Free Essay

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

In: Science

Submitted By heylookmuffins
Words 901
Pages 4
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an ovulation and infertility disorder that occurs in many women. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a problem that occurs in with the ovaries. In PCOS, the ovaries are bigger than average, and the outer surface of the ovary has an abnormally large number of small follicles, which are the sac of fluid that grows around the egg under the influence of stimulating hormones from the brain (Thatcher, 10). PCOS involves more than just the ovaries filled with small cysts, which is associated with high male hormones.
In PCOS, these follicles remain immature, never growing to full development or ovulating to make an egg capable of being fertilized. For the woman, this means that she rarely ovulates (releases an egg) and so is less fertile. She also does not have regular periods and may go for many weeks without a period. Other features of the condition are excess weight and excess body hair. The condition is common infertile women and particularly common with women with ovulation problems (an incidence of about 75 percent) (Hammerly, 6). In the general population, around 25 percent of women will have polycystic ovaries seen on ultrasound examination but most have no other symptoms or signs of PCOS and are perfectly healthy.
It is not known if women are born with this condition, PCOS seems to run in families, which means that something that causes the condition is inheritable. When PCOS is passed down the man’s side of the family, the men are not infertile, but they do have a tendency to become bald early in life, before the age of 30 (Vorvik). While the research is in process they are trying to find out if there’s a clearly identifiable gene for PCOS. It seems like in the future one or two genes will be identified that play a fundamental role in determining a woman’s likelihood of developing this condition. Even if PCOS has a genetic basis, it is likely that not all women with the gene or genes will develop the condition. It is more likely to develop if there is a family history of diabetes (especially Type 2, the less severe type usually controlled by tablets), or if there is early baldness in the men in the family (Hammerly).
The ways in which PCOS shows itself are: * absent or infrequent periods a common symptom of PCOS. Periods can be as frequent as every five to six weeks, but could only occur once or twice a year or sometimes not even that. * more facial and body hair than usually found under the chin, on the upper lip, forearms, lower legs and on the abdomen (usually a vertical line of hair up to the umbilicus). * acne usually found only on the face. * Being overweight also a common symptom in women with PCOS because their body cells are resistant to the sugar-control hormone insulin. This insulin resistance prevents cells using sugar in the blood normally and the sugar is kept there turns into fat instead. * miscarriage and hard to get pregnant without the help of a doctor. Spend more time at doctor visits than women without PCOS would. If not then more likely a miscarriage might happen.

“Most women with PCOS will have the ultrasound findings, where the menstrual cycles are not normal are found in around 66% of woman and obesity is found in 40%. The increase in hair and acne are found in up to 70% where the unbalanced hormones are found in up to 50% of women” (Vorvik). It’s likely that there are different stages of the disease throughout life. Younger women are more likely to have irregular periods, on the other had older women have other problems such as diabetes and hypertension (high blood pressure), though their period patterns tend to become more regular. Women with PCOS also have more risk of strokes and heart attacks, but their death rate from these conditions is not increased.
The diagnosis is based on the patient’s symptoms and physical appearance. If the diagnosis seems likely because the patient might already have noticed some of the symptoms and the doctor will be doing different kinds of blood test such as female sex hormones, male se hormones, glucose, thyroid function tests and other hormone test along with an ultrasound examination to make sure everything is doing well in the abdomen. Once the diagnosis is made, nothing more needs to be done for some women, if their fertility is not an issue, if their weight is within normal limits, and if they do not have excess body hair. If any of the symptoms are an issue, then further advice and treatment, and possibly specialist referral might be needed.
There are several things that a person can do if they have been developing some the symptoms that PCOS can cause. Much of this involves lifestyle changes to make sure that your weight is kept within normal limits (BMI between 19 and 25). Also because there is a risk of developing diabetes later in life and a little more higher risk of heart disease, low-fat and low-sugar options should be considered when making choices about what to eat or to drink. Weight loss, or maintaining weight below a certain level, will have the short-term benefit of increasing the successful treatment and the long-term benefits of reducing the risk of diabetes and heart disease.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Tourette's Syndrome

...Many people wonder what Tourette’s syndrome is exactly. Although I sure people have seen from movies, would think someone with Tourette’s would curse a lot loudly, or say inappropriate expressions, but that is lease likely to occur. Tourette’s syndrome is one of many disorders in a human. It is a neurological disorder that makes people lose control of their body, twitch uncontrollably, and shout out unusual words, also may cause blinking repeatedly, these are known as tics. This disorder is known to be hereditary, but also may just so happen due to stress and what not. It is known when having Tourette’s syndrome; you may also have another sort of disorder. Sadly, there is no cure for this mysterious disorder, but with professional help and medication, the tics can be less severe. But hopefully soon enough, maybe later on in the future there will be a cure for this disorder. If having tics for over a year a doctor would say you have a chronic tic disorder, in most cases its part of Tourette’s, which was first determined, in 1825 by a doctor named Georges Gilles de la Tourette, a French neurologist. In 1885, he proclaimed a cause of the syndrome on a few patients. Most of his patients were young men. It was known that having this disorder was very rare. He found that the disorder was running in families. While finding ways to describe the disorder, it has been named after him. With having this disorder it is mostly found during childhood, usually within the ages of 7 and 10......

Words: 2436 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Aase Syndrome

...Aase Syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes anemia and poor development of bone marrow. There’s less than two dozen cases reported. One main trait that stands out from others to diagnose this disease is the triphalangeal thumb. Carriers of Aase syndrome are diagnosed during their baby years. Doctors perform a blood transfusion the first year of life, and continue treatment by using steroids. There’s another anemia disease called Blackfan-Diamond syndrome that has similar symptoms such as the abnormalities of the thumb, which arises questions if these diseases are contiguous gene syndrome or even identical conditions. Even through major procedures that may be needed, the end results seem good. Aase syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that can be diagnosed by a triphalangeal thumb or a certain anemia that causes poor development of the bone marrow, which is where blood cells are formed. Both parents must have it to pass the gene down, but it's not for sure it will be inherited. There's been less than two-dozen cases reported in the medical literature. A lot of symptoms are related to the joints or are skeletal deformities such as pale skin, delayed closure of soft spots, triple jointed thumbs, narrow sloped shoulders, droopy eyelids, deformed ears, cleft palate. Carriers with Aase disease may have difficulty picking objects up and being able to grasp on to them,...

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

...Name: Course: Anatomy and Physiology 1 Instructor: Topic: Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease. Adult Polycystic Kidney disease is also known as Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. ADPKD is the most common genetic cause of chronic renal disease. There is currently no cure for this deadly hereditary disease, but a comprehensive understanding of the disease by health care providers is of great importance. Referral to a nephrologist and prompt treatment eliminates health valued complications. An estimate of one in every five hundred people is affected by ADPKD, usually in patient population with end stage renal disease. ADPKD is a systemic disease that results from the mutation of either the PDK1 or PDK2 gene which is found on the short arm of chromosome 16 or chromosome 4 respectively. Birth genes encodes for polycostin -1 and polycytin -2 ion channel, proteins necessary for the proper functioning of renal filtration. Improper functioning of renal filtration lead to apoptosis, increased fluid sections, disorganized surrounding extracellular fluid leading to cyst enlargement. When these cyst enlarges they begin to compress causing ischemia and the occlusion of normal tubules in the kidneys leading to progressive renal impairment and function. A patient is diagnosed with ADPKD disorder will present with large kidneys, pain in the flank or abdominal region, chills, fever, hematuria, hypertension and blood vessel abnormalities. Unfortunately...

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Down Syndrome

...Literature 25 May 2010 Life with Down syndrome “ Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes mental retardation and physical it is caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome number 21” (“Down syndrome” par.1). Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mild to moderate intellectual and developmental, it occurs in out 1 of 800 births (“Down syndrome” par.1). The discovery of Down syndrome was in 1866 by Dr. John Langdon Haydon Down, who worked in an English hospital for mental disabilities. Dr. Down had notice that many of the people cared for in the hospital shared certain physical features that is related to Down syndrome. About 100 years later, a French scientist figured out it was genetics that caused the problem (“Thumbs up for Dr. Down” par. 1). Life with Down syndrome, physical and mental disability caused by extra chromosome, creates life challenges from birth to adulthood. Being born with Down syndrome is such challenge for new born babies. “During the early years of life children with Down syndrome are ten times more likely than other children to develop a potentially fatal disease…or defective development of the spinal cord” (“Infants and preschool children” par.21). About half of babies with Down syndrome are born with heart defects, which mean their hearts, grow differently and don’t work as they should usually, these problems can be fixed by surgery (“Down syndrome” par.3). “Kids with Down syndrome are more likely to get infections......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Oocytes and Ovaries

...Functions of the ovaries: * Produce viable oocyte * Produce female hormones Important facts to know and understand about the ovary: * Ovaries contain all the eggs they will ever have before birth. * Ovarian follicles begin their development as primordial structures, which consist of an oocyte arrested at the diploid stage of the first meiotic division (in prophase I) surrounded by few flattened granulose cells. * Only the dominant follicle is selected because of its ability to convert androgens to oestrogens. The other follicles will not continue to grow and will undergo atresia. An oocyte goes through 4 biological processes: * Oogenesis * Oogenesis is a mature oocyte. It is the process of producing female gametes, once the sex of the embryo is determined. The difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis is that, in spermatogenesis meiosis begins at puberty to produce sperm in a sexually mature male, whereas meiosis occurs before birth in females. * Oogenesis is not a continuous process throughout the life of a female, unlike spermatogenesis in male. Oogenesis begins in utero when the primordial oocyte (known as Oogonia), enter meiosis but however Prevented from entering prophase I until ovulation. The Oogonia (primary oocyte) enter meiosis again before their release, then arrest in metaphase II. Meiosis will only be completed if the egg is fertilised. Oocyte arrested at the diploid stage of the first meiotic......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Rett Syndrome

...Rett Syndrome Joseph Lee 4th Period Rett Syndrome is a disorder which affects the nervous system and is found almost exclusively in girls. One in 10,000-20,000 newborn babies are born with Rett Syndrome, making this disorder very rare. Rett Syndrome is often described as autism, cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, and various anxiety disorders wrapped into one. In this paper, I will discuss what exactly Rett Syndrome is, who discovered it, how he discovered it, what its causes are, what the symptoms are, the disorder’s course, and possible treatments for the disorder. Said Dr. Rett at a conference regarding the disorder which bears his name: These three words summarize best our task: To live, to love, and to learn. We are aware of the fact that many mysteries of this syndrome still remain undisclosed, and therefore, for the time being, we have no option but to live with it. However, the children with their very special ways give us enough impulse to share their lives. It is a further mystery of this syndrome that the affected children render it easy for us to love them. A dominating factor in the care of such children is that they understand us and we understand them. Their appearance and the sparkle in their eyes make it easy to love them. Daily care for them and working with them gives us grownups strength, enabling us to learn the special treatment required, thus furthering our own development. To...

Words: 1818 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Tourette’s Syndrome

...What is the truth about Tourette’s Syndrome? Jake Walter Herzing University Abstract Though out this paper, we will discuss the truth and myths behind Tourette’s syndrome and insure we have a good understanding of what the disorder really is. We will try to break the Hollywood stereotype of this disorder and who are really the worst hit from Tourette’s syndrome. We will also discuss what the patient’s symptoms will be and what they may go through and classified the types of symptoms known as tics into motor and vocal. Finally, we will discuss what treatment options they may have and what hope someone may have who is suffering from this disorder; furthermore, what organizations are out there to help with the disease. I hope this gives you some more details on Tourette’s syndrome and what a person or their family may go through when suffering from this disorder. I know that researching it and find out all the information I could really open my eyes to what people go through and how challenging life can be. What is Tourette’s syndrome? Tourette's syndrome has the misnomer of being a disease where you use profanity and yell inappropriate words in a public environment. However, it can be much more serious and challenging to deal with that is only a symptom of the disease. The disorder was first documented in 1885 by a French Doctor named Georges Gilles de la Tourette; he would be considering a Neurologist in today standards. The Doctor Georges Gilles de la Tourette......

Words: 1945 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Klinefelter Syndrome

...Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome is also known as the XXY condition. It’s a term used for males who have an extra Y chromosome in their cells. This syndrome was named after Henry Klinefelter; he was the first to discover the syndrome to a group of symptoms found in some men. For Klinefelter syndrome there are three easy ways to try and recover. However, the chromosome pattern cannot be changed. Educational treatment, Therapeutic options, Medical Treatment. The most important thing to do is get treatment as early in life as possible. As a human we have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes contain all of our genes, and DNA. Two of 46 determine our gender. Females have XX, and males have XY. One out of 500 – 1,000 males will have Klinefelter syndrome. Woman who have children after the age of 35 have a higher risk of their son being born with Klinefelter syndrome. Research said there are no known methods to prevent it, because the syndrome is caused randomly by a genetic disorder. The risk of having a son born with this disorder increases as the mother ages. Having Klinefelter syndrome increases your risk of having breast cancer, and a chance that you will have a learning disability, including dyslexia. If you have Klinefelter syndrome you wont be able to produce sperm, therefor you wont be able to have children. Between 1 in 500 and 1 in 1,000 boys are born with KS. Sources: 1. http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/klinefelter-syndrome/overview.html 2.......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Down's Syndrome

...Down’s Syndrome Sociology of Disability Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans. Down syndrome is called a few different names like Down’s syndrome and trisomy 21. It is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome is normally connected with growth delays, some intellectual disability and characteristic facial features. An average young adult living with Down syndrome has the mental age of an eight or nine year old child. The average intelligence quotient in a young adult with Down syndrome is fifty. Individuals living with Down’s syndrome also have a learning disability, which impairs their education. Every person is different and this can change from individual to individual. Babies born with Down syndrome are more likely to have certain heart defects or childhood leukemia. It is believed that Down syndrome has always existed. In 1866 an English doctor named John Langdon Down first published a description of the condition. The condition was named after him several years later. It was not until 1959 that Professor Lejeune proved that Down syndrome is actually a chromosomal irregularity and that the individuals with Down syndrome had forty-seven chromosomes where there are normally forty-six. Down’s syndrome affects people of all different races, ages, and economic background. People living with Down syndrome usually need to have a certain order. Many individuals need a certain......

Words: 2291 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Prader Willi Syndrome

...Prader Willi Syndrome “Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare disorder present at birth that results in a number of physical, mental and behavioral problems. A key feature of Prader-Willi (prah-dur VIL-ee) syndrome is a constant sense of hunger that usually begins after the first year of life. People with Prader-Willi syndrome want to eat constantly and usually have trouble controlling their weight. Many complications of Prader-Willi syndrome are due to obesity. If your child has Prader-Willi syndrome, a team of specialists can work with you to manage your child's symptoms and reduce the risk of developing complications.” (Mayo Clinic Staff, 01 May 2013, page 1). “Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by a gene missing on part of chromosome 15. Normally, your parents each pass down a copy of this chromosome. Most patients with Prader-Willi syndrome are missing the genetic material on part of the father's chromosome. The rest of patients with this condition often have two copies of the mother's chromosome 15. The genetic changes occur randomly. Patients usually do not have a family history of the condition.” (Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S, 07 May 2012, para. 2) “Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be conveniently divided into two categories: * Catabolism - the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy * Anabolism - the synthesis of all compounds needed by......

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

...Paranoid Schizophrenics and Serial Killers: Coincidence or not? Schizophrenia and serial killing is not a new phenomenon; it dates back to the 1800’s. The man credited with being the first serial killer in the United States was Herman Mudgett, a.k.a. Dr. Henry H. Holmes. Holmes did most of his killing in Illinois in the disguise of a pharmacist and is credited with 133 murders. About the same time, serial killing was also occurring in London by a man known as Jack the Ripper. Ripper’s killing started in 1888 and was never caught for the heinous murders of five prostitutes. What can cause certain people to commit such murderous acts perpetrated against other human beings? Is it just pure evil or is it some kind of a mental illness? The jury is still out on that, but some serial killers are diagnosed with a mental illness. Serial killing is not something new but has been researched more over the last few years. Douglas & Olshaker , authors of Mindhunter, state that many of the stories told years ago about vampires and werewolves could have been the results of serial killers(1995, 18). Douglas & Olshaker further state that the crimes could have been so sadistic that people thought such acts could only be committed by monsters or non-human beings (1995, 18). It is of importance to also note that serial killing differs from other forms of killing. Some of the other forms include: mass murdering, spree killing, and murders resulting from rage or passion. Serial......

Words: 2805 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome

...BDA BDA FOODBRITISH SHEET THE FACT DIETETIC ASSOCIATION Food Fact Sheet Long term health concerns associated with PCOS include heart disease and diabetes, particularly if you have any of the following: • High levels of fats in the blood • High blood pressure • Being overweight and, in particular, having lots of fat around your middle. The symptoms of PCOS can be controlled using a combination of lifestyle changes, cosmetic measures and medication. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) PCOS is a relatively common condition, affecting how a woman’s ovaries work. Healthier food choices and increasing physical activity can improve the symptoms of PCOS. This Food Fact Sheet will look at PCOS and how to manage it with diet and exercise. PCOS affects millions of women in the UK – around one in ten. There are three features which lead to a woman being diagnosed with PCOS: 1. A number of cysts that develop around the edge of the ovaries (polycystic ovaries). 2. A failure in the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). 3. A higher level of male hormones than normal, or male hormones that are more active than normal. Even if only two of these features are present, this is enough to confirm the diagnosis. Eat well Healthy eating and being active can help you with PCOS symptoms and are very important to help prevent developing heart disease and diabetes in the future. This includes eating lots of fruit and vegetables, choosing lean meats and low-fat dairy foods as well as...

Words: 1017 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Polycystic Kidney Disease

...Polycystic Kidney Disease This paper is about polycystic kidney disease (PKD). It will describe a case scenario about a newly diagnose patient with end-stage kidney failure. The reader will learn about the kidney and function. What would happen if the kidneys stop working correctly? Continue to read to find the answer. A 40-year-old white well-nourished pleasant male presented with nausea, fatigue, shortness of breath has bilateral lower leg edema with chief complains of not urinating on two days. He and his supportive wife have come to the emergency department. John Doe has not been to the doctors in 20 years. He denies smoking or alcohol abuse. He could not give any family history because he came from a closed adoption at birth. He is usually in good health but has been not feeling well the last couple of months. He currently works at a labor ware house as a manager who has worked there for the past 20 years. Him and his family have health insurance provided threw his place of employment. He and his married have two young children. His educational background is high school equivalent. After blood tests, urinalysis, and a computed tomography scan, confirmed he has PKD. I would further assess his and his wife’s needs after the Nephrologists has come firm his diagnoses with him. Some of the teaching methods for John Doe and his wife to learn about PKD would be to explain the anatomy of the human body and what the disease is all about. I would give him a packet he could......

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Marfan Syndrome

...Marfan syndrome is a heredity disorder of connective tissue, resulting in abnormally long and thin digits and also frequently in optical and cardio defects, because connective tissue is found through the body, Marfan syndrome can affect many different parts of the body. This disorder is usually found in the heart, blood vessels, bones, joints, and eyes. This syndrome is caused by a defect, or mutation, in the gene that determines the structure of fibrillin-1. This is a protein that is an important part of connective tissues. Someone whom is born with Marfan syndrome is may not show signs or symptoms till later in life (Little). Some of the traits that are found in someone who has Marfan syndrome are: a tall and slender build, long arms, legs, finger, and toes that are all disproportionate, check that either dips in or protrudes outward, crowded teeth, heart murmurs, extreme nearsightedness, an abnormally curved spine, and flat feet (Lu). According to the National Marfan Foundation, 1 in every 5,000-7,000 babies born will be a child born with Marfan syndrome. Seventy-five percent of people with Marfan syndrome will more than likely have an affected parent. Some of the treatments for Marfan syndrome include: surgery, medicines, and heart treatments. Beta blockers is a medicine that is used to help your heart beat slower with less force, and this is one of the medicines that are commonly used to help someone who had Marfan syndrome. This syndrome can cause you aorta to stretch,......

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Survivor Syndrome

...Table of Contents Question 1 2 Introduction 2 Reactions to frustration 2 Analysis of organisational behaviour 3 Question 2 4 Question 3 5 Introduction 5 What is survivor syndrome? 5 Question 1 Give an overview of the frustration model and how it can be used to analyse organisational behaviour Introduction Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. The barrier may either be overt (outward, or physical) or covert (inward, or mental-socio-psychological). Overt acts might include strikes, work slowdowns, grievances, or lawsuits. Covert acts would include sabotage, secret withholding of output and stealing of organisational property. A smooth progression of the need-driven incentive motivational cycle and fulfilment of one’s expectations do not always occur in reality. There are some difficulties and barriers that do not let a person achieve his goals and so they lead to frustration. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis of not only behaviour in general but also specific aspects of on-the-job behaviour as illustrated by. 12e in the model below F. Luthans (2011), Oganisational Behavior: Need Drive Goal/ (deficiency) (deficiency with direction incentives reduction of with direction) Barrier the drives and fulfilment (1) Overt deficiencies) (2) Covert Frustration Defence mechanisms (1) Aggression (2) Withdrawal (3) Fixation (4)......

Words: 1697 - Pages: 7

Olivia Newton-John HDTV | winniepiuh | http://lemagsante.org/search?q=rimmel+stay+matte