Free Essay

Phases to Organizational Change

In: Business and Management

Submitted By janeteperez36
Words 797
Pages 4
The Phases in the Organizational Change Process

HCS/587 October 14, 2013

The Phases in the Organizational Change Process Spector (2010) stated “organizational change is typically initiated in response to a trigger event or a shift in the environment that precipitates a need for altered strategies and new patterns of employee behavior” (p.18). According to Spector (2010), to understand and analyze the dynamics of change it is important to sort out and distinguish the different approaches that can be taken. In chapter one Spector gives the reader insight into the Concord Bookshop, a bookstore that is in the process of implementing new changes. Spector (2010), states that “for the Concord Bookshop, the increasing penetration of online booksellers into the store’s market space triggered the requirement for strategic renewal” (p.18). Kurt Lewin developed a change model to assist organizations such as the Concord Bookshop with changes. There are three steps in Lewin’s model and they are: Unfreezing, Transitioning or Moving, and Refreezing. This paper will define Kurt Lewin’s three phases of organizational change and explain why the Concord Bookshop failed at implementing change effectively. The first phase of Lewin’s change model is known as “unfreezing.” Lewin states that many people will naturally resist change and thus the goal of unfreezing stage is to create an awareness of how the status quo, or current level of acceptability, is hindering the organization in some way(). That means “old behaviors, ways of thinking, processes, people and organizational structures must all be carefully examined to show employees how necessary a change is for the organization to create or maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace”(). The second phase in Lewin’s change model is “transitioning or moving”. In this stage Lewin states it is a time marked with uncertainty and fear, which makes it the hardest to overcome. This is because in this stage employees begin to learn the new behaviors, processes and ways of thinking. The third stage in Lewin’s change model is known as “refreezing”. It is also known as the act of reinforcing and or stabilizing after a new change has been implemented. This stage is very important because this is where an organization makes sure that the people don’t go back to doing things the old way. The Concord Bookshop was an independent bookstore that was having difficulty keeping up with competition from chains and the Internet (Spector, 2010). Because of this issue, management decided to implement change in order to stay abreast of its competitors. However, they failed to take into consideration the opinions of their employees and thus made changes without following the first stage of Lewin’s model, which is the unfreezing stage. The employees did not see a need for change and were simply satisfied with the status quo. They were frozen and need to be thawed out first in order for change to be implemented. Lewin states that people are naturally resistant to change and so the goal of the management team at the Concord Bookshop should have been to show the employees how sticking with the status quo was hindering the organization from staying abreast in the book selling business. This was their first mistake in implementing change that the managers of the Concord Bookshop made and thus what created conflict in their organization. The second step that the Concord Bookshop managers failed to follow was the transitioning or moving stage in Lewin’s model. If they would have implemented the unfreezing stage then they would have transitioned right into the transition stage and or moving stage in which they could have helped the employees better understand why the need for change was necessary. Since they did not implement the changing phase and showed the employees why change was needed they had resistance from their employees. The third stage the Concord Bookshop should have followed was the refreezing stage. In this stage of Lewins model the Concord Bookshop would have been reinforcing their new change program to their employees and thus creating a new status quo or a new normal and making sure that the employees did not revert back to the old way of thinking. In conclusion, the managers of the Concord Bookshop implemented change in an ineffective way which caused conflict and affected the goal of pursuing a prosperous business. Following Lewin’s model of change can be beneficial to any organization in avoiding conflict and creating a mess of things in order to implement change. Change is always difficult for everyone, but when it is introduced in a way where people can understand why the change is necessary then an organization will be less likely to encounter as much resistance as the Concord Bookshop managers faced.

References

Spector, B. (2010). Implementing Organizational Change: Theory into Practice (2nd ed.). : Prentice Hall.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...discuss the components of organizational change that were not identified in the story about the Concord Bookshop. Two phases of organizational change that were not considered are failure to address and recognize the organizational culture already existing within the company, and failure to communicate the change process and listen to concerns (Spector, 2010). The motive for change was identified, however, was generally addressed as financial difficulties. The leadership of the organization demonstrated a transformation from the organizational culture but was unable to endorse the change culture for the organization. This ultimately led to an adoption of autocratic policies which had been met by stern opposition from middle-management and employees. A backlash ensued as evidence by senior employees and management resigning suddenly from the actions of the leadership. It is in this writer’s opinion, the story about Concord Bookshop discloses a basic example of lack of communication amidst a plausible and factual crisis. The risk of financial demise and fears of individuals within the leadership instigated the motive for change with little regard to the dominant culture of the organization. This common thread in organizations may have been averted by incorporating the management and employees in the phases of organizational change and change culture. Instead of improving the financial outcome of the business as was the intent for the change, the change methods actually did......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...customization of the material. Pfeiffer also recognizes the remarkable power of new technologies in expanding the reach and effectiveness of training. While e-hype has often created whizbang solutions in search of a problem, we are dedicated to bringing convenience and enhancements to proven training solutions. All our e-tools comply with rigorous functionality standards. The most appropriate technology wrapped around essential content yields the perfect solution for today’s on-the-go trainers and human resource professionals. w w w. p f e i f f e r. c o m Essential resources for training and HR professionals S Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change S S S Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change How the Best Companies Ensure Meaningful Change and Sustainable Leadership Louis Carter David Ulrich Marshall Goldsmith Editors Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published by Pfeiffer An Imprint of Wiley 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741 www.pfeiffer.com No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance......

Words: 29274 - Pages: 118

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Organizational Change Rodney Hickson BUS610: Organizational Behavior Dr. Brand Bowler February 18, 2013 Change is essential to the longevity of all organizations. Without change a organizations faces the possibly of making their impact in their market place obsolete. But change inside an organization can often cause employees and management to be resistant to change. In many case this can be the result of internal and external factors which can be simplified down to personal and professional fears of how a change many affect their individual roles and responsibilities in an organization. Employees resist change for reasons of self-interest when they realize that levels of power, money, prestige, job security, and personal convenience are at stake. The sunk costs doctrine suggests that over time a person's investment in a company escalates—as pension funds accumulate and the person's allowed vacation time rises, along with their chances of being promoted or enjoying the benefits of seniority. These investments may in turn drive resistance to change as the employee seeks to maintain the status quo (Patti, 1974). Resistance can also be based on simply not understanding why a change has become necessary, such as when an employee who does not use social media does not understand why a Facebook page would be a good idea for a company. At times employees do not trust management's motives, in essence thinking or asking, "What are they really up to when they asked for this...

Words: 1120 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Hcs 587 Organizational Change Plan Organizational Change Plan - Phase I Billing is a critical element to health care organizations large and small. Proper documentation and coding ensures payment to the organization. Health care professionals must be certain of the codes he or she uses to keep insurance denials to a minimum. In this paper, a comprehensive plan to change current billing methods and adopt new billing formats will be discussed. The need in the organization for the change, organizational, and individual barriers to change, factors to influence this proposal as well as readiness within the organization for change are among the topics for a billing change plan. Medical and dental insurance billing ensures that money will flow into the organization. Errors reduce revenue, thus causing stress to operational and billing management to rectify these errors. Common mistakes can be timely filing; most insurance companies require claims to be submitted within a certain time frame. Claims will be rejected if not within this window and therefore becomes the burden of the provider, resulting in lost revenue. Other common mistakes include incorrect coding, incorrect insurance, wrong patient number, and incorrect date of service. Within the School of Dentistry a hierarchy of billing management exists, not unlike many health care organizations. In this school there are seven billing/insurance members. There are three full-time and two part-time staff, one supervisor, and......

Words: 1037 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Organizational Change If you are a business leader today there is one thing that constantly runs through your mind, “How can we continue to succeed and grow.” In today’s society it has become harder and harder to accomplish such a task. The world is ever changing and it does so in a pace that is far more rapid than that of 20 years ago. Business leaders know that change is inevitable, but where the problem lies is how to manage the change in a way that will allow for continued growth and success, but at the same time they want to be able to do so with as little stress as possible to the employees. There are hundreds of ways to make changes in an organization, and plenty of people out there pitching their ideas as the best. It is up to the business leaders to find a technique that will best suite their needs as an organization, a technique that will give them the results they are looking for, this is the case with General Motors. General Motors is made up of four different auto makers (Buick, GM, Pontiac and Chevrolet) and each one runs independently from the others. GM decided that having four independently ran divisions, which competed against one another was more costly than beneficial and they searched to find a way to change this for the better. ...

Words: 1858 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Phase of Organisational Development and Change

...New aircraft technologies We have become accustomed to the "standard" airliner of the early 21st Century. It has a familiar form and most of them have the family characteristics of large twin engines, a cylindrical fuselage, a lower freight bay and upper passenger compartment, swept back wings and a tricycle undercarriage. Some argue that this form is the conclusion of evolution and that it simple demonstrates the limiting form of the idea. Others take the view that any form is only the product of the circumstances that produced it and if these change the evolutionary form will change and can be changed. The ideas presented here follow this path. Prompted by the pressures for environmental sensitivity some ideas focus on ways to make dramatic, or at least important, savings in the amount of fuel used by the world’s airliners. Previously dismissed contributions to economy of fossil fuel lie behind the thinking of several new technological concepts. 1. The glider-like airliner Gliders has very high aspect ratio wings. These low drag wings allow them to sustain altitude in the lightest of upward thermals (about 1 fpm) and thereby to carry out long distance flight on no fuel at all. Their glide ratio is extremely shallow – in the order of 1 in 55 compared with a typical airliner of 1 in 15 (B747). Powered gliders are somewhere between a conventional a/c and a glider. Their small engines can be used to gain or to sustain altitude and the consumption of fuel is still only...

Words: 1917 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Organizational Changes

...their "subjects" as co-researchers (e.g., Elden & Chisholm, 1993; Israel, Schurman & Hugentobler, 1992) most action research is based upon the logical positivist paradigm (Sussman & Evered, 1978) which treats social and psychological reality as something fundamentally stable, enduring, and "out there". Appreciative inquiry, however, is a product of the socio-rationalist paradigm (Gergen, 1982, 1990) which treats social and psychological reality as a product of the moment, open to continuous reconstruction. While appreciative inquiry has caught the attention of many organization development (OD) consultants and scholars (Bushe & Pitman, 1991; Curran, 1991), we are not aware of any published empirical research on its effects as a method of change. One form of action research common in organization development is team development interventions that rely on the collection and feedback of data to aid groups in developing more effective group forms and processes. In this study we develop a team building intervention based on the principles of appreciative inquiry and use a controlled, laboratory study to assess its impact on conventional measures of group process and team outcomes in comparison to a traditional team development intervention and a "placebo". The study uses a classically positivistic methodology to assess the impact of a socio-rationalist method of inquiry on action. This may seem, at first, to contradict the very essence of appreciative inquiry (as described......

Words: 8562 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Journal of Change Management Vol. 5, No. 4, 369 –380, December 2005 Organisational Change Management: A Critical Review RUNE TODNEM BY Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, UK ABSTRACT It can be argued that the successful management of change is crucial to any organisation in order to survive and succeed in the present highly competitive and continuously evolving business environment. However, theories and approaches to change management currently available to academics and practitioners are often contradictory, mostly lacking empirical evidence and supported by unchallenged hypotheses concerning the nature of contemporary organisational change management. The purpose of this article is, therefore, to provide a critical review of some of the main theories and approaches to organisational change management as an important first step towards constructing a new framework for managing change. The article concludes with recommendations for further research. KEY WORDS : Critical review; theories and approaches Introduction Change management has been defined as ‘the process of continually renewing an organization’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers’ (Moran and Brightman, 2001: 111). According to Burnes (2004) change is an ever-present feature of organisational life, both at an operational and strategic level. Therefore, there should be no doubt regarding the importance to any organisation of...

Words: 5198 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Change Might Not Equal Progress Many companies emphasize a culture of continuous improvement. While never being satisfied with the status quo can drive excellence in your organization, there is some wisdom in the old adage, "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." Mistaking change for progress is similar to the common problem of mistaking activity for productivity. Every organization can be improved, no matter how well it is performing, but a manager should always ask the question, "How is this proposed change going to improve my organization's ability to achieve our key goals?" Cost-to-Benefit Ratio Change is never free. Changing the oil in your car takes time and materials, which cost money. Changing the phone system in your building costs time, money and training. Every change also has opportunity cost; spending your equipment budget on new computers means you have to wait to upgrade the phones. And there are intangible costs such as morale and customer satisfaction during the adjustment period. Determine whether the cost of a change is outweighed by the benefit that change will create. Related Reading: How to Announce an Organization Change Internal Resistance According to an article by organizational change expert Garrison Wynn, the top two reasons people resist change are lack of knowledge about coming changes and fear of the unknown. You can expect some level of resistance to any change, no matter how small or how much benefit it might promise. The key tools for......

Words: 399 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Nine-Phase Change Model

...HR587 Managing Organizational Change Introduction In undertaking any change project in an organization it is imperative that business executive understand that properly tailored coordinates and strategically sound routes are paramount to the success of the project from its planning phase to its execution phase. Linda Ackerman Anderson and Dean Anderson have formulated the nine-phase change model that when implemented properly is a powerful tool in helping organizations better tailor their change strategic plans to be in line with the organization’s influential areas of change; change needs, employees’ needs, and the desired outcome. The Nine-phase Change Process Model The Andersons’ model of change is called the nine-phase change process model, this change model is general enough to fit any organizational structure and size and specific enough to organize its nine phases into a logistical flow that makes for better adaptation. The phases of the nine-phase model are 1. preparing to lead the change, 2. creating organizational vision commitment and capacity, 3. assessing the situation to determine design requirement, 4. designing the desired state, 5. analyzing the impact, 6. planning and organizing for implementation of the change, 7. implementing the change, 8. celebrating and integrating the new state, and 9. learning correcting the course. It is non-invasive and since it doesn’t confine the change agent to adhering to stringent restrictions, rather, it provides a......

Words: 595 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Contents 1.0 Introduction 2 1.1 What is Change and Change Management 2 2.0 Literature Review 4 2.1 Drivers of change 4 2.1.1 Globalisation to change 4 2.1.2 Education to Change 4 2.1.3 Technology to change 4 2.2 The Process of managing change 5 2.2.1 Force Field Analysis on Change 5 2.2.2 Lewin’s Change Model 6 3.0 Change Management 7 3.1 John Kotter: Leading Change in today’s business 7 Urgency growth 8 Build Guiding Team 8 Getting Right Vision 8 Communicating for buy-in 9 Empower Action 9 Creating Short-term wins 9 Don’t Let Up 9 Make Change Stick 10 4.0 Conclusion 11 References 12 1.0 Introduction 1.1 What is Change and Change Management The world as we have created it is a process of our thinking. It cannot be changed without changing our thinking. “Albert Einstein”. Basically, definition of change is to make or create something different. Indeed, change happens to two reasons which are change for better or worse. Moreover, change means a movement from current state to a transition and a future state. In fact change happens all around the world such as in our community, work and at home. (Thomas G. Cumming, 2009) Figure 1: Change structure, Source: (Change Management Tuitorial , 2014) In fact, change happens everywhere even in companies therefore, all companies come up with change management in order to control changes which are internal and external. Basically, change management focused to provide a......

Words: 3707 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Phases of Organizational Change

...paths, bike lanes and bike racks. It also includes the signs and the signals that are used to inform the users of non-motorized means of transport. These sighs should be clearly and easily understood by the bike users so that there is the proper usage of the roads by the bike users. Having good bike facilities in place, will attract more people to prioritize on bike using because they will feel secure using them when the signage is well designed for the bicycle routes and lanes. Bike signage is useful in indicating the proper usage of the bicycle facilities using the designated routes. It is used to give a warning to the motorists that the bicyclists may be using the full lane. Besides, these signs can be used to encourage the motorist to change the lane if they need to overtake the bicyclists. In Western Michigan University, the use of non-motorized means of transporting has highly been recommended and one of its major projects in this decade. It is putting a lot of effort to encourage its residents to use bicycles by improving the bike infrastructure and teaching people the usefulness of using bikes. Bicycling reduces the problem of congestion and ensuring the pedestrians, cyclists, and other non-motorized users move safely and smoothly. The University is aiming at improving the health of the community by reducing the use of motor vehicles and other automobiles by using alternative methods such as cycling and walking (Western Michigan University Master Plan,......

Words: 1791 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Morrison, J.M., Brown, C.J. & Smit, E.M. (2008). The impact of organizational culture on project management in matrix organizations. South African Journal of Business Management, 39(4), 27-36. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. http://ezproxy.bethel.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=42637803&site=ehost-live&scope=site The researchers from the University of Stellenbosch Business School in South Africa, conducted an empirical study on the relationship between organizational culture and project management effectiveness. The study consisted of 29 organizations operating in South Africa, who filled out surveys for various functions in project management as well as a survey on culture. The surveys were analyzed upon responses to the 7 point Likert scale to understand the relationship between culture and the effectiveness of project management, using two studies previously published. There were 12 dimensions of the organizational culture analyzed and 11 dimensions of project management. This research found that there was a statistically significant relationship between the culture and project management effectiveness in a matrix organization. The limitations the researchers encountered we a limited sample size, sample was not random, geographical selectiveness, construct validity. They suggested a follow-up study to address the limitations. Overall, if the culture is too bureaucratic, hierarchical and internally-focused, it would be hard for the......

Words: 2439 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...living in a fast pace society and it is essential to allow change to keep up. Due to globalization our markets are fuller with endless opportunities to raise revenue which will lead to growth. Our markets have become so diverse with a variety of needs that one must understand that there are certain expectations that must be met in order to satisfy consumers which can only be met with collaboration. It is critical for management and leaders to be able to manage organizational change because the purpose for this change is to improve the organization’s effectiveness and the people within that organization. Organizational change is sometimes provoked by external forces, such as increase in production, funding cuts, new clients or markets. This process occurs as often as a person will grow through lifecycles. It generally does not include modification to a program, or adding employees but when a company goes through an “organizational transformation” to achieve an overall goal, they will change their strategy or shift the way the company is run, mergers, re-engineering, reconstructing, new technologies, maybe by removing some aspect, or resizing. Possibly some form of freezing or un-freezing, even change in policies or procedures. A significant change can be adding something new, advertisement or even a new chief executive officer with his or her wishes on how the company should be run, could also lead to substantial change in the organization. There are managers and leaders......

Words: 1451 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Implementing Change in Organizations (Shift Happens) Research Paper MGT6681 Abstract As one of the key lessons in the book Who Moved My Cheese? points out, “change happens”; in fact, change may be the only constant in our lives. Some people thrive on change; others will avoid it at all costs – even if it costs them their livelihood. Because change is one of the major problems causing conflict and dissention in the organization’s most valuable resource, its employees, this paper will review some of the possible causes of resistance to change and how to overcome them. Specifically, this research will focus on these particular aspects of implementing change within an organization: Why change? Who avoids change, and why? How to overcome resistance and implement change. Nothing endures but change. Heraclitus Why Change? Possibly one of the biggest problems with implementing a change in an organization is the fact that employees may view the change as unnecessary. As an example, The Farm Bank case (Brown/Harvey, 2006) illustrates how change can go wrong when it isn’t analyzed for its costs vs. benefits, well-planned – beginning to end, or even needed to begin with. In this case analysis, the CEO decides that the company needs to implement a new MIS program to assist with increased productivity, long-term planning, and decision making. Although he has good intentions, he dives right into the project and even creates a new management position......

Words: 1774 - Pages: 8

Kevin Hanchard | Flower (2017) [WEBRip] [720p] [YTS.AM] 11 minutes | SubManga.com - Peliculas 2015 Online Gratis!