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Phonological Rules

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Courtney120495
Words 696
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PHONOLOGICAL RULES * Phonemes are mental entities and phones are physical rules. In phonological rules we consider the connection between these two levels. * A speakers knowledge of phonological rules allows him or her to “translate” phonemes into actual speech sounds; knowledge of these rules forms part of the speakers linguistic competence. * Change from the underlying phonemic form to the actual phonetic form of a word by means of phonological rules can be represented with a diagram. phonemic form =rules= phonetic form
Examples:
I can ask {ay kaen aesk}
I can see { ay kaen si}
I can bake { ay kaem bek }
I can play { ay kaen ple}
I can go { ay kaen go }
I can come { ay kaen kam } * As these transcriptions show /n/ is pronounced as /m/ when it precedes a labial stop and as /n/ when it precedes a velar stop. We can state this fact about English as descriptive rule: /n/ is pronounced as: /m/ before a labial stop /n/ before a velar stop /n/ everywhere else
Flapping: Alveolar oral stops are realized as /r/ when they occur after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed syllable. Writer /raytr/- /rayrr/ and rider /raydr/-/ rayrr/ are examples of the application of this rule.
Palatalization- refers to a special type of assimilation in which a consonant becomes like a neighboring sound. For example when American English speakers say Did you eat? Rapidly they very often pronounce Did you as/dija/. The sound /d/ has been turned into a palatal sound /j/ because of the influence of the following palatal glide /y/.
Some examples are very common in Eghlish:
OSU /oesyu/ {oesyu} did you /did yu/ {diju} capture /kaeptyr/ [kaeper] gracious /gresyes/ {greses]

Why have Phonological Rules?
*First, some rules make sequence of sounds easier to pronounce.
*Second, some rules make sound easier to perceive. * Notice also that phonological rules may be obligatory or optional.

Sound Substitutions Not all sound systems are the same, as we discovered in conducting phonemic analyses of different languages. Some languages have fewer or more phonemes or allophones than English does and we can detect this when we hear non-native speakers of English pronounce English. For instance French speakers often pronounce English this /dis/ as /zis/ and thin / θin/ as /sin/. The reason for this mispronunciation is that the phonemic inventory of French does not contain // or / θ/ so French speakers substitute the nearest equivalent sounds the fricatives /z/ and /s/, available in their phonemic inventory. This is known as sound substitution, a process whereby sounds that already exist in a language are used to replace sounds that do not exist in the language when borrowing or trying to pronounce a foreign word. Another familiar example comes from German, a language that has a voiceless velar fricative phoneme represented by the symbol /x/. English, of course lacks this sound, though we do have a voiceless velar stop /k/. Most speakers of English substitute /k/ for /x/ in a German word like Bach /bax/, producing /bak/. Another example of the same substitution is the way American oftens pronounce the German word Lebkuchen /lekbuxen/ “Christmas cookie” as {lebkuken}. Some English speakers, striving for a more “Germanlike” pronunciation will pronounce it instead as {lebkuhen}.

Phonotactic Constraints In every language there are restrictions on the kinds of sounds and sound sequences possible in different positions in words (particularly at the beginning and end). These restrictions can be formulated in terms of rules stating which sound sequences are possible in a language and which are not. Restrictions on possible combinations of sounds are known as phonotactic constraints. Languages generally prefer a consonant /C/ first, vowel /V/ second syllable structure but some languages allow a syllable to begin with more than one consonant. For instance, English allows up to three consonants to start a word provided the first is /s/, the second /p/ /t/, or /k/, and the third /l/, /r/, /y/ or /w/ (see below). There is a variety of syllable types in English:
V oh CV no CCV flew CCCV spree
VC at CVC not CCVC flute CCCVC spleen
VCC ask CVCC ramp CCVCC flutes CCCVCC strength
VCCC asked CVCCC ramps CCVCCC crafts CCCVCCC strengths…...

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