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Policy Brief
Families are often faced with a range of different, complex health and psychosocial problems. Place-based approaches aim to address these complex problems by focusing on the social and physical environment of a community and on better integrated and more accessible service systems, rather than focusing principally on the problems faced by individuals. A place-based approach targets an entire community and aims to address issues that exist at the neighbourhood level, such as poor housing, social isolation, poor or fragmented service provision that leads to gaps or duplication of effort, and limited economic opportunities. By using a community engagement approach to address complex problems, a place-based approach seeks to make families and communities more engaged, connected and resilient.

An initiative of The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne Centre for Community Child Health

Issue 23 > 2011

Translating early childhood research evidence to inform policy and practice

Place-based approaches to supporting children and families
Additionally, the circumstances in which children are growing up have changed10. Children now have fewer models of caregiving, community environments are less child-friendly and electronic media has become a dominant feature in children’s lives12,13,14. Social climate change is also evident in the increasing complexity of modern society15. One manifestation of this complexity is the increase in ‘wicked’ problems16 such as obesity, child abuse and social exclusion. These problems are beyond the capacity of any one organisation to understand and respond to, and there is often disagreement about their causes and the best way to tackle them. Wicked problems “cross departmental boundaries and resist the solutions that are readily available through the action of one agency”17. However, government departments typically focus on acute problems and do so unilaterally, rather than coordinating efforts to address factors that lead to wicked problems occuring in the first place. Governments also seek to integrate services so as to improve access and thereby improve outcomes. However, while integrating services is important, it is also important to build more supportive communities. This will ensure that parents of young children have stronger social support and the interface between communities and services is improved so that service systems can be more responsive to community needs18. Both integrating services and building more supportive communities are best done through a place-based approach.

Why is this issue important?
Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed significant and rapid change. These changes have been so fast and so far-reaching, they have had a dramatic impact on the physical wellbeing of the planet in the form of climate change1,2,3,4 as well as on the physical and psychological wellbeing of societies in the form of social climate change5. We can see the evidence of social climate change in the rapid changes that have occurred for communities, families and children. These include: • people’s sense of community has become less tied to locality, as seen in the emergence of online communities • our social relationships have taken on new forms • the structure of the family has changed (e.g. smaller families) • Australia has greater cultural and ethnic diversity • the circumstances in which families are raising young children have changed, for example, more parents work longer hours6,7,8,9,10,11.

Policy Brief 23 > 2011: Place-based approaches

What does the research tell us?
Rationale for place-based approaches
The rationale for adopting place-based approaches is based on various factors: Place shapes people’s wellbeing. Both social and physical environments influence health and wellbeing. Children’s daily experience of living and learning in the environment around them is a significant factor in their overall wellbeing6-8,19-23. Feeling connected and having social networks matters for people’s wellbeing. Children’s welfare and family functioning are crucially dependent upon the social support available within local communities24, and social isolation is a risk factor for both child development and family functioning24-27. Some communities are trapped by locational disadvantage28-32. Despite Australia’s recent strong economic growth, some communities remain caught in a spiral of disadvantage such as low school attainment, high unemployment, poor health, high imprisonment rates and child abuse31. When social disadvantage becomes entrenched in a particular locality, a disabling social environment can develop, leading to intergenerational disadvantage. The economic collapse of certain localities30,33,34. Neighbourhoods that were reliant on the old economy have been devastated by globalisation, economic rationalism, restructuring and closure of manufacturing industries. Some of these neighbourhoods have become almost entirely dependent on welfare benefits and publicly funded services. Orthodox approaches fail to reduce inequalities and prevent problems35,36. The strategies that have been used so far to reduce inequalities – such as making existing services more accessible and seeking to alter the individual behaviour of vulnerable people – do not address the root cause of the problems33, and have been unable to produce sustainable change. There has been a disproportionate reliance on the deployment of strategies and programs for the treatment of existing conditions rather than on true prevention, which is defined as occurring prior to the onset of disorder36. A place-based approach addresses the broader problems that impact upon families at the community level (e.g. unsafe physical environments, non-family-friendly transport, limited social connectedness) as well as the barriers to families
2 Policy Brief 23 > 2011: Place-based approaches

accessing services (e.g. fragmented service systems, lack of outreach capacity). Local services are not able to respond effectively to the complex needs of families and communities10,37. Designed at a time when the demands on families were simpler, many local service systems struggle to provide support to all families who are eligible, and to meet the needs of families facing multiple challenges in a holistic way. It is difficult to engage and retain vulnerable families38-44. Some families make little or no use of services, even if they have concerns about their children or are experiencing family difficulties. The reasons for this lack of engagement – more common among vulnerable families – include difficulties negotiating a fragmented service system, not knowing services exist, and an unwillingness and/or inability to access services38. With a focus on collaboration and partnership between services, a place-based approach seeks to reduce these barriers by building integrated service systems that are more flexible and responsive to family and community needs, and have an outreach capacity to engage vulnerable and socially isolated families. Cumulatively, this is a formidable list of factors that provide a powerful rationale for a place-based approach. However, it is important to consider the evidence regarding the effectiveness of place-based approaches.

The effectiveness of place-based approaches
Establishing the efficacy of place-based initiatives, policy and planning is challenging. A lack of well-designed outcome evaluations of place-based initiatives limits the extent to which firm conclusions about their effectiveness can be made45,46. While some place-based initiatives have led to measurable improvements, others have not. Reviews of Australian efforts suggest that it is still too early to tell what difference these will make over the long term37,47. Despite this cautious conclusion, there is some evidence as to what successful place-based interventions involve.

Characteristics of successful place-based interventions
Communities participate, lead and own the intervention. At the heart of all successful place-based partnerships are communities that provide maximum practicable input in all decision making. This is the key to community strengthening32 and extensive community engagement, as well as engagement with public and private sector stakeholders37,48. Knowledge of the local community decreases the amount of time required to identify needs and develop plans and programs, thereby leading to greater efficiency. Investment in capacity building. This investment includes time and resources for communities as well as long-term capacity building of staff48. Adequate time. Problems that have been decades in the making will not be reversed in a few short years32. Similarly, service transformation through behaviour change takes a long time50,51. Adequate funding. Governments can help to support community-strengthening outcomes by investing in core public infrastructure48 and facilitating investment from other sources (e.g. private sector funding) to support initiatives and ideas that flow from the project37, and fund pilot and demonstration projects48. Strong leadership and support from governments. Wiseman (2006) notes that governments can support community-strengthening outcomes by articulating and demonstrating their commitment. Effective relationships between stakeholder groups. Effective coalitions or partnerships between key community stakeholders increase the likelihood that a prevention effort will be successful52. Key factors that contribute to effective relationships between stakeholders include high levels of trust and communication, and the establishment of shared vision and values between service providers. Governance structures need to be established through which the various stakeholders and service providers can effectively engage with users of the service system to develop planning mechanisms that respond to community need, and through which services can be jointly planned and delivered. Evaluation. Processes to rigorously measure and evaluate outcomes need to be built into the project from the start37.

A ‘good fit’. The scale of the project needs to be appropriate to the policy challenges it addresses. The community needs to be prepared to implement a prevention program37 and any programs or interventions need to meet the identified needs of the community and be appropriate for the targeted cultural groups52. The evidence also suggests that a place-based approach is only one feature of a comprehensive community-based service framework that can respond more effectively to the wicked problems that affect communities, families and children53. Other features include: • a strong universal service system backed by a tiered set of additional supports for families experiencing particular stresses • an integrated service system providing holistic support to families • multi-level interventions to address all factors that directly or indirectly shape the development of young children and the functioning of their families • a partnership-based approach based on partnerships between families and service providers; between different service providers; and between government and service providers • a robust governance structure that allows different levels of government, different government departments, non-government services and communities to collaborate in developing and implementing comprehensive place-based action plans. Although there are no place-based initiatives that have all of these features, there are some valuable local and overseas examples that demonstrate many of these characteristics. Australian initiatives include Neighbourhood Renewal in Victoria and the federal Communities for Children program. Overseas examples include Sure Start in the UK and Choice Neighbourhoods in the US. Place-based approaches are typically delivered within disadvantaged areas. However, we know that disadvantage is not necessarily confined to such areas – family problems and poor child outcomes are widespread and not limited by geography. For this reason, place-based approaches can be validly applied within any community.

Policy Brief 23 > 2011: Place-based approaches 3

Combining approaches
Place-based approaches represent a significant advance on the traditional service system. However, place-based approaches are not sufficient on their own to ensure a sustainable improvement in child and family outcomes. Two other complementary approaches are needed: person-based and national approaches. A person-based approach focuses on direct help to the individual person or family with the problem, regardless of their circumstances or where they live35. A place-based approach addresses the collective problems of families and communities at a local level, usually involving a focus on community-strengthening. These approaches have usually been deployed separately but there are good grounds for combining them30. Such a strategy would be consistent with calls for multi-level approaches to social and behavioural change49. Significantly disadvantaged communities require programs targeted at individuals as well as renewal and development programs that address social infrastructure and the environment (e.g. public spaces, housing etc.)37. Although place-based approaches seek to address the conditions under which families are raising young children, they can only address those factors that can be modified at a community level (e.g. social networks, integrated services). There are other factors that can have a major impact on families and communities that are beyond the control of place-based initiatives. These include national and global economic policies and market forces that can contribute to disparities in housing, employment, education and health. National approaches are needed to minimise the impact of these factors on families of young children.

• involve the community in the development of initiatives and interventions, and provide services and facilities that are more responsive to community needs and more acceptable to families • build the capacity of communities to take responsibility for their own issues over time • create integrated service systems that are able to reach out to and engage families more successfully and respond to their needs in a holistic fashion. This analysis suggests that meeting the needs of vulnerable families and communities requires a threepronged approach – a combination of person-based, place-based and national approaches.

Considerations for policy and programs
Implementing a comprehensive approach – including place-based strategies – to effectively meet the needs of today’s young children and their families is a formidable undertaking that requires a sustained commitment by many stakeholders. • Community involvement should be viewed as a longterm goal of any place-based initiative as it takes time to build community capacity. • Close monitoring of and continuous learning and research from a comprehensive community-based approach will be important to ensure that the future roll-out of the model is fully effective. • More work is needed on developing a full program logic model of the framework for place-based approaches, showing how it leads to improved outcomes for children, families and communities. • Place-based approaches should be seen as just one feature of a broader framework; a combined approach (person, place and national) is required to more efficiently and effectively respond to wicked problems that affect communities, families and children.

What are the implications of the research?
Rapid, sweeping social changes have had widespread impacts on communities, families and children. The current service system is not equipped to deal with the fallout from these social changes and struggles to meet the needs of all families effectively. As an alternative to this current system, place-based approaches: • are an efficient way of addressing place-based disadvantages • address the conditions under which families are raising young children as well as the presenting problems

Policy Brief 23 > 2011: Place-based approaches 4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Flannery, T. (2005). The Weather Makers: The History and Future Impact of Climate Change. Camberwell, Victoria: Text Publishing. Garnaut, R. (2008). The Garnaut Climate Change Review: Final Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007). Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Steffen, W., Sanderson, A., Jäger, J., Tyson, P.D., Moore III, B., Matson, P.A., Richardson, K., Oldfield, F., Schellnhuber, H.-J., Turner II, B.L. and Wasson, R.J. (2004). Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag. Moore, T.G. (2009). Social climate change and children: Consequences, causes and cures. Invited presentation given at ARACY Conference, Transforming Australia for our children’s future: Making prevention work, Melbourne, 4th September. 1400%20Moore.pdf Barnes, J., Katz, I., Korbin, J.E. & O’Brien, M. (2006). Children and Families in Communities: Theory, Research, Policy and Practice. Chichester, East Sussex: John Wiley and Sons. Hughes, P., Black, A., Kaldor, P., Bellamy, J. & Castle, K. (2007). Building Stronger Communities. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press. Blau, M. & Fingerman, K.L. (2009). Consequential Strangers: The Power of People Who Don’t Seem to Matter...But Really Do. New York: W.W. Norton. Hayes, A., Weston, R., Qu, L. & Gray, M. (2010). Families then and now: 1980-2010. AIFS Facts Sheet. Melbourne, Victoria: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Moore, T.G. (2008). Supporting young children and their families: Why we need to rethink services and policies. CCCH Working Paper No. 1 (revised November 2008). Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children’s Hospital. Need_for_change_working_paper.pdf Trask, B.S. (2010). Globalization and families: a dynamic relationship. Springer. Tranter, P. & Malone, K. (2003). Out of bounds: Insights from children to support a cultural shift towards sustainable and child-friendly cities. Paper presented at the State of Australian Cities National Conference, Sydney, December, 2003. Bittman, M. & Rutherford, L. (2009). Digital Natives: Issues and Evidence About Children’s Use of New and Old Media. Paper presented at 2nd LSAC Research Conference, 3–4 December 2009, Melbourne. Centre for Community Child Health (2009b). Television and early childhood development. CCCH Policy Brief No. 16. Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s Hospital. Mulgan, G. (1997). Connexity: How to Live in a Connected World. London, UK: Random House. Australian Public Services Commission (2007). Tackling Wicked Problems: A Public Policy Perspective. Phillip, ACT: Australian Public Services Commission. Bradford, N. (2005). Place-based Public Policy: Towards a New Urban and Community Agenda for Canada. CPRN Research Report F|51. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Policy Research Networks Inc. pdf Centre for Community Child Health (2010). Platforms Service Redevelopment Framework. Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s Hospital. Edwards, B. & Bromfield, L.M. (2009). Neighborhood influences on young children’s conduct problems and pro-social behavior: Evidence from an Australian national sample. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(3), 317-324. Pebley, A.R. & Sastry, N. (2004). Neighbourhoods, poverty, and children’s well-being. In K. M. Neckerman (Ed.). Social Inequality. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Popkin, S.J., Acs, G. & Smith, R. (2010). Understanding how place matters for kids. Community Investments, 22 (1), 23-26, 36-37. publications/community/investments/1005/S_Popkins.pdf Sustainable Development Commission (2008). Health, place and nature. How outdoor environments influence health and well-being: a knowledge base. London, UK: Sustainable Development Commission. pdf Sustainable Development Commission (2009). Every Child’s Future Matters (3rd ed.). London, UK: Sustainable Development Commission. http://www. Jack, G. & Jordan, B. (1999). Social capital and child welfare. Children and Society, 13 (4), 242-256. Fegan, M. & Bowes, J. (1999). Isolation in rural, remote and urban communities. In J.M. Bowes and A. Hayes, A. (Eds.). Children, Families, and Communities: Contexts and Consequences. South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. Crnic, K. & Stormshak, E. (1997). The effectiveness of providing social support for families of children at risk. In Guralnick, M.J. (Ed.), The Effectiveness of Early Intervention. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes. Nicholas A. Christakis and James H. Fowler (2009). Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. New York: Little, Brown and Company. Barraket, J. (2004). Communities of place. Griffith Review, Edition 3 (Autumn). Baum, S. (2008). Suburban Scars: Australian Cities and Socio-economic Deprivation. Urban Research Program Research Paper 15. Brisbane, Queensland: Urban Research Program, Griffith University. Baum, S. & Gleeson, B. (2010). Space and place: Social exclusion in australia’s suburban heartlands. Urban Policy and Research, 28 (2), 135-159. Vinson, T. (2007). Dropping off the Edge: The distribution of disadvantage in Australia. Richmond, Victoria: Jesuit Social Services and Catholic Social Services Australia. Vinson, T. (2009a). Markedly socially disadvantaged localities in Australia. Canberra, ACT: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

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18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

5 Policy Brief 23 > 2011: Place-based approaches


Klein, H. (2004). Health inequality, social exclusion and neighbourhood renewal: Can place-based renewal improve the health of disadvantaged communities? Australian Journal of Primary Health, 10 (3), 110-119. McDonald, C., Frost, L., Kirk-Brown, A., Rainnie, A. & Van Dijk, P. (2010). An evaluation of the economic approaches used by policy actors towards investment in place-based partnerships in Victoria. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 69 (1), 9-21. Head, B. & Alford, J. (2008). Wicked Problems: The Implications for Public Management. Presentation to Panel on Public Management in Practice, International Research Society for Public Management 12th Annual Conference, 26-28 March, 2008, Brisbane. http://www.irspm2008.bus.qut. 250308.pdf O’Connell, M.E., Boat, T. & Warner, K.E. (Eds)(2009). Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities. Report of the Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. php?record_id=12480#description Wear, A. (2007). Place-based partnerships in Victoria. Public Administration Today, Issue 12 (JulySeptember), 20-26. Carbone, S., Fraser, A., Ramburuth, R. & Nelms, L. (2004). Breaking Cycles, Building Futures. Promoting inclusion of vulnerable families in antenatal and universal early childhood services: A report on the first three stages of the project. Melbourne, Victoria: Victorian Department of Human Services. pdf Centre for Community Child Health (2010c). Engaging marginalised and vulnerable families. Policy Brief No. 18. Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s Hospital. http:// Katz, I., La Placa, V. & Hunter, S. (2007). Barriers to inclusion and successful engagement of parents in mainstream services. Water End, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. ebooks/barriers-inclusion-parents.pdf Watson, J. (2005). Active engagement: strategies to increase service participation by vulnerable families. CPR Discussion Paper. Ashfield, NSW: Centre for Parenting and Research, NSW Department of Community Services. Winkworth, G., Layton, M., McArthur, M., Thomson, L. & Wilson, F. (2009). Working in the Grey – Increasing Collaboration Between Services in Inner North Canberra: A Communities For Children Project. Dickson, ACT: Institute of Child Protection Studies, Australian Catholic University. http://apo. Winkworth, G., & McArthur, M. (2007). Collaboration and systems of support for vulnerable children and their families: improving the interface between primary, secondary and tertiary interventions. Communities, Children and Families Australia, 3 (1), 45-55. Winkworth, G., McArthur, M., Layton, M. & Thompson, L. (2010). Someone to check in on me: social capital, social support and vulnerable parents with very young children in the Australian Capital Territory. Child & Family Social Work, 15 (2), 206-215. O’Dwyer, L.A., Baum, F., Kavanagh, A. & Macdougall, C. (2007). Do area-based interventions to reduce health inequalities work? A systematic review of evidence. Critical Public Health, 17 (4), 317-335. Griggs, J., Whitworth, A., Walker, R., McLennan, D. & Noble, M. (2008). Person- or place-based policies to tackle disadvantage?: not knowing what works. York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Gillen, M. (2004). Promoting place: elevating place-based discourse and new approaches in local governance in New South Wales. Urban Policy and Research, 22 (2), 207-220. Wiseman, J. (2006). Local heroes: Learning from community strengthening policy developments in Victoria. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 65 (2), 95-107. Schensul, J. J. (2009). Community, culture and sustainability in multilevel dynamic systems intervention science. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43(3-4), 241–256. Greenhalgh, T., Humphrey, C., Hughes, J., Macfarlane, F., Butler, C. and Pawson, R. (2009). How do you modernize a health service? A realist evaluation of whole-scale transformation in London. The Milbank Quarterly, 87 (2), 391-416. Greenhalgh, T., C. Humphrey, J. Hughes, F. Macfarlane, C. Butler, P. Connell, R. Pawson (2008). The Modernisation Initiative Independent Evaluation: Final Report. London: Guy’s and St. Thomas’ Charity. Stith, S., Pruitt, I., Dees, J., Fronce, M., Green, N., Som, A. & Linkh, D. (2006). Implementing community-based prevention programming: A review of the literature. Journal of Primary Prevention, 27 (6), 599–617. Moore, T.G. and Fry, R. (2011). Place-based Services: A Literature Review. Parkville, Victoria: Centre for Community Child Health.

About the Centre for Community Child Health
The Centre for Community Child Health (CCCH) has been at the forefront of Australian research into early childhood development and behaviour for over two decades. The CCCH conducts research into the many conditions and common problems faced by children that are either preventable or can be improved if recognised and managed early.




37. 38.

Policy Briefs
Policy Briefs aim to stimulate informed debate about issues that affect children’s health and wellbeing. Each issue draws on current research and international best practice. Policy Briefs are produced by the CCCH, with peer review and advice from an editorial board of national experts, and an advisory group of experts in children’s policy and service delivery.






A full list of references and further reading used in the development of this Policy Brief is available from: cfm



Next Policy Brief
Policy Brief 24 will address children’s mental health.


47. 48. 49. 50.

To receive Policy Brief e-alerts please visit: mailinglist.cfm




Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne 50 Flemington Road Parkville 3052 Victoria, Australia Telephone: +61 3 9345 7085 email:

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...Organizational policies are used to achieve uniformity, economics, public relations, benefits and other objectives that many be unrelated to recruiting. At time, policies can be a source of constraints. Policies that may affect recruitment are highlighted below. Compensation policies: pay policies are a common constraints faced by recruiters, Organizations with HR departments usually establish pay ranges for different jobs to ensure equitable wages and salaries. Recruiters seldom have the authority to exceed the stated pay ranges. Of course, pay ranges must be special cases such as international openings. Applying domestic compensation rates overseas often entails overpaying or underpaying foreign nationals compared with what they would normally earn. At the same time, employees which are reassigned overseas often need and expect an increase to handle extra living expenses. Employment status policies: some companies have policies on hiring part-time and temporary employees. Although there is growing interest in hiring these types of workers,policies can cause recruiters to reject all but those seeking full-time work. Limitations on part-time and temporary employees reduce the pool of potential applicants, especially since this segment of the workforce is a fast-growing one. In fact, a study of 484 firms found a one-third in cease in the use of part-timers. policies that discriminate against any refundable group should be reviewed, when those groups are protected under......

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...ASSESSMENT 1 Student name: Niharkumar Patel Student number: 1421663 Course Name: BSB51915 Diploma of Leadership and Management Subject Name: Develop organisation policy BSBMGT518 Trainer Name: Era Nayeem( Class number: 508 Sahil silk mill is one of the biggest silk production company of India. Its establish in 1979 and Headquarter of this company is situated in Gujarat. There are 46 branches in all over the India. It produce the silk (type of cloth) and sell to different wholesaler. There are 15,753 total number of workers in the company. Sahil silk mill specializes in the design, manufacturing, marketing, exporting and retail of various textile fabrics and products in India. The company produces polyester filament yarn, synthetic silk and chiffon textiles as well as readymade garments and dress materials. In the 1980's, the organization built up another site Vareli, approximately 12kms far from Surat. This has become the assembling plant and speculation of more than 2 billion has been made. The greater part of this expenditure has been focused at the extension and modernization of plant and hardware, particularly in the weaving and yarn preliminary areas. Thus, the organization today has one of the most modern and modern material plants in India. It accomplished ISO 9002 on February, 2000, which was its greatest accomplishment,......

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...effective purchasing power plus relevant export markets • Central banking system and monetary policy – controls of the commercial banks, the ability and willingness to control the money supply, the effectiveness of government policies regarding price stability, commercial bank reserves, discounting, credit controls and similar factors • Fiscal policy – general policies concerning government expenditures, their timing and their impact • Economic stability – the vulnerability of the economy to economic fluctuations of depression and boom, price stability and overall economic growth stability • Organization of capital markets – their existence, integrity, effectiveness and total impact • Factor endowment – relative supply of capital and land; size and general health of the work force • Social ahead capital – availability and quality of power supplies, water, communication systems, transportation, public warehousing, etc. • Competition – number of competitors and degree of competition Administrative and political factors • Relevant legal rules of the game – quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of legal structure relevant to business • Defense policy – impact of defense policy on industrial enterprise in terms of trading and purchasing policies • Foreign policy – impact of policy on industrial enterprise in terms of trading restrictions • Political organization......

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...POLICIES FOR SUPPLIERS NEW MEGAPUI Policy I. Supplier Accreditation 1. MEGAPUI shall continuously search a BUYERS for the items with the intention of establishing strategic and long-term business relationships. 2. The selection of suppliers is the responsibility of Procurement personnel. In making the selection Procurement will coordinate closely with the requisitioning department/subsidiaries to obtain adequate and reasonable specifications. Procurement should endeavor to place orders with regard to the dependability and service record of the supplier. The nature of the guaranty and warranty and its price and the quality. Preference should be given to the following types of suppliers, providing this involves no sacrifice in quality, service or price. 3.Supplier with adequate financial strength who also have a reputation for adhering to specifications and delivery schedules. 4.There will be two types of accreditation. specific to suppliers class: *Non-primary – supplier may either be New (with minimal transaction and no established performance history) or Accredited (with frequent transactions but on a short-term basis). Accreditation will focus on establishing legality of business and supplier’s capability to supply/deliver. *Primary – Supplier who has demonstrated an excellent performance history and transactions are on a long-term basis. Evaluation will focus on establishing supplier’s capability to sustain excellent performance and support long-term relationship with...

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... Theories of Crime Causation October 31, 2011 Abstract In this paper you will read about three policies that I chose and The Diversion Program. You will also read about the Prison rehabilitation program as well as confinement. The three policies that I chose to write about is: Diversion Programs (drug, court, etc.), the second policy that I picked is Prison Rehabilitation Programs and the last is the Death Penalty. The Diversion Program is a good thing. It was established in 1996 by Bynum and Thompson. This is very interesting because if you look at it one way it helps the court out by them taking care of the not so bad kids, without court but maybe the kids need a good scare, by putting them thru the courts. Regardless the Division Program is a good thing. In 1967 presidents’ commission on law enforcement and the administration of justice had alternative programs developed for juvenile offenders within local communities. The theories that would fit into this policy would be social disorganization theory, windows theory, and Differential association theory. On any given day, as far as arrest go minority youth outweigh Caucasian kids. (Krisberg & Austin, 1993). In 1985 52% of juveniles were incarcerated, 1989 was 60% and 1995 it was 65%, this......

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...Richman Investment Policy Number 1338 Appropriate Use Policy Sections 1. Purpose 2. Scope 3. Policy 3.1 Bluetooth Guideline 4. Reason for Policy 5. Enforcement and Discipline 6. Definitions 1. Purpose The purpose of the policy is to guarantee work end ethical normality, and company network secure and stable. To ensure the protection of Richman Investment Employees, partners, and the company from illegal, malicious or damaging actions executed by either known or unknown individuals or virtual entity. This policy applies to the safety of all equipment, machine, and smart device to be protected from risks of viral attacks or network compromise. 2. Scope This Acceptable Policy is not intended to restrict national rights or liberties but to protect Richman Investment integrity and foundation for a true, honest, and safe workplace. The promotion of work safe and non-disruptive content will increase production and decrease unproductive work hours for all personnel including third parties. 3. Policy 1. Security at Richman Investment requested a policy regarding the safety through Internet and e-mail access by disabling or uninstalling unnecessary add-ons and applications unrelated to work that is installed in browsers, computer and smart devices . Installing undesired, or banned programs that are unrelated to carrying out work activities will not be tolerated. Outside media like an USB......

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...THE CASE OF THE PRICING PREDICAMENT Cost-cutting customers. Hungry Foreign rivals. Should Standard Machine Lowerits bid? By MARY KARR As soon a Scott Palmer’s secretary told him that Joanne Braker form Occidental Aerospace was on the phone, he knew he was in for a long day. Inheriting the Occidental account had helped him earn top sales commissions last year, his first at Standard Machine Corporation. But a month ago, Joanne informed Scott of the purchasing department’s new, more aggressive competitive bid policy, and said it would apply to the acquisition of a computerized milling machine for Occidental’s new training center. Scott nevertheless submitted his $429,000 proposal with great confidence and even boasted to his regional sales manager that the deal was “in the bag”. After two weeks of unreturned phone calls, however, Scott got the feeling his confidence had been sorely misplaced. “Hi, Joanne, Long time, no hear. What’s up?” Joanne got right to the point. “Scott, I’ve got a $22,000 problem you can solve”. “What do you mean?” “You know we have to look hard at a number of different vendors on purchases of this size. And your bid is well above the competition’s. Kakuchi came in under $390,000, and Akita Limited at a little over 400K”. She waited, and Scott waited back, not wanting to show his anxiousness. “The way I count it,” she finally continued, “You’re $22,000 too high, and I just can’t sell that here”. “Well, Joanne,......

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