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Bar-tailed Godwit Bronze-winged Jacana Ruff
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 202
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Pacific
Golden Plover
Little Ringed
Plover
Grey-headed
Lapwing
Red-wattled
Lapwing
Heuglin's gull
Pallas's Gull
Brownheaded
Gull
Black-headed
Gull
River Tern
Common
Tern
Whiskered
Tern
Osprey
Black-winged
Kite
Black Kite
Pluvialis fulva
Charadrius
dubius
Vanellus
cinereus
Vanellus indicus
Larus heuglini
Larus
ichthyaetus
Larus
brunnicephalus
Larus
ridibundus
Sterna aurntia
Sterna hirundo
Chlidonias
hybridus
Pandion
haliaetus
Elanus
caeruleus
Milvus migrans
Proshanto
Shonajiria,
Sona Batan
Soto Nothjiria,
Jiria , Chhoto
Jiria
Metematha
Titi, Dushor
Ti-ti
Hot Titi , Lallotika
Hot-ti-ti
Heugliner
Gangchil
Palasi
Gangchil
Khoiramatha
Gangchil,
Gonga Koitar
Kalamatha
Ganchil
Nodia Panchil
Pati Panchil
Julfi Panchil
Machmural
Sada Chil
Katua Chil
Bhubon Chil
Birds
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
Gulls (Family LARIDAE, Bangladesh has 20 species, Tanguar Haor has 6 species)
W C LC
C
7.69 R r LC
C
30.8 U
LC
R C 11.5 LC
W 30.8 U
R
W R 7.65 R LC
W C 53.8 C LC
W C 42.3 U LC r C 40.2 U LC
W U 3.85 R LC
W C 30.8 U LC
Hawks, Kites and Eagles ( Family ACCIPITRIDAE, Bangladesh has 43 species, Tanguar Haor has 14 Species)
W R 3.85 R LC r U 7.69 R LC r C 15.4 R LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Red-wattled Lapwing River Tern Osprey
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 203
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Brahminy
Kite
Pallas's Fish
Eagle
Grey-headed
Fish Eagle
Crested
Serpent Eagle
Eastern
Marsh Harrier
Pied Harrier
Shikra
Common
Buzzard
Lesser
Spotted Eagle
Greater
Spotted Eagle
Asian
Imperial
Eagle
Common
Kestrel
Peregrine
Falcon
Haliastur indus
Haliaeetus
leucoryphus
Ichthyophaga
ichthyaetus
Spilornis cheela
Circus
spilonotus
Circus
melanoleucos
Accipiter badius
Buteo buteo
Aquila
pomarina
Aquila clanga
Aquila heliaca
Falco
tinnunculus
Falco peregrinus
Shonko Chil
Palasi Kuraeegol,
Koral
Metematha
Kura-eegol,
Machhmoral
Tila Nageegol,
Sapchur,
Shapkheko
Baj
Puber
Pankapashi
Pakra kapasi
Pati shikre,
Toorki Baj
Pati Tishabaj,
Baj
Pakhi,Jolar
Chil
Choto Guti
Eagle
Boro Guti
Eagle
Asio Shahi
Eagle
Pati Kestrel,
Chhoto Baj
Peregrine
shahin, Shahin
Birds
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
Falcons (Family FALCONIDAE, Bangladesh has 9 species , Tanguar Haor has 3 Species) r C 42.3 U LC
W C 46.2 U VU
R R 15.4 R LR
W U 7.69 R LC
W C 3.50 R LC r C 3.85 R LC
W R 3.85 R LC
W R 3.67 R LC
W R 19.2 R VU
W R 3.85 R LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Pallas's Fish Eagle Brahminy Kite Crested Serpent Eagle
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 204
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Red-necked
Falcon
Darter
Little Egret
Great Egret
Little Grebe
Great Crested
Grebe
Black-necked
Grebe
Little
Cormorant
Indian
Cormorant
Great
Cormorant
Falco chicquera
Anhinga
melanogaster
Tachybaptus
ruficollis
Podiceps
cristatus
Podiceps
nigricollis
Phalacrocorax
niger
Phalacrocorax
fuscicollis
Phalacrocorax
carbo
Egretta garzetta
Casmerodius
albus
Birds
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
Grebes (Family PODICIPEDIDAE, Bangladesh has 4 species, Tanguar Haor has 3 species)
Darters (Family ANHINGIDAE, Bangladesh has 1 species, Tanguar Haor has 1 Species) r U 50 C LC
W U 26.9 U LC
Siddiqui et al. (eds.), 2008.
Cormorants (Family PHALACROCORACIDAE, Bangladesh has 3 species, Tanguar Haor has 3 species) r U 26.9 U NT
Turmuti
Soto Duburi,
Dubdubi,
Pandubi
Boro
Khopaduburi,
Khopa Duburi
Kalaghar
Duburi
Deshi
Pankouri,
Pankowri
Boro
Pankouri,
Paan-kowri
Choto Boga,
Chhota
Korche Bak
Boro Boga,
Dhar
Bak,Bada
Bak, Sada
Bok, Jathua
Udoi Goyar,
Sapphaki/
Goyer
Choto
Pankouri, Pan
Kawuri
r C 92.3 V LC
V V 7.69 R LC
W C 50 C LC
Herons and Bitterns (Family ARDEIDAE, Bangladesh has 18 species, Tanguar Haor has 12 species) r C 38.5 U LC r C 34.6 U LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Little Egret Little Grebe Great Crested Grebe
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 205
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Yellow-billed
Egret
Cattle Egret
Indian Pond
Heron
Glossy Ibis
Grey Heron
Purple Heron
Striated
Heron(Little
Heron)
Blackcrowned
Night Heron
Yellow Bittern
Cinnamon
Bittern
Black Bittern
Egretta
intermedia
Bubulcus ibis
Ardeola grayii
Plegadis
falcinellus
Ardea cinerea
Ardea purpurea
Butorides
striata
Nycticorax
nycticorax
Ixobrychus
sinensis
Ixobrychus
cinnamomeus
Dupetor
flavicollis
Birds
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
Majhla Boga,
Korche Bok
Go Boga, Go
Bok,Gai Bak ,
Go-bok
Kani Bog,
Kana Bog
Khoira
Kastechora,
Kachia Tora ,
Duchora
Dhupni Bok,
Sada
Kank,Kank,
Anjan
Lalche Bok,
Lal Kank ,
Beguni Bok
Khude Bok,
Kana
Bak,Kura Bak,
Sabuj Bok
Kalamatha
Nishibok,
Waak/Nishi
Bok, Bachka
Holdey Bogla,
Kath Bak
Khoira Bogla,
Khyri Bak/Lal
Bak, Lal Bok
Kala Bogla,
Kalo Bak r C 38.5 U LC r C 38.5 U LC r C 92.3 V LC r C 69.2 C LC r U 19.2 R LC r U 19.1 R LC r U 19.2 R LC r U 18.2 R LC r R 3.85 R LC
Ibises (Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE, Bangladesh has 3 species, Tanguar Haor has 1 species)
W V 7.69 R LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Grey Heron Purple Heron Yellow Bittern
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 206
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
Asian
Openbill
Brown Shrike
Long-tailed
Shrike
Grey-backed
Shrike
Rufous
Treepie
House Crow
Large-billed
Crow
Ashy
Woodswallow
Slender-billed
Oriole
Black-Hooded
Oriole
Black Drongo
Anastomus
oscitans
Lanius cristatus
Lanius schach
Lanius
tephronotus
Dendrocitta
vagabunda
Corvus splendens
Corvus
macrorhynchos
Artamus fuscus
Oriolus
tenuirostris
Oriolus
xanthornus
Dicrurus
macrocercus
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
Eshio
Shamkhol,
Samukh-khol/
Shamukh
Bhanga
Khoira Latora,
Karkata ,
Badami
Koshai Pakhi
Lenja Latora,
Latora
Metepith
Latora, Bagha
Tiki
Khoira
Harichacha,
Harichacha
Pati Kak,Kak
Dar Kak,Kak
Mete Ababil,
Ababil, Latora/
Mura Sing
Banka-thont
Beney Bou
Kalaghar
Banebou,
Holdey Pakhi
Fingey,
Kalipencha,
Pakhir Raja,
Dhechcha
W U 3.85 R LC
Storks (Family CICONIIDAE, Bangladesh has 8 species Tanguar Haor has 1 Species)
Shrikes (Family LANIIDAE, Bangladesh has 6 species, Tanguar Haor has 3 Species)
W C 19.2 R LC r C 19.2 R LC
W U 3.85 R LC
Crows, Drongos and allies (Family CORVIDAE, Bangladesh has 36 species,Tanguar Haor has 12 specie) r C 11.5 R LC r C 46.2 U LC r C 26.9 U LC r C 15.4 R LC r U 4.1 R LC r C 11.5 R LC r C 53.8 C LC
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Asian Openbill Grey-backed Shrike Rufous Treepie
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 207
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
Note from markhan r C 11.5 R LC r C 3.85 R LC
Flycatchers, Chats, Redstarts, Robins, (Family MUSCICAPIDAE, Bangladesh has 62 species,
Tanguar Haor has 17 species)
Siddiqui et al. (eds.), 2008.
Siddiqui et al. (eds.), 2008.
Siddiqui et al. (eds.), 2008.
W C 7.69 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W R 3.85 R LC
Dicrurus
leucophaeus
Dicrurus
aeneus
Hypothymis
azurea
Aegithina tiphia
Tephrodornis
pondicerianus
Ficedula
strophiata
Ficedula tricolor
Ficedula
albicilla
Eumyias
thalassina
Culicicapa
ceylonensis
Luscinia
calliope
Luscinia
pectoralis
Luscinia
svecica
Dhushoravo
Fingey,Nilav
Fingey
Chhoto
Fingey,Chhoto
Bhujanga
Kalaghar
Rajon
Towfik, Fotikjal
Shudhuka,Du
kka
Lalmala
Chutki
Kalcheneel
Chutki
Lalgola
Chotok
Neel Chutki,
Puthir
Chitta/Nilkatkatia
Metematha
Kanarichutki,
Zard-phutki
Saiberio
Chunikonthi,
Gunpigora
Dhola-lej
Chunikonthi
Neelgola
Fidda
Ashy Drongo
Bronzed
Drongo
Black-naped
Monarch
Common Iora
Common
Woodshrike
Rufousgorgeted
Flycatcher
Slaty-blue
Flycatcher
Red-throated
Flycatcher
Verditer
Flycatcher
Grey-headed
Canary-
Flycatcher
Siberian
Rubythroat
White-tailed
Rubythroat
Bluethroat
Siddiqui et al. (eds.), 2008.
W C 3.85 R LC markhan Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Bluethroat White-tailed Rubythroat Common Iora
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 208
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
Copsychus
saularis
Phoenicurus
ochruros
Saxicola
torquatus
Saxicola
leucurus
Sturnus
malabaricus
Sturnus contra
Acridotheres
tristis
Acridotheres
fuscus
Parus major
Riparia riparia
Hirundo rustica
Hirundo
striolata
Udoi Doel,
Dhaiyal, Doel
Kala Girdi
Lal Fidda/Lal
Chat
Dholalej
Shilafidda
Khoiralej
Kathshalik,
Desi Pawei ,
Kath Salik
Pakrashalik,
Gobrey
Shalik/Gu
Shalik
Bhat Shalik ,
Salik/Bhat
Salik
Jhuti Shalik ,
Jhont
Salik/Jungli
Salik
Boro Tit,
Ram-gang ,
Tit Pankhi
Bali Nakuti, Nakkati
Metho Ababil,
Ababil
Dagi Ababil
Oriental
Magpie Robin
Black
Redstart
Common
Stonechat
White-tailed
Stone Chat
Chestnuttailed
Starling
Pied Myna
Common
Myna
Jungle Myna
Great Tit
Sand Martin
Barn Swallow
Striated
Swallow r C 3.85 R LC
W R 3.85 R LC
W C 11.5 R LC
W V 3.85 R LC
Starlings and Mynas (Family STURNIDAE, Bangladesh has 12 species, Tanguar Haor has 4 species) r C 15.4 R LC r C 53.8 C LC r C 50 C LC
Tits (Family PARIDAE, Bangladesh has 2 species, Tanguar Haor has 1 species)
Martins and Swallows (Family HIRUNDINIDAE, Bangladesh has 10 species, Tanguar Haor has 5 species) r C 30.8 C LC r C 15.4 R LC
W R 3.85 R LC
W C 46.2 C LC
Note from markhan
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Common Stonechat Great Tit Chestnut-tailed Starling
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 209
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
Riparia
paludicola
Delichon
dasypus
Pycnonotus
jocosus
Pycnonotus
cafer
Prinia hodgsonii
Prinia inornata
Cisticola
juncidis
Bradypterus
thoracicus
Acrocephalus
dumetorum
Bradypterus
luteoventris
Nirol Nakuti,
Nakuti
Eshio
Ghornakuti
Sipahi Bulbul,
Sipahi Bulbuli
Bangla
Bulbul, Kala
Bulbul
Metebook
Prina, Buno
Tuni
Nirol Prina,
Sadharan
Buno
Tuni
Bhomra
Soton,
Dagjukta Lejtula
Tuni
Chitrito
Jhuper Tuni,
Dagi Jharfutki
Tikra, Blaither
Nolfutki
Badami
Jhuper Tuni
Brownthroated
Martin
Asian House
Martin
Redwhiskered
Bulbul
Red-vented
Bulbul
Grey-breasted
Prinia
Plain Prinia
Zitting
Cisticola
Spotted Bush
Warbler
Blyth's Reed
Warbler
Brown Bush
Warbler
W C 3.85 R LC
W V 3.85 R LC r C 3.85 R LC r C 30.8 U LC
Cisticola and Prinia (Family CISTICOLIDAE, Bangladesh has 9 species, Tanguar Haor has 3 species)
Bulbuls (Family PYCNONOTIDAE, Bangladesh has 9 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 Species)
Warblers and allies (Family SYLVIIDAE, Bangladesh has 77 species, Tanguar Haor has 16 species) r C 3.85 R LC r C 3.85 R LC r C 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Blyth's Reed Warbler Grey-breasted Prinia Zitting Cisticola
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 210
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
Locustella
naevia
Acrocephalus
agricola
Acrocephalus
stentoreus
Acrocephalus
aedon
Megalurus
palustris
Orthotomus
sutorius
Phylloscopus
fuscatus
Phylloscopus
inornatus
Phylloscopus
reguloides
Phylloscopus
trochiloides
Seicercus burkii
Graminicola
bengalensis
Turdoides
striatus
Ghashboner
Tikra
Dhankheter
Tikra, Dhani
Futki
Penchali
Tikra, Bachal
Nolfutki
Thunt-moota
Tikra
Dagi
Ghashpakhi
Tuntuni/Tuni
Garobadami
Pata Futki
Sabujavhalud
Pata Futki
Blyther Pata
Futki, Blaither
Patafutki
Shobje Futki
Shobujchandi
Futki
Bangla
Ghashpakhi
Bon Satarey,
Satbhai/Satb
haila
Common
Grasshopper
Warbler
Paddy field
Warbler
Clamorous
Reed Warbler
Thick-billed
Warbler
Striated
Grassbird
Common
Tailorbird
Dusky
Warbler
Yellowbrowed
Warbler
Blyth's Leaf
Warbler
Greenish
Warbler
Greencrowned
Warbler
Rufousrumped
Grassbird
Jungle
Babbler
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
W C 11.5 R LC
W C 7.69 R LC r C 57.7 C LC r C 26.9 U LC
W C 15.4 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC r C 7.69 R LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Paddy field Warbler Striated Grassbird Clamorous Reed Warbler
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 211
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
Mirafra
assamica
Alauda gulgula
Leptocoma
zeylonica
Cinnyris
asiaticus
Passer
domesticus
Motacilla alba
Motacilla
citreola
Motacilla flava
Motacilla
cinerea
Anthus rufulus
Bangla
Jharbhorot,
Bhiriri
Udoi
Ovrobhorot,
Jhunti Bharat
Begunikomor
Moutushi,
Man Choongi
Beguni
Moutushi
Pati Chorui,
Choti Charai,
Chorui
Sada Khonjan
Holdeymatha
Khonjan,
Sitrin Khonjon
Poshchina
Holdeykhonjo n, Halud
Khonjan
Metey
Khonjon,
Dhushar
Khonjan
Dhani Tulika,
Khetkhamarer
Math Chorai
Bengal Bush
Lark
Oriental
Skylark
Purplerumped
Sunbird
Purple
Sunbird
House
Sparrow
White Wagtail
Citrine
Wagtail
Western
Yellow Wagtail
Grey Wagtail
Paddyfield
Pipit
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
Larks (Family ALAUDIDAE, Bangladesh has 7 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 species)
Sunbirds (Family NECTARINIIDAE, Bangladesh has 19 species, Tanguar Haor has 2 Species) r C 7.69 R LC r C 3.85 R LC r C 11.5 R LC r C 11.2 R LC
Sparrows, Wagtails, Pipits and allies (Family PASSERIDAE, Bangladesh has 25 species,
Tanguar Haor has 14 species) r C 38.5 U LC
W C 23.1 U LC
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 19.2 R LC
W U 11.5 R LC r C 3.85 R LC
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Citrine Wagtail Bengal Bush Lark House Sparrow
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 212
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
Anthus hodgsoni Anthus cervinus
Anthus roseatus
Anthus richardi
Ploceus
philippinus
Amandava
amandava
Lonchura
punctulata
Lonchura
malacca
Emberiza
spodocephala
Vanellus
vanellus
Centropus
bengalensis
Ficedula
albicilla
Luscinia
pectardens
Jolpaipith
Tulika,
Muchassi
Lalgola Tulika,
Lalcheygola
Math-chorai
Golapi Tulika
Richarder
Tulika,
Varikkichal
Math-chorai
Babui/Baoi
Tila Munia
Kalomatha
Munia
Bagheri,
Kalamukh
Chotok
Kaloshirjukta
Hot-ti-ti
Kukka
Taiga Chutki
Lalgola Fidda
Olive-backed
Pipit
Red-throated
Pipit
Rosy Pipit
Richard's
Pipit
Baya Weaver
Red Avadavat
Scalybreasted
Munia
Black-headed
Munia
Black-faced
Bunting
Northern
Lapwing
Lesser Coucal
Taiga
Flycatcher
Firethroat
W C 3.85 R LC
W C 3.85 R LC r C 15.4 R LC
Note From SUW,2010 r C 15.4 R LC r C 15.4 R LC
Rosefinches and Buntings (Family FRINGILIDAE, Bangladesh has 5 species, Tanguar Haor has 1 Species)
IUCN Bangladesh, 2009.
Others Bird
Note From PR,EN,SD,SUW
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
Rosy Pipit Scaly-breasted Munia Baya Weaver
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 213
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Local Name
National
Occurence
National
Abundance
%local
Abundance
IUCN
Global
Status
Birds
216
217
218
219
Cettia
brunnifrons
Acrocephalus
bistrigiceps
Phylloscopus
magnirostris
Phylloscopus
collybita
Mete mtha
Chutki
Kala Vru
Chutki
Borothot Futki
Pati chifcaf
Grey-sided
bush Warbler
Black-browed
Reed Warbler
Large-billed
Leaf Warbler
Common
Chiffchaff
Local
Appearance
Status (%)
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 214
Northern Lapwing Firethroat Grey-sided bush warbler
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Bangla Name Family Name
Local
Abundanc
Nilssonia
hurum
Lissemys
punctata
Pangshura
tecta
Geoclemys
hamiltonii
Morenia petersi
Calotes
versicolor
Gekko gecko
Hemidactylus
frenatus
Eutropis
carinata
Varanus
bengalensis
Ahaetulla
nasuta
Ahaetulla
prasina
Amphiesma
stolatum
Dhum Kasim
Shundhi
Kasim
Kori Kaitta
Kalo Kasim/
Mogom
Haldey Kaitta
Roktochusha
Tokkhak/Tokh ha Shap/Toittang in Ctg,
CHT
Dakchara
Tiktiki
Anjoni/Anjon/
Anchil
Gui/Guishap
Laodoga Shap
Bhotanak
Laodoga Shap
Dora Shap
Peacockmarked
Soft
Shell Turtle
Spotted Flap
Shell Turtle
Indian Roofed
Turtle
Spotted Pond
Turtle
Yellow Turtle
Common
Garden Lizard
Tokay Gecko
Common
House Gecko
Keeled Indian
Mabuya
Bengal
Monitor
Common
Vine Snake
Short-nosed
Vine Snake
Striped
Keelback
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Reptiles
IUCN Threatened Status
National Global
VU
Turtle and Tortoise (Family-Testudinidae, Geoemydidae, Trionychidae, Bangladesh has 23 species,
Tanguar Haor has 5 species)
Trionychidae
Trionychidae
Geoemydidae
Geoemydidae
Emydidae
Agamidae
Gekkonidae
Gekkonidae
Scincidae
Varanidae
Colubridae
Colubridae
Colubridae
C EN
C VU LC
R - LC
R EN VU
Note from SMAR
Lizards, Skink Monitors (Family-Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae, Varanidae, Bangladesh has 31 species and Tanguar Haor has 5 species)
C NO -
R NO -
C NO LC
R NO LC
C NO LC
Snakes (Family- Colubridae, Elapidae, Bangladesh has 67 Species ,Tanguar Haor has 14 Species)
R NO -
R NO -
C NO -
Tokay Gecko Short-nosed Vine Snake Indian Roofed Turtle
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 215
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Bangla Name Family Name
Local
Abundanc
Reptiles
IUCN Threatened Status
National Global
Atretium
schistosum
Enhydris
enhydris
Lycodon aulicus
Ptyas mucosa
Xenochrophis
piscator
Coelognathus
radiata
Macropisthodon
plumbicolor
Naja kaouthia
Naja naja
Bungarus
caeruleus
Bungarus
fasciatus
Python molurus
Xenochrophis
cerasogaster
Hardella thurjii
Mete Shap /
Maitta Shap
Paina
Shap/Huria
Sadharan
Gharginni
Shap
Daraj/
Dhaman
Dhora Shap
Dudhraj/
Arbali
Sabuj Dhora
Gokhra Shap
Khoia Gokhra
Kal Keotey
Shakini Shap
Ajoggar Shap
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Colubridae
Colubridae
Colubridae
Colubridae
Colubridae
Colubridae
Colubridae
Elapidae
Elapidae
Elapidae
Elapidae
Pythonridae
Colubridae
Geoemydidae
C NO LC
C NO -
V NO -
U NO LC
U NO LC
U - -
R - NT
R - LC
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
Giesen et al.,1997
-
-
Other Turtle
Olive
Keelback
Common
Smooth
Water Snake
Common
Wolf Snake
Rat Snake
Checkered
Keelback
Copper Head
Trinket Snake
Green
Keelback
Snake
Monocellate
Cobra
Binocellate
Cobra
Common
Krait
Banded Krait
Indian Python
Painted
Keelback
Crowned river turtle Note from SMAR
Binocellate Cobra Copper Head Trinket Snake Monocellate Cobra
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 216
Serial
No.
English Name Scientific Name Bangla Name Family Name
Local
Abundanc
IUCN Threatened Status
National Global
Bufo stomaticus
Duttaphrynus
melanostictus
Euphlyctis
cyanophlyctis
Fejervarya
limnocharis
Hoplobatrachus
tigerinus
Polypedates
leucomystax
Microhyla
ornata
Microhyla
berdmorei
Uperodon
globulosus
Kaloula Pulchra
Hylarana tytlari
Khoshkhoshey
Bang
Kuno Bang
Kotkoti Bang
Jhi-jhi Bang
Kola Bang
Dorakata
Gechho Bang
Cheena Bang
Berdmorer
Cheena Bang
Marbled Toad
Asian
Common
Toad
Skipper Frog
Indian Cricket
Frog
Indian Bull
Frog
Common Tree
Frog
Ornate
Microhylid
Pegu Rice
Frog
Indian Ballon
Frog
Asian painted frog Leaping frog
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Bufonidae
Bufonidae
Dicroglossidae
Dicroglossidae
Dicroglossidae
Microhylidae
Microhylidae
Ranidae
Rhacophoridae
Microhylidae
Microhylidae
Amphibians
C NO LC
C NO LC
V NO LC
C NO LC
V NO LC
C NO LC
R VU LC
R - LC
R NO LC
U - LC
-
-
-
R - LC
[Note: National Occurence, National Abundance, Local Name, IUCN National Status taken from- Khan 2008,
Khan 2010, IUCN 2000 & Siddiqui 2008]
Pegu Rice Frog Skipper Frog Indian Bull Frog
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 217
APPENDIX 2: Census status of Birds (2008-2012) in Tahguar Haor
Species Name
2008
January
2009
January
2010
January
2011
January
2011
March
2012
January
Total Avarage
334.8571429
33.14285714
0.571428571
1251.428571
2.285714286
0
123.1428571
102.2857143
62.85714286
7.428571429
0
Grebes
Little Grebe
Great Crested Grebe
Great Cormorant
Indian Cormorant
Little Cormorant
Darter
Little Egret
Yellow-billed Egret
Grey Heron
Tachybaptus
ruficollis
Podiceps cristatus
Phalacrocorax carbo
Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
Phalacrocorax niger
Anhinga
melanogaster
Egretta
garzetta
Egretta intermedia
Ardea
cinerea
Cormorant & Darters
Heron & Egrets
31
15
0
0
0
445
0
0
1
11
0
596
3
0
1
0
212
1
0
143
37
27
56
2
0
10
0
760
0
0
0
0
1
137
2
0
66
0
222
0
0
2
47
0
287
4
0
10
2
2372
7
0
193
224
178
65
0
0
29
0
369
0
0
92
39
14
1172
26
0
116
2
4380
8
0
431
358
220
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 218
Species Name
2008
January
2009
January
2010
January
2011
January
2011
March
2012
January
Total Avarage
0.857142857
9.428571429
940.8571429
87.42857143
110.5714286
0.833333333
50.57142857
0.285714286
0.571428571
0
0.857142857
0
1.142857143
0
10
54.28571429
1.428571429
0.571428571
Goliath Heron
Purple Heron
Great Egret
Cattle Egret
Indian Pond Heron
Striated Heron
Black-crowned Night
Heron
Yellow bittern
Black Bittern
Asian Openbill
Glossy Ibis
Fulvous whisting Duck
Greater White-fronted
Goose
Ardea goliath Ardea purpurea Casmerodius albus Bubulcus ibis Ardeola grayii
Butorides
striata
Nycticorax
nycticorax
Ixobrychus
sinensis
Dupetor
flavicollis
Anastomus oscitans
Plegadis
falcinellus
Dendrocygna bicolor
Anser albifrons
Storks
Ibises & Spoonbills
Geese & Ducks
Lesser whistling Duck
Greylag Goose Anser anser 0
1
29
0
9
0
165
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
120
0
0
0
4
230
36
65
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
3001
8
45
1
10
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
60
5
0
3
0
10
0
24
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
9
161
193
0
0
1
3
3
40
10
0
2
0
3
14
101
51
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
33
3293
306
387
2
177
1
2
0
3
0
4
0
40
190
5
2
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 219
Species Name
2008
January
2009
January
2010
January
2011
January
2011
March
2012
January
Total Avarage
6.571428571
0.571428571
510.5714286
11620.57143
1632.285714
2233.428571
2
0.285714286
6253.428571
22.57142857
274.8571429
3785.428571
18478.28571
3040
3.428571429
6749.428571
Ruddy Shelduck
Common Shelduck
Cotton Pygmy-goose
Northern Pintail
Northern Shoveler
Eurasian Teal
Falcated Duck
Baikal Teal
Eurasian Wigeon
Mallard
Indian Spot-billed Duck
Garganey
Gadwall
Red-crested Pochard
Baer's Pochard
Common Pochard
Tadorna ferruginea
Tadorna tadorna
Nettapus
coromandelianus
Anas
acuta
Anas
clypeata
Anas
crecca
Anas
falcate
Anas
Formosa
Anas
Penelope
Anas
platyrhynchos
Anas platyrhynchos
Anas
poecilorhyncha
Anas
querquedula
Netta rufina
Aythya
baeri
Aythya ferina
0
0
640
10720
401
3574
0
0
1365
49
138
103
11980
242
7
6526
7
0
153
11722
992
865
1
0
4810
6
192
4459
14532
6724
0
10917
0
0
512
8522
12
3326
0
0
2060
10
99
600
1571
1772
0
4057
0
0
0
9542
667
49
2
0
10859
0
184
1057
13302
537
4
721
16
2
422
92
2335
1
3
1
2157
4
81
6612
20729
35
1
14
0
0
60
74
1306
2
1
0
636
10
268
418
2560
1330
0
1388
23
2
1787
40672
5713
7817
7
1
21887
79
962
13249
64674
10640
12
23623
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 220
Species Name
2008
January
2009
January
2010
January
2011
January
2011
March
2012
January
Total Avarage
2150.571429
7248
6071.428571
0
0.285714286
2.285714286
1740
149.7142857
10905.42857
0
537.1428571
0.571428571
0
2.857142857
3.714285714
2.285714286
346.8571429
4.857142857
Tufted Duck
Ferruginous Duck
Unidentified ducks
White-breasted
Waterhen
Ruddy-breasted Crake
Purple Swamphen
Common Moorhen
Eurasian Coot
Pheasant-tailed Jacana
Bronze-winged Jacana
Common Snipe
Pin-tailed Snipe
Bar-tailed Godwit
Black-tailed Godwit
Spotted Redshank
Aythya
fuligula
Aythya nyroca
Amaurornis
phoenicurus
Porzana fusca
Porphyrio porphyrio
Gallinula chloropus
Fulica atra
Hydrophasianus chirurgus
Metopidius indicus
Gallinago gallinago
Gallinago stenura
Limosa lapponica
Limosa limosa
Tringa
erythropus
Rails, Gallinules &
Coots
Finfoots & Jacanas
Shorebirds-Waders
694
5938
1850
0
0
2
419
44
2914
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
205
4438
10500
0
0
0
80
11
3570
0
190
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
489
537
0
0
0
0
913
16
7140
0
484
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1330
6580
1500
0
0
0
139
0
7570
0
31
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3878
3060
1400
1
6
3419
449
10096
1161
2
10
1
8
1214
17
931
4815
6,000
0
0
0
1120
4
6879
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7527
25368
21250
0
1
8
6090
524
38169
0
1880
2
0
10
13
8
1214
17
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 221
Species Name
2008
January
2009
January
2010
January
2011
January
2011
March
2012
January
Total Avarage
3.428571429
0.857142857
0.571428571
1.428571429
133.4285714
2
0.571428571
0.857142857
0.285714286
0.285714286
47.14285714
8.857142857
0.571428571
11.66666667
13.14285714
2
264.2857143
0
0
0
2
400
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
34
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
160
0
0
11
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
28
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
6
12
3
2
3
5
7
2
3
1
1
5
31
2
24
35
7
879
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
40
12
3
2
5
467
7
2
3
1
1
165
31
2
35
46
7
925
Wood Sandpiper
Common Greenshank
Green Sandpiper
Marsh Sandpiper
Common Redshank
Common Sandpiper
Curlew Sandpiper
Little Stint
Long-toed Stint
Temminck's Stint
Ruff
Black-winged Stilt
Pacific Golden Plover
Little Ringed Plover
Grey-headed Lapwing
Red-wattled Lapwing
Brown-headed Gull
Tringa
glareola
Tringa nebularia
Tringa
ochropus
Tringa
stagnatilis
Tringa tetanus
Actitis hypoleucos
Calidris ferruginea
Calidris
minuta
Calidris
subminuta
Calidris
temminckii
Philomachus
pugnax
Himantopus himantopus
Pluvialis fulva
Charadrius dubius
Vanellus cinereus
Vanellus indicus
Larus brunnicephalus
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 222
Species Name
2008
January
2009
January
2010
January
2011
January
2011
March
2012
January
Total Avarage
0.666666667
4.285714286
152.2857143
8
12.85714286
568.8571429
2
28.85714286
1.714285714
0.571428571
0.285714286
2
5.428571429
0.571428571
2.571428571
2.857142857
1.142857143
57.14285714
75038.42857
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
3
0
0
48868
2
5
0
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
0
75788
0
0
502
0
0
0
0
101
2
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
36879
0
8
0
1
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
54645
2
17
25
45
1975
0
0
2
0
0
0
5
0
0
5
0
0
64034
0
0
0
0
0
16
0
0
1
1
0
2
9
2
9
2
4
200
28875
2
15
533
28
45
1991
7
101
6
2
1
7
19
2
9
10
4
200
216180
Heuglin's gull Larus heuglini Great Black-headed Gull
Common Black-headed
Gull
Unidentified Gull
Common Tern
Whiskered Tern
Unidentified tern
Unidenfied shorebird
Greater spotted Eagle
Pied Harrier
Eastern Marsh Harrier
Western Marsh Harrier
Pallas's fish Eagle
White-throated
kingfisher
Common Kingfisher
Pied kingfisher
Sand Martain
Brn Swallow
Larus ichthyaetus
Larus ridibundus
Sterna
hirundo
Chlidonias hybridus
Total
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 223
APPENDIX 3: Bird Ringing Program at Tanguar Haor
Date: 19-26 february, 2012
Total number of captured- 440 and total number of species- 35
SL Species 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Total
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Common Kingfisher
Plaintive Cuckoo
Lesser Coucal
White-breasted Waterhen
Painted Snipe
House Crow
Black hooded Oriole
Black Drongo
Taiga Flycatcher
Slaty-blue Flycatcher
Siberian Rubythroat
White -tail Rubithroat
Bluethroat
Firethroat
Stonechat
Asian pied Starling
Grey-sided bush Warbler
Spotted bush Warbler
Baikal bush Warbler
Pallas's Grasshopper Warbler
Black-brown Reed Warbler
Paddy field Warbler
Blyth's reed Warbler
Large- billed reed Warbler
Oriental reed Warbler
Clamorous reed Warbler
Striated Grassbird
Common Chiffchaff
Dusky Warbler
Tickell's leaf Warbler
Richard's Pipit
Olive-backed Pipit
Rosy Pipit
Baya Weaver
Black-faced Bunting
5
1
5
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
6
3
1
4
1
1
2
13
5
2
1
6
1
6
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
4
2
5
16
7
2
3
4
1
16
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
8
12
3
4
6
5
4
1
1
3
7
1
1
2
3
4
1
9
9
1
2
3
9
2
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
11
36
14
7
2
2
9
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
5
19
1
1
5
1
27
2
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
4
2
4
1
1
1
15
1
2
1
2
1
1
3
15
2
2
19
1
3
3
6
22
87
73
1
10
22
23
10
79
8
1
5
1
9
5
Total 440
Grey-sided bush Warbler (First record from Bangladesh)
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 224
Bird Ringing Technic - A.B.M.Sarowar Alam
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 225
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 226
Ashy Drongo
Ashy Woodswallow
Asian House Martin
Asian Imperial Eagle
Asian Koel
Asian Openbill
Asian Palm Swift
English Name Page Number
208
207
210
204
133, 199
207
200
Scientific Name
Accipiter badius
Acridotheres fuscus
Acridotheres tristis
Acrocephalus aedon
Acrocephalus agricola
Acrocephalus bistrigiceps
Acrocephalus dumetorum
Page Number
204
209
141, 209
211
211
214
210
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 227
INDEX
Mammals
Asian House Shrew
Bengal Fox
Brown Rat/ Tree Rat
Common House Rat
Fishing Cat
Flying Fox
Golden Jackal
Greater Bandicoot Rat
House Mouse
Indian Pangolin
Indian Pipistrelle
Indian Porcupine
Jungle Cat/
Lesser Bandicoot Rat
Small Indian Civet
Small Indian Mongoose
Smooth Coated Otter
Three-striped Palm Squirrel
Wild Boar
English Name Page Number
194
194
195
195
69, 194
71, 194
65, 194
66, 195
195
194
194
195
68, 194
67, 195
195
70, 195
195
195
195
Scientific Name
Bandicota bengalensis
Bandicota indica
Canis aureus
Felis chaus
Funambulus palmarum
Herpestes javanicus
Hystrix indica
Lutrogale perspicillata
Manis crassicaudata
Mus musculus
Pipistrellus coromandra
Prionailurus viverrinus
Pteropus giganteus
Rattus norvigicus
Rattus rattus
Suncus murinus
Sus scrofa
Viverricula indica
Vulpes bengalensis
Page Number
67, 195
66, 195
65, 194
68, 194
195
70, 195
195
195
194
195
194
69, 194
71, 194
195
195
194
195
195
194
Birds
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 228
Baer's Pochard
Baikal Teal
Baillon's Crake
Bar-headed Goose
Barn Owl
Barn Swallow
Bar-tailed Godwit
Baya Weaver
Bengal Bush Lark
Black Bittern
Black Drongo
Black Kite
Black Redstart
Black-browed Reed Warbler
Black-crowned Night Heron
Black-faced Bunting
Black-headed Gull
Black-headed Munia
Black-Hooded Oriole
Black-naped Monarch
Black-necked Grebe
Black-rumped Flameback
Black-tailed Godwit
Black-winged Kite
Black-winged Stilt
Bluethroat
Blyth's Leaf Warbler
Blyth's Reed Warbler
Brahminy Kite
Bronzed Drongo
Bronze-winged Jacana
Brown Bush Warbler
Brown Fish Owl
Brown Hawk Owl
Brown Shrike
Brown-headed Gull
Brown-throated Martin
Cattle Egret
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater
Chestnut-tailed Starling
Cinnamon Bittern
Citrine Wagtail
English Name Page Number
84, 197
88, 197
201
196
200
127, 209
201
145, 213
212
206
139, 207
203
209
214
206
213
203
213
207
208
205
131, 198
100, 201
203
111, 202
208
211
210
204
208
202
210
136, 200
200
207
113, 203
210
121, 206
199
209
206
212
Birds
Acrocephalus stentoreus
Actitis hypoleucos
Aegithina tiphia
Alauda gulgula
Alcedo atthis
Amandava amandava
Amaurornis phoenicurus
Anas acuta
Anas clypeata
Anas crecca
Anas falcata
Anas formosa
Anas penelope
Anas platyrhynchos
Anas poecilorhyncha
Anas querquedula
Anas strepera
Anastomus oscitans
Anhinga melanogaster
Anser anser
Anser indicus
Anthropoides virgo
Anthus cervinus
Anthus hodgsoni
Anthus richardi
Anthus roseatus
Anthus rufulus
Apus affinis
Aquila clanga
Aquila heliaca
Aquila pomarina
Ardea cinerea
Ardea purpurea
Ardeola grayii
Artamus fuscus
Athene brama
Aythya baeri
Aythya ferina
Aythya fuligula
Aythya nyroca
Bradypterus luteoventris
Bradypterus thoracicus
Page Number
211
106, 202
208
212
92,198
213
201
197
82, 197
75, 197
86, 196
88, 197
74, 196
196
197
81, 197
73, 196
207
120, 205
89, 196
196
200
213
213
213
146, 213
212
135, 199
204
204
204
206
206
206
207
200
84, 197
78, 197
76, 197
77,197
210
210
Scientific Name
Clamorous Reed Warbler
Common Buzzard
Common Chifchaff
Common Grasshopper Warbler
Common Greenshank
Common Hawk-Cuckoo
Common Iora
Common Kestrel
Common Kingfisher
Common Moorhen
Common Myna
Common Pochard
Common Redshank
Common Sandpiper
Common Shelduck
Common Snipe
Common Stonechat
Common Tailorbird
Common Teal
Common Tern
Common Woodshrike
Coppersmith Barbet
Cotton Pygmy-goose
Crested Serpent Eagle
Curlew Sandpiper
Darter
Demoiselle Crane
Dusky Warbler
Eastern Marsh Harrier
Eurasian Collared Dove
Eurasian Coot
Eurasian Hoopoe
Eurasian Wigeon
Eurasian Wryneck
Falcated Duck
Ferruginous Duck
Firethroat
Fulvous Whistling Duck
Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker
Gadwall
Garganey
Glossy Ibis
English Name Page Number
211
204
214
211
103, 202
199
208
204
92,198
96, 201
141, 209
78, 197
201
106, 202
80, 196
99, 201
209
211
75, 197
203
208
132, 198
87, 196
204
202
120, 205
200
144, 211
204
200
97, 201
130, 198
74, 196
197
86, 196
77,197
213
90, 196
198
73, 196
81, 197
126, 206
Birds
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 229
Bubulcus ibis
Buteo buteo
Butorides striata
Cacomantis merulinus
Calidris ferruginea
Calidris minuta
Calidris subminuta
Calidris temminckii
Caprimulgus macrurus
Casmerodius albus
Celeus brachyurus
Centropus bengalesis
Centropus sinensis
Ceryle rudis
Cettia brunnifrons
Charadrius dubius
Chlidonias hybridus
Cinnyris asiaticus
Circus melanoleucos
Circus spilonotus
Cisticola juncidis
Columba livia
Copsychus saularis
Coracias benghalensis
Corvus macrorhynchos
Corvus splendens
Cuculus micropterus
Culicicapa ceylonensis
Cypsiurus balasiensis
Delichon dasypus
Dendrocitta vagabunda
Dendrocopos macei
Dendrocygna bicolour
Dendrocygna javanica
Dicrurus aeneus
Dicrurus leucophaeus
Dicrurus macrocercus
Dinopium benghalense
Dupetor flavicollis
Egretta garzetta
Egretta intermedia
Elanus caeruleus
Page Number
121, 206
204
206
199
202
202
202
107, 202
137, 200
205
198
213
199
94, 199
214
110, 203
114, 203
212
204
204
210
200
209
198
207
143, 207
199
208
200
210
207
198
90, 196
91, 196
208
208
139, 207
131, 198
206
124, 205
125, 206
203
Scientific Name
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 230
Great Cormorant
Great Crested Grebe
Great Egret
Great Tit
Greater Coucal
Greater Painted Snipe
Greater Spotted Eagle
Green Bee-eater
Green Sandpiper
Green-crowned Warbler
Greenish Warbler
Grey Heron
Grey Wagtail
Grey-backed Shrike
Grey-breasted Prinia
Grey-headed Canary-Flycatcher
Grey-headed Fish Eagle
Grey-headed Lapwing
Greylag Goose
Grey-sided bush Warbler
Heuglin's gull
House Crow
House Sparrow
Indian Cormorant
Indian Cuckoo
Indian Pond Heron
Indian Roller
Jungle Babbler
Jungle Myna
Knob-billed Duck
Large-billed Crow
Large-billed Leaf Warbler
Large-tailed Nightjar
Lesser Coucal
Lesser Spotted Eagle
Lesser Whistling Duck
Lineated Barbet
Little Cormorant
Little Egret
Little Grebe
Little Ringed Plover
Little Stint
English Name Page Number
119, 205
117, 205
205
209
199
202
204
199
104, 202
211
211
206
212
207
210
208
204
112, 203
89, 196
214
203
143, 207
212
205
199
206
198
211
209
196
207
214
137, 200
213
204
91, 196
198
118, 205
124, 205
116, 205
110, 203
202
Birds
Emberiza spodocephala
Eudynamys scolopacea
Eumyias thalassina
Falco chicquera
Falco peregrinus
Falco tinnunculus
Ficedula albicilla
Ficedula albicilla
Ficedula strophiata
Ficedula tricolor
Fulica atra
Gallicrex cinerea
Gallinago gallinago
Gallinago stenura
Gallinula chloropus
Graminicola bengalensis
Halcyon smyrnensis
Haliaeetus leucoryphus
Haliastur indus
Hierococcyx varius
Himantopus himantopus
Hirundo rustica
Hirundo striolata
Hydrophasianus chirurgus
Hypothymis azurea
Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Ixobrychus sinensis
Jynx torquilla
Ketupa zeylonensis
Lanius cristatus
Lanius schach
Lanius tephronotus
Larus brunnicephalus
Larus heuglini
Larus ichthyaetus
Larus ridibundus
Leptocoma zeylonica
Limosa lapponica
Limosa limosa
Locustella naevia
Lonchura malacca
Page Number
213
133, 199
208
205
204
204
208
213
208
208
97, 201
201
99, 201
201
96, 201
211
93, 198
115, 204
204
199
111, 202
127, 209
209
109, 202
208
204
206
206
197
136, 200
207
207
207
113, 203
203
203
203
212
201
100, 201
211
213
Scientific Name
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 231
Little Swift
Long-tailed Shrike
Long-toed Stint
Mallard
Marsh Sandpiper
Northern Lapwing
Northern Pintail
Northern Shoveler
Olive-backed Pipit
Oriental Magpie Robin
Oriental Scops Owl
Oriental Skylark
Osprey
Pacific Golden Plover
Paddyfield Pipit
Paddyfield Warbler
Pallas's Fish Eagle
Pallas's Gull
Peregrine Falcon
Pheasant-tailed Jacana
Pied Harrier
Pied Kingfisher
Pied Myna
Pin-tailed Snipe
Plain Prinia
Plaintive Cuckoo
Purple Heron
Purple Sunbird
Purple Swamphen
Purple-rumped Sunbird
Red Avadavat
Red-breasted Parakeet
Red-crested Pochard
Red-necked Falcon
Red-throated Flycatcher
Red-throated Pipit
Red-vented Bulbul
Red-wattled Lapwing
Red-whiskered Bulbul
Richard's Pipit
River Tern
Rock Pigeon
Rose-ringed Parakeet
English Name Page Number
135, 199
207
202
196
105, 202
213
197
82, 197
213
209
200
212
203
203
212
211
115, 204
203
204
109, 202
204
94, 199
140, 209
201
210
199
206
212
95, 201
212
213
199
83, 197
205
208
213
210
203
210
213
203
200
134, 199
Birds
Lonchura punctulata
Luscinia calliope
Luscinia pectardens
Luscinia pectoralis
Luscinia svecica
Megalaima haemacephala
Megalaima lineata
Megalurus palustris
Merops leschenaulti
Merops orientalis
Metopidius indicus
Milvus migrans
Mirafra assamica
Motacilla alba
Motacilla cinerea
Motacilla citreola
Motacilla flava
Netta rufina
Nettapus coromandelianus
Ninox scutulata
Nycticorax nycticorax
Oriolus tenuirostris
Oriolus xanthornus
Orthotomus sutorius
Otus sunia
Pandion haliaetus
Parus major
Passer domesticus
Pelargopsis capensis
Phalacrocorax carbo
Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
Phalacrocorax niger
Philomachus pugnax
Phoenicurus ochruros
Phylloscopus collybita
Phylloscopus fuscatus
Phylloscopus inornatus
Phylloscopus magnirostris
Phylloscopus reguloides
Phylloscopus trochiloides
Plegadis falcinellus
Ploceus philippinus
Pluvialis fulva
Page Number
147, 213
208
213
208
208
132, 198
198
142, 211
199
199
202
203
212
129, 212
212
212
212
83, 197
87, 196
200
206
207
207
211
200
203
209
212
198
119, 205
205
118, 205
108, 202
209
214
144, 211
211
214
211
211
126, 206
145, 213
203
Scientific Name
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 232
Rosy Pipit
Ruddy Shelduck
Ruddy-breasted Crake
Ruff
Rufous Treepie
Rufous Woodpecker
Rufous-gorgeted Flycatcher
Rufous-rumped Grassbird
Sand Martin
Scaly-breasted Munia
Shikra
Siberian Rubythroat
Slaty-blue Flycatcher
Slender-billed Oriole
Spot-billed Duck
Spotted Bush Warbler
Spotted Dove
Spotted Owlet
Spotted Redshank
Stork-billed Kingfisher
Striated Grassbird
Striated Heron(Little Heron)
Striated Swallow
Taiga Flycatcher
Temminck's Stint
Thick-billed Warbler
Tufted Duck
Verditer Flycatcher
Water Rail
Watercock
Western Yellow Wagtail
Whiskered Tern
White Wagtail
White-breasted Waterhen
White-tailed Rubythroat
White-tailed Stone Chat
White-throated Kingfisher
Wood Sandpiper
Yellow Bittern
Yellow Footed Green Pigeon
Yellow-billed Egret
Yellow-browed Warbler
Zitting Cisticola
English Name Page Number
146, 213
79, 196
98, 201
108, 202
207
198
208
211
209
147, 213
204
208
208
207
197
210
138, 200
200
101, 201
198
142, 211
206
209
213
107, 202
211
76, 197
208
201
201
212
114, 203
129, 212
201
208
209
93, 198
102, 202
206
200
125, 206
211
210
Birds
Podiceps cristatus
Podiceps nigricollis
Porphyrio porphyrio
Porzana fusca
Porzana pusilla
Prinia hodgsonii
Prinia inornata
Psittacula alexandri
Psittacula krameri
Pycnonotus cafer
Pycnonotus jocosus
Rallus aquaticus
Riparia paludicola
Riparia riparia
Rostratula benghalensis
Sarkidiornis melanotos
Saxicola leucurus
Saxicola torquatus
Seicercus burkii
Spilornis cheela
Sterna aurntia
Sterna hirundo
Streptopelia chinensis
Streptopelia decaocto
Sturnus contra
Sturnus malabaricus
Tachybaptus ruficollis
Tadorna ferruginea
Tadorna tadorna
Tephrodornis pondicerianus
Treron phoenicopterus
Tringa erythropus
Tringa glareola
Tringa nebularia
Tringa ochropus
Tringa stagnatilis
Tringa tetanus
Turdoides striatus
Tyto alba
Upupa epops
Vanellus cinereus
Vanellus indicus
Vanellus Valellus
Page Number
117, 205
205
95, 201
98, 201
201
210
210
199
134, 199
210
210
201
210
209
202
196
209
209
211
204
203
203
138, 200
200
140, 209
209
116, 205
79, 196
80, 196
208
200
101, 201
102, 202
103, 202
104, 202
105, 202
201
211
200
130, 198
112, 203
203
213
Scientific Name
BIODIVERSITY OF TANGUAR HAOR
PAGE - 233
Banded Krait
Bengal Monitor
Binocellate Cobra
Checkered Keelback
Common Garden Lizard
Common House Gecko
Common Krait
Common Smooth Water Snake
Common Vine Snake
Common Wolf Snake
Copper Head Trinket Snake
Green Keelback Snake
Indian Roofed Turtle
Keeled Indian Mabuya
Monocellate Cobra
Olive Keelback
Peacock-marked Soft Shell Turtle
Rat Snake
Short-nosed Vine Snake
Spotted Flap Shell Turtle
Spotted Pond Turtle
Striped Keelback
Tokay Gecko
Yellow Turtle
English Name Page Number
167, 216
158, 215
216
159, 216
157, 215
153, 215
216
164, 216
161, 215
165, 216
163, 216
216
152, 215
155, 215
168, 216
162, 216
150, 215
166, 216
215
149, 215
215
160, 215
215
151, 215
Scientific Name Page Number
Reptiles
Ahaetulla nasuta
Ahaetulla prasina
Amphiesma stolatum
Atretium schistosum
Bungarus caeruleus
Bungarus fasciatus
Calotes versicolor
Coelognathus radiata
Enhydris enhydris
Eutropis carinata
Gekko gecko
Geoclemys hamiltonii
Hemidactylus frenatus
Lissemys punctata
Lycodon aulicus
Macropisthodon plumbicolor
Morenia petersi
Naja kaouthia
Naja naja
Nilssonia hurum
Pangshura tecta
Ptyas mucosa
Varanus bengalensis
Xenochrophis piscator
161, 215
215
160, 215
162, 216
216
167, 216
157, 215
163, 216
164, 216
155, 215
215
215
153, 215
149, 215
165, 216
216
151, 215
168, 216
216
150, 215
152, 215
166, 216
158, 215
159, 216
Asian Common Toad
Asian Grass Frog
Common Tree Frog
Indian Bull Frog
Marbled Toad
Ornate Microhylid
Pegu Rice Frog
Skittering Frog
English Name Page Number
170, 217
173, 217
175, 217
174, 217
171, 217
217
217
172, 217
Scientific Name Page Number
Bufo stomaticus
Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis
Fejervarya limnocharis
Hoplobatrachus tigerinus
Microhyla berdmorei
Microhyla ornata
Polypedates leucomystax
171, 217
170, 217
172, 217
173, 217
174, 217
217
217
175, 217
Amphibians

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...conduct yourself. For example, you may need to find out whether consumers would prefer that your soft drinks be sweater or tarter. Research will often help us reduce risks associated with a new product, but it cannot take the risk away entirely. It is also important to ascertain whether the research has been complete. For example, Coca Cola did a great deal of research prior to releasing the New Coke, and consumers seemed to prefer the taste. However, consumers were not prepared to have this drink replace traditional Coke. Secondary Methods. For more information about secondary market research tools and issues, please see http://buad307.com/PDF/Secondary.pdf . Primary Methods. Several tools are available to the market researcher—e.g., mail questionnaires, phone surveys, observation, and focus groups. Please see http://buad307.com/PDF/ResearchMethods.pdf for advantages and disadvantages of each. Surveys are useful for getting a great deal of specific information. Surveys can contain open-ended questions (e.g., “In which city and state were you born? ) or closed-ended, where the respondent is asked to select answers from a brief list (e.g., “Male _ Female.”� Open ended questions have the advantage that the respondent is not limited to the options listed, and that the respondent is not being influenced by seeing a list of responses. However, open-ended questions are often skipped by respondents, and coding them can be quite a challenge. In general, for surveys to......

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...Analyze- Discreptive Statistics-Crosstables- chọn biến xác định vào ROW, chọn biến tính chất vào Column – Vào CELL chọn các giá trị liên quan: Obcerved, row, column, total… -Continue- OK XÁC ĐỊNH SỐ LƯỢNG, GIÁ TRỊ TRUNG BÌNH, ĐỘ LỆCH CHUẨN BIẾN ĐỊNH LƯỢNG 1. Xác định giá trị trung bình và độ lệch chuẩn MỘT BIẾN ĐỊNH LƯỢNG LIÊN TỤC đơn giản: 1.Vào Data view 2.Analyse/ Descriptive Statistics/ Descriptive 3.Chọn biến cần xác định 4.Trong Option chọn giá trị cần tìm: mean, SD, SE,… 5. OK 2. BIẾN SỐ ĐỊNH LƯỢNG XĐ SỐ TRUNG BÌNH và ĐỘ LỆCH CHUẨN theo tính chất 1.Analyse/Compare Means/Means 2.Chọn biến cần xác định vào ô Dependent (phụ thuộc) tuổi 3.Chọn biến xác định tính chất vào ô Independent (độc lập) giới 4.Tùy chọn Option: + Chọn Means, SD,.. Qua ô Cell Statistics + Continue/OK VẼ BIỂU ĐỒ CHIA THÀNH NHIỀU NHÓM TÍNH TỶ LỆ THEO NHÓM TRANSFORM/Recode/Into defferent variables Nhập biến cần chia nhóm vào ô: String variables/Output variables: ví dụ:tuổi Nhómt3 (Label: nhóm tuổi) chọn change: tuổi Nhómt3 Chọn Old and new value vào new value nhập giá trị nhóm mới: nhom1/ vao Range nhập gia trị nhóm1: vd 1 thoguh 30 hoặc Range lowest trough 31 nhom2 31 thoguh 50/nhom3 Range highest trough 51 + Continue/OK Ví dụ: Nếu nhiều nhóm xếp vào một nhóm thì xếp như sau: vd muốn xếp: Mù chữ, TH – Học vấn thấp THCS, THPT -Học vấn thấp trung bình Cđẳng, ĐH – Học vấn cao ta làm như......

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...makes provision for diculty levels of items. ˆ A test can be compiled with questions from dierent topics/libraries. ˆ A "serial number" is provided for each question according to topic, etc. ˆ The "serial number" can be used to search for and select questions. ˆ Tests can be created on a random basis per student. ˆ Specic questions can be agged to be included/excluded in a test. ˆ The online examination system is suitable for surveys. ˆ The online examination system can automatically add the marks allocated in each question to determine the total mark for the test. SLIIT 46 DLES CHAPTER 3. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS ˆ Dierent papers (shue code) and memoranda can be compiled. ˆ Export question papers and memoranda to .txt or .doc le 2. Control mechanisms in the test ˆ A time limit can be set for the test. ˆ The sequence of questions can be randomized. ˆ Online Examination System allows jumping to specic questions based on the previous answer. ˆ The online examination system limits the number of times a student can write a test. ˆ Students can navigate within a test (i.e. backwards and forwards). Can be set. ˆ Navigation tools/buttons can be selected for a test, and these buttons can be switched. 3. Online Examination System Feedback ˆ Feedback on test results can be set on/o. ˆ Feedback per question can be set on/o. ˆ Customized feedback per question/test. 4. Question types of the Online Examination System ˆ Multiple Choice This question type......

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...of information about project progress? What preconditions are required before the project starts? What conditions outside of the project’s direct control have to be present for the implementation of the planned activities? (source: The European Commission’s Delegation to India, Bhutan, Nepal and the Maldives http://www.delind.cec.eu.int/en/csn/civil_society/eccp/eccp-logical_framework.xls) Logical Framework Case Study - Introducing PDP at Staffordshire University. This case study looks at the development and implementation of an institutional learning strategy “Building a Learning Community” by Staffordshire University using a combination of Prince 2 and Logical Framework approaches. http://www.recordingachievement.org/downloads/100089.pdf ...

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...     2012 MỤC LỤC TẦM NHÌN 05 06 09 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 26 VIẾT TẮT Hội đồng Quản trị: HĐQT Tổng Giám đốc/ Phó Tổng Giám đốc: TGĐ/ PTGĐ Cán bộ nhân viên: CBNV Công nghệ thông tin: CNTT Công nghệ thông tin và Viễn thông: CNTT-VT Công ty TNHH Hệ thống Thông tin FPT: FPT IS Công ty TNHH Phần mềm FPT: FPT Software Công ty Cổ phần Viễn thông FPT: FPT Telecom Công ty Cổ phần Dịch vụ Trực tuyến FPT: FPT Online Công ty TNHH Thương mại FPT: FPT Trading Trường Đại học FPT: ĐH FPT Công ty TNHH Dịch vụ Tin học FPT: FPT Services Công ty Cổ phần Bán lẻ Kỹ thuật số FPT: FPT Retail THÔNG ĐIỆP CỦA CHỦ TỊCH HĐQT TỔNG QUAN FPT 25 năm hình thành và phát triển Văn hóa doanh nghiệp FPT toàn cầu Ngành nghề kinh doanh Sơ đồ tổ chức Giới thiệu Ban lãnh đạo ĐÁNH GIÁ HOẠT ĐỘNG FPT 2012 Chỉ tiêu tài chính nổi bật 2008-2012 Các sự kiện nổi bật 2012 Báo cáo của HĐQT Báo cáo của Ban điều hành ĐỊNH HƯỚNG CHIẾN LƯỢC VÀ KẾ HOẠCH 2013 QUẢN TRỊ CÔNG TY, QUAN HỆ NHÀ ĐẦU TƯ VÀ TRÁCH NHIỆM XÃ HỘI Quản trị công ty Quan hệ nhà đầu tư Trách nhiệm xã hội BÁO CÁO TÀI CHÍNH DANH BẠ CÔNG TY 30 32 34 53 61 62 70 78 83 126 TẦM NHÌN “FPT mong muốn trở thành một tổ chức kiểu mới, giàu mạnh bằng nỗ lực lao động sáng tạo trong khoa học kỹ thuật và công nghệ, làm khách hàng hài lòng, góp phần hưng thịnh quốc gia, đem lại cho mỗi thành viên của mình điều kiện phát triển tài năng tốt nhất và một cuộc sống đầy đủ về vật chất, phong phú về tinh thần”. Ảnh: Một góc Hà Nội nhìn...

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...handover, low quality, allotment problem etc. That’s why it is very important for the developer company to overcome these problems and make a positive image in the consumer mind. References Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2010), http://www.bbs.gov.bd/RptZillaProfile.aspx, date retrieved on Dec 6, 2011 44 Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol 2, No.2, 2012 www.iiste.org CPD (Center for Policy Dialogue) (2003). Strengthening the Role of Private Sector Housing in Bangladesh Economy: The Policy Challenges, Report No. 64, www.cpd-bangladesh.org/publications/dr/DR-64.pdf, date retrieved on Dec 5, 2011 National Housing Authority (2010), http://www.nha.gov.bd/ howpage&pid=19, date retrieved on Nov22, 2011 modules.php?name=Content&pa= National Housing Policy draft (2008). http://www.nha.gov.bd/pdf/national_housing_policy_ %28rough%29.pdf, date retrieved on Nov22, 2011 REHAB (Real Estate & Housing Association of Bangladesh) http://www.rehab-bd.org/about_us.php , date retrieved on Nov22, 2011 REHAB Fair (2011), Chittagong. Fair directory Sarker, M.M.R., Siddiquee, M.M., Rahan, S.F., (2011). Real Estate Financing in Bangladesh: Problems, Programs, and Prospects. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1083322, date retrieved on June 6, 2010 website (2011), Moslehuddin Chowdhury Khaled is from Chittagong, Bangladesh. He is an MPhil/PhD candidate in management department in Chittagong University. The author teaches Management courses in Independent......

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...organizational promise that can be improvement by the participation of the employee. (Denton, 1994) in the building process of the organization the employee play a great role through its Organizational citizenship behavior. (McEwan & Sackett, 1997). Old researches shows that organizational promise increases along with the work authorization awareness increase.( Liu ,Chiu &Fellows, 2007).organizational learning is simplified by enabling the employees enhances the assurance level. (Bhatnagar 2007). Refrences : http://sibresearch.org/uploads/2/7/9/9/2799227/riber_k13-103_351-383.pdf http://blog.volkovlaw.com/2015/03/the-importance-of-organizational-justice/ http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.hrmr.20130304.02.html http://www.ukessays.com/essays/management/organizational-citizenship-behavior-the-outcome-of-organizational-commitment-management-essay.php http://irjbm.org/irjbm2013/January/Paper8.pdf...

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...time, such as in a live “virtual classroom.” Second, Online Content: Learning experiences that the learner completes individually, at his own speed and on his own time, such as interactive, Internet-based or CD-ROM training. Third, Collaboration: Environments in which learners communicate with others, for example, e-mail, threaded discussions and online chat. Forth, Assessment: A measure of learners’ knowledge. Pre-assessments can come before live or self-paced events, to determine prior knowledge, and post-assessments can occur following scheduled or online learning events, to measure learning transfer. Fifth, Reference Materials: On-the-job reference materials that enhance learning retention and transfer, including PDA downloads, and PDFs. Figure 2.2: Blend of Learning Theories (Source: Jared M. –Blended Learning Design – August 2005) Badrul Khan’s blended e-learning framework, referred to here as Khan’s Octagonal Framework enables one to select appropriate ingredients (http://BooksToRead.com /framework). Khan’s framework serves as a guide to plan, develop, deliver, manage, and evaluate blended learning programs. Organizations exploring strategies for effective 25 learning and performance have to consider a variety of issues to ensure effective delivery of learning and thus a high return on investment. In Blended Learning; Learning requirements and preferences of each learner tend to be different. Organizations must use a blend of learning approaches in their......

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...Applied to whole Bangladesh. • An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to steam-boilers. • Applied to owners of boilers and steam pipe and in the law there was mention that there should appoint an inspector in this sector for monitoring. (section27A) Retrieved on (2015, May 26) from (www.boiler.gov.bd) 2. The Mines Act, 1923 • Applied to whole Bangladesh. • It shall come into force on the first day of July, 1924. • An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to the regulation and inspection of mines. • This act applied to all the workers who work in mines. Retrieved on (2015, May 26) from (faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/pak64462.pdf) 3. The Cotton Industry (Statistics) Act, 1926 • Applied to whole Bangladesh. • An Act to provide for the regular submission of returns of quantities of cotton goods manufactured and cotton yarn spun in Bangladesh. • This act describe about cotton goods, areas for productions and regulation of supply. Retrieved on (2015, May 26) from (www.lexadin.nl/wlg/legis/nofr/oeur/lxweban.htm) 4. The Dock Workers’ Act, 1934 • It extends to the whole of Pakistan. • An Act to give effect in Pakistan to the Convention concerning the protection against accidents of workers employed in loading and unloading ships. • It applies to laborer who......

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...representatives are well placed to identify incidences of discrimination, and to work with employers to ensure that anti-discrimination policies are properly implemented. This helps to make workplaces more attractive to workers – improving staff retention, absenteeism and productivity – as well as reducing management time spent addressing grievances. 1 For example, a study for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) found that employers with trade union health and safety committees had half the injury rate of those employers who managed safety without unions or had some other process to involve staff. (‘Safety cultures: Giving staff a clear role’, Report by Public Concern at Work for HSE, 1999 (www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/1999/CRR99214.pdf). Working with trade unions to improve working conditions/May 2010 ETI member briefing 2 4.7 Provide access to learning and skills Helping members to access education and training is a key priority for unions. Research shows that union recognition has a consistently positive effect on the amount and range of training that is provided to employees.2 In turn, higher skilled employees bring productivity benefits for employers. 4.8 Save money Early identification of problems in the workplace can lead to significant savings, for example by reducing the costs employers face as a result of ill health (including reduced productivity, sick pay, temporary staff cover, and compensation payments from accidents) and reducing staff turnover.......

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...Published: July- December Publisher and editor: k, jaishankar. Wedsite: www.cybercrimejournal.com/novoetalijcc2014vol8issue2.pdf The expanding dispersion from claiming data and correspondence innovation organization prompts an more stupendous social. Perceivability from claiming phenomena identified with animosity clinched alongside the internet. The investigate expects will ponder the dull side of internet interpersonal correspondence “around adolescents, on particular, the recurrence from claiming execute. For aggress in the internet (e.g, cyber-stalking), those cover the middle of victimization and insulting furthermore. Those progress from claiming parental supervision or contribution. Those ponder might have been directed around 627. Portuguese youths and 586 folks. Those effects reflect an worrisome recurrence. For strike in the internet that strengthens those pattern discovered done past global investigations. Those discoveries. Additionally hint at a helter skelter c over the middle of casualties and wrongdoers and the impact that folks could have on those. Combative self- destructive considerations and conduct of their juvenile learners in the virtual earth. THE GREENING OF CANADIAN CYBER LAESWHAT ENVIRONMENTAL LAW CAN TEACH AND CYBER LAW CAN LEARN: DECEMBER 2014 AUTHOR: SARE M. SMYTH Website:Ww,cybercrimejournal.com/smythijcc2014vol8issue2.pdf This article looks at if Canada wild rye Ecological theory and strategy Might serve Likewise An model to. Digital......

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...relevant information regarding the project. The questionnaire was designed using various scaling techniques. The questionnaire was used mainly to test the model proposed for consumer perception towards online shopping. Likert five point scales ranging from Strongly Agree to strongly disagree was used as a basis of Questions. The data collection was done over a period of 8 weeks It will be collected to add the value to the primary data. This may be used to collect necessary data and records by different websites, magazines, annual reports, journals, reference books, and newspapers, etc. For studying consumer perception on online shopping, samples were selected from Dhaka. The respondents in the samples are reached through Google Docs via Facebook. I have prepared this project as descriptive type, as the objective of the study. Chapter 5 Data Analysis The objectives of the research were studied with respect to a regular online shopper who shopped more than once because they would be the right respondent to give an insight about the online shopping. Therefore it is firstly important to understand who is a regular online shopper. In the survey the respondents were asked the following questions which helped to I. Have you purchased anything online ever? Fig. 1 Total Purchase Online The research showed that 62% of the Internet users had shopped online while 38% had not bought anything. This is mainly because of the changing lifestyle and taste......

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...that invokes the different service operations and exposes this functionality as a new, single operation. The following figure shows the difference between these variants using the example of the DocumentService. On the left-hand side, a DocumentService is created in which the generateDocument operation contains the logic to combine several underlying services. Service consumers invoke this new operation of the composite service. In the right-hand side service consumers implement the composition logic. Service Consumer Service Consumer Service Consumer Service Consumer Composition Logic Composition Logic DocumentService Composition Logic Signing Service Email Service PDF Service CRM Service Signing Service Email Service PDF Service CRM Service [ 99 ] For More Information: www.packtpub.com/service-oriented-architecture-made-simple/book Classification of Services It pays off to create a new service that contains the composition logic in case multiple consumers require the same composition logic: • Changes to the composition logic can be applied more easily since it is implemented in a single location instead of in different service consumers. Similar business logic is reused in the service that implements the composition. • When you compose services into larger ones, the knowledge and complexity of how to combine these services and how they interact is hidden in a new service itself......

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