Free Essay

Prevalence of Postural Deviatiom

In: Science

Submitted By ayimizukami
Words 954
Pages 4
© Mizukami, Airisu C.


Health in Old Age * Is a complex, elusive concept. * Experiencing normal developmental age changes such as gradual changes in endurance, vision, hearing & reflex timing. * Some problems in old age due to a long-term disuse of physical & mental abilities: * Back problems due to lifelong postural habits or long use of sagging mattress. * New widow may struggle to make independent decisions regarding home maintenance. * Traumatic injury may occur such as hip fracture or CVA. * Trauma, whether physical or psychological, occurs in conjunction with chronic & acute disease, normal age changes & changes due to misuse or disuse. * Snow & Rogers describe this complex combination of normal & pathologic changes in old age as a “delicate balance” of adaptation. * The multi-dimensionality of health in old age is reflected in current trends toward multi-dimensional assessment instruments & Geriatric Evaluation Units. * Most multi-dimensional assessments include physical health, functional ability, psychologic health & social parameters.

Functional Assessments Used in Occupational Therapy
Physical Self-Maintenance Scale & Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale * The scales represent measures of two level function, competence, the scales represent measures of two levels of function, with the IADL requiring greater neuropsychological organization than the PSMS. * Within each level, the complexity of activities is also arranged hierarchically. * IADL scale focuses on activities that are conceptualized as the next higher level of function. * The PSMS & IADL scales were used in conjunction with a morale scale & a mental status scale to measure function in GEU & control groups at a baseline, 6-month & 12-month periods.
Barthel Self-Care Index * Originally designed as a measure of function in the physically impaired, it has been used extensively in research & treatment planning with older people. * Hasselkuls described the use as an index that measures basic self-care skills of feeding, transfer, personal hygiene, toileting, bathing, ambulation, stairs, dressing, & bowel & bladder continence. * Scoring is based on observation of performance & preferential weighting has been given to items of continence & mobility. * Was used in four ways: * To help define the amount & type of personal care services required by patients to be maintained in the community * To document change over time * To better define variables associated with discharge/ placement decisions * To help clarify the impact of community health services on the ability of the family to maintain care of an older member over a long period of time.
Parachek Geriatric Behavior Rating Scale * Quick screening device of 10 multiple choice items. * Three questions on physical condition, four on general self-care, & three on social behaviors. * Each question is scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale of performance, with 1 being the most impaired. The final score is the sum of 10 individual ratings. * This scale was derived from the longer Plutchik Geriatric Rating Scale. * Group I are patients scoring in the 10-24 range; treatments include positioning, sensory stimulation, motor patterns & group process. * Group II patients scoring 25-39 range; includes self-care activities, contact with the community, & adaptation for wheelchair patients. * Group III patients are the highest functioning group with scores 40-50; they can manage most self-care activities & maybe candidates for placement in community setting.
Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire * Is used extensively by physicians & other health personnel to detect intellectual impairment. * There are 10 questions to be asked & three or four error indicates a moderate to severe impairment.

New Instruments Developed by Occupational Therapists
Assessment of Occupational Functioning * Is an occupational device based on the model of human occupation. * It is a semi-structured interview schedule to assess physically & psychologically impaired residents in long-term treatment settings. * Is divided into six components: * Values * Personal causation * Interests * Roles * Habits * Skills * A total score between 6 & 30 may be obtained by adding the scores of six components.
Performance Assessment Self-Care Skills * Contains items which represent self-care & instrumental tasks that are relevant to independent living & that can be carried out in the clinic or the home under natural or simulated conditions. * Scoring: Is competency-based & takes into account the task itself & the teaching approach that facilitates the older person’s best performance. * Standardization: Administration & scoring of the task items are standardized by the ff instructions: * The task is named * The condition under which the task to be performed is described * The behavior needed to complete the task is described * The standard for the task accomplishment is defined * The instructions to be used are given.
Tri-level ADL Assessment * Organizes activities of daily living into the six categories of communication, food needs, dressing, hygiene, mobility & organization. * Tasks in these categories are followed through the three environmental levels of personal, home or sheltered environment & the community. * This represents an attempt to organize ADL measurements in comprehensive manner but no validity or reliability estimations have yet been done.
Assessment of Home Safety of Well Elderly * Assess awareness of more than 100 safety aspects of the home environment. * A score of 0 represents the safe environment where the factors that cause accidents would be minimum. * The highest possible raw score is 145, indicating the most dangerous environment, with factors that cause accidents being at a maximum.
Medication Management Functional Assessment Tool * “The ability to functionally manage self-administration of prescription medications is often dependent upon an individual’s emotional, cognitive & physical skills, environmental expectations, & existing or available support systems. * Knowledge of the medications is combined with actual task performance assessment such as locating medications, opening containers & bringing medication to the mouth.

* CHAPTER 11 * Pre-Vocational Assessment in Mental Health…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Alcohol Prevalence

...of the world drinking list are Luxembourg, France, Portugal, Hungary, and Spain where consumption is half again as high as in the U.S.1 The Japanese average about the same alcohol intake as North Americans, while the Chinese and residents of other Asian countries are estimated to drink a good deal less, as do Latin Americans. 6 2.2 Individual differences Per capita consumption statistics conceal the wide variation among individuals in alcohol consumption. The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse for 1996 estimated that in the United States, 65 percent of adults had at least one drink during the previous 12 months, while just half drank during the previous month.2 The prevalence of self-reported drinking decreases in middle age and is much lower for women than men. For both men and women the prevalence of drinking increases with education and family income, and is lower for blacks than whites. Survey data also provide information on how much alcohol is typically consumed by those who do not abstain. The proportion of adults who "binged" (5 or more drinks on a single occasion) in the previous month follows the same patterns with respect to age and sex, but with respect to race and education there is little difference across groups. The distribution of alcohol consumption among drinkers is highly skewed to the right in most every population that has been studied. The log-normal distribution provides a reasonably good fit to the empirical histogram (Edwards et al. 1994).......

Words: 21217 - Pages: 85

Premium Essay

Hiv Prevalence--Ghana

...NATIONAL HIV PREVALENCE & AIDS ESTIMATES REPORT 2011-2015 National AIDS/STI Control Programme Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health. Accra, Ghana. National HIV Prevalence & AIDS Estimates Report National HIV Prevalence & AIDS Estimates Report 2011-2015 March 2012 National AIDS/STI Control Programme Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health Accra, Ghana National HIV Prevalence & AIDS Estimates Report ©National AIDS/STI Control Programme 2012 ©Ghana Health Service 2012 All rights reserved. The designations employed and the presentation material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the NACP concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines of which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the NACP in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. National HIV Prevalence & AIDS Estimates Report Contents Page II III IV 1-2 3-7 8- 16 18-27 28-30 Acknowledgments List of Tables Introduction Background of Estimation and Projection Process Estimation Process and Method Results Appendices Notes National HIV Prevalence & AIDS Estimates Report I Acknowledgment T he Technical Report was......

Words: 2402 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse

...Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse Objective: To investigate the prevalence of child maltreatment both nationally and locally. Type/Length of activity: Independent research, a 2 - 3 page summary. Independent Research: Compile data on abuse nationally and locally, using sources of information such as U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which maintains a web site with statistics. You can also use local Child Protection Agencies in your hometown or county, which may have statistics compiled and available, or any other types of statistics or information available to you. Break down the maltreatment statistics into categories, such as physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect. Use current statistics (2007+). Be sure to define the types of abuse. What do I turn in? Turn in a brief, written summary of the information you gathered. Your summary should include: an abstract · paper should be 2 -3 pages long · be typed, double spaced, and have 1-inch margins. · have a cover sheet that includes your name, the title of your paper, your ID#, course name and section number, and the date. · reference all sources using APA format. GRADING RUBRIC 5 10 15 20 25 Question Answered A) Followed directions B) Describe types of abuse C) National/local statistics D. Conclusion APA......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Prevalence of Obesity no physical activity are just a few contributors to the prevalence of obesity. Obesity affects individuals of all ethnical backgrounds, both male and female, and individuals of all ages. It is time that this nation takes control of creating a healthier America by encouraging healthy habits and lifestyles. An individual having a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered to be overweight and obesity is defined as having a BMI of 30.0 or higher (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, & Curtin, 2010 ). BMI measures the amount of body fat that a person has in comparison to their age and height. A person begins to gain weight when their calorie intake is more than their physical activity (CDC, 2012). Lack of exercise and poor dieting are known causes of obesity, but the lack of sleep and exposure to air conditioning are also thought to be contributing factors (Causes of obesity, 2006). Other suggested factors that may contribute to the rising rates of obesity are endocrine disruptors, smoking, and certain pharmaceuticals (Causes of obesity, 2006). An individuals environment may reflect their decision making and genetics may increase the likely hood of becoming obese (CDC, 2012). With so many factors possibly contributing to this health issue, obesity is not limited to a particular culture or class. Obesity affects individuals of all social backgrounds, economical status, and educational levels. The prevalence of obesity began between 1988-1994 and 2007-2008 and more......

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Alcoholism Among College Student of Samar State University determine the level of alcoholism among college students, few have been conducted in Samar State University (SSU). It is in this context that the researchers conducted this study, in order to determine the factors associated with alcoholism among college students of Samar State University and to give them the knowledge or insight of the consequences in consuming alcohol in excessive amount. Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the level of prevalence and recognition of the predictors associated with alcoholism among college students of Samar State University during the school year 2013-2014. Specifically, it intended to measure the following; 1. What is the profile of the student respondents in terms of: 2.1 Age; 2.2 Sex; 2.3 Year level; 2.4 Religion; 2.5 Parent’s educational background; and 2.6 Parent’s average monthly income? 2.7 Student’s living arrangement with parent, boarding house, relatives etc. 2. What is the prevalence rate of alcoholism among college students in Samar State University? 3. What are the factors of alcoholism affecting college students of SSU? 4. What alcohol education program may be developed based on the findings of the study? Theoretical Framework This study is anchored with 4 theories: The Disease Theory of Alcoholism, The Theory of Planned Behavior, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, and Health Belief Model. The disease theory of alcoholism by......

Words: 8613 - Pages: 35

Free Essay

Prevalence and Correlates of Hoarding Behavior in a Community-Based Sample

...ARTICLE IN PRESS Behaviour Research and Therapy 46 (2008) 836– 844 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Behaviour Research and Therapy journal homepage: Prevalence and correlates of hoarding behavior in a community-based sample Jack F. Samuels a,Ã, O. Joseph Bienvenu a, Marco A. Grados a, Bernadette Cullen a, Mark A. Riddle a, Kung-yee Liang b, William W. Eaton c, Gerald Nestadt a a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 109, Baltimore, MD 21287-7228, USA Department of Biostatistics, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA c Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA b a r t i c l e in fo Article history: Received 14 February 2008 Received in revised form 7 April 2008 Accepted 8 April 2008 Keywords: Hoarding Prevalence Risk factors Personality disorders Comorbidity abstract Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of hoarding behavior in the community. We estimated the prevalence and evaluated correlates of hoarding in 742 participants in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. The prevalence of hoarding was nearly 4% (5.3%, weighted) and was greater in older than younger age groups, greater in men than women, and inversely related to household income. Hoarding was associated with alcohol......

Words: 7477 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Prevalence of Malaria in West Africa: Economic and Social Burden

...Prevalence of Malaria in West Africa: Economic and Social Burden University of Maryland University College MGMT 640 Professor Anderson April 13, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACTS…………………………………………………………………… 3 BACKGROUND……………………………………………………………….. 4 METHOD……………………………………………………………………….. 5 RESULT…………………………………………………………………………6 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….6 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………… 8 ABSTRACTS Background: The effects of malaria burden cannot be overemphasized on a society. Malaria disease affects human being: psychologically, physically, and socially and economic development of a nation. Methods: In this study survey and Willingness To Pay Approach was used to evaluate the prevalence of Malaria in West Africa. Results: Conclusion: It is important for the government to hear the cries of the poor people who are often inflicted with communicable disease so that the eradication of the malaria can be possible. Background According to Teklehaimanot and Mejia (2008), “Malaria is one of the most important challenges to global public health. Every year, there are between 300 million and 500 million cases of malaria worldwide, and more than 1million people die from the disease, most of them are children younger than 5 years. Ninety percent of the cases and 75% of the deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. These childhood deaths, resulting mainly from cerebral malaria and anemia, constitute somewhere between 20% and 25% of child mortality in Africa”...

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Prevalence of Depression

...Blood Lab First Week This is a self propelled powerpoint study atlas of blood cells encountered in examination of the peripheral blood smear. It is a requirement of this course that you begin review of these slides with the first day of class in order to familiarize yourself with terms used in describing peripheral blood morphology. Laboratory final exam questions are derived directly from these slides. The content of these slides may duplicate slides (1-37) listed on the Hematopathology Website. You must familiarize yourself with both sets of slides in order to have the best learning opportunity. Before Beginning This Slide Review • Please read the Laboratory information PDF under Laboratory Resources file to learn about – Preparation of a blood smear – How to select an area of the blood smear for review of morphology and how to perform a white blood cell differential – Platelet estimation – RBC morphology descriptors • • • • Anisocytosis Poikilocytosis Hypochromia Polychromatophilia Normal blood smear. Red blood cells display normal orange pink cytoplasm with central pallor 1/3-1/2 the diameter of the red cell. There is mild variation in size (anisocytosis) but no real variation in shape (poikilocytosis). To the left is a lymphocyte. To the right is a typical neutrophil with the usual 3 segmentations of Med. Utah pathology the nucleus. Normal blood: thin area Ref 2 Normal peripheral blood smear. This field is good for exam of cell morphology, although...

Words: 2466 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Prevalence of Alcoholic Drinking Among High School Students

...prevalence of alcoholic drinking among high school students ALCOHOLISM “It discloses secrets; ratifies and confirms our hopes; thrusts the coward forth to battle; eases the anxious mind of its burthen; instructs in arts. Whom has not a cheerful glass made eloquent! Whom not quite free and easy from pinching poverty!” (Horace first century B.C.) Initially, I wanted to write this paper on substance related disorders. However, in reading the text I felt compelled to focus on the psycological effects and problems that are related to alcoholism. With the media we are all too aware of the widespread dilemma that alcohol contributes to our current age. I am amazed that there were indeed alcoholics as far back as 3000 years before christ! Despite the pleasure and relaxation that alcohol can bring to some, it can also destroy others self-wort and integrity. Alcohol affects virtually everyone, whether the individual is himself an alcoholic, is the family member of one, or has been the victim of an alcohol related crime. In spite of the dangers alcohol presents,it is still in countless social cirles. Alcohol penetraes all ages, educational, occupational, and socioeconomical boundaries. Each year it is estimated that ten percent of all deaths are related to alcohol abuse. Am astonishing fifty percent of all major automobile accidents, and murders are associated with alcohol. On and on the statistics point to the enormous dangers of alcohol, yet it is a legalized drug. As bleak as......

Words: 743 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Prevalence of Individualistic Societies

...The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of individualistic societies The prevalence of......

Words: 1860 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Prevalence of Heart Disease for African Americans

...The Prevalence of Heart Disease for African Americans Lucinda Kroll Grand Canyon University The Prevalence of Heart Disease for African Americans American physicians have drastically reduced cardiovascular mortality and the death rates have decreased 17% since the 1990's (Nash, 2003). Their have been so many advances in open heart surgery, heart transplantations, and thrombolysis in the past decade. Their have also been great strides made in medications with heart disease patients (Nash, 2003). Unfortunately, the African American culture has not seen as much advancement as other cultures (Nash, 2003). African Americans have the highest rate of heart disease compared to all other ethnic groups (Nash, 2003). The CDC reports the 24.5% of deaths caused by heart disease in 2008 were African American and they had the highest percentage compared to other cultures (CDC, 2015). African Americans are at three time's greater risk to develop heart disease than Caucasians and two times more at risk of death from heart disease (Winham and Jones, 2011). For example, African Americans have been diagnosed at younger ages than Caucasians and are more likely to die from heart failure (Nash, 2003). They are also at a younger age when they experience their first myocardial infarction than Caucasians (Nash, 2003). Sadly stage 3 hypertension (ie., blood pressure >180/110), is reported to be the highest in the world for the African American community (Nash, 2003). This......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Types and Prevalence of School Choice in the United States alternative to the local public school then we might approximate a choice-free system, but this type of thought experiment is absurdly detached from reality. The relevant question is not whether school choice is present in an area but which types of choice are available and their prevalence. The most widely available types of school choice relate to residential school choice and the availability of private schools. In terms of the former, families can sort them- selves into the communities that best satisfy their preferences (Tiebout, 1956). This sorting happens not only across cities and towns but also within them, as families choose to live within school zones linked to desirable neighborhood public schools. Private school choice is similar in some ways to residential school choice. For example, this type of choice typically requires some degree of expendable resources. For families to choose where to live, they must not be constrained by prohibitively high property values, rental prices, taxes, moving costs, or other costs associated with selecting an alternative location. For families to choose private schooling for their children, they typically must cover the tuition costs. The prevalence of residential school choice is difficult to quantify, though it is clear that finding suitable public schools is a common consideration in relocation. The U.S. Department of Education estimated that approxi- mately 10.5 percent of American students in grades PK–12 in the fall of......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Om Prevalence

...The study will focus entirely on children under the age of 36 months. Because OM prevalence changes drastically throughout that time period, the study will be divided into three different age groups in children, those under 12 months of age, those between 12 and 24 months, and those between 24 and 36 months. In order to correctly present the study proposal, it is important to first understand exactly what the exposures and outcomes are. In a relationship where one type of event is characteristic to another, the exposure is the variable that affects the outcome. To further explain, the exposure is usually associated with an environmental factor or lifestyle habit, often termed a ‘risk factor’. The outcome is the prevalence or presence of a disease or health related event. In this study focusing on the relationship between daycare attendance and recurring episodes of OM, the exposure is daycare attendance and the outcome is the prevalence of OM. ?? Data will be collected through the use of surveys, with the goal of obtaining adequate information in three areas of interest. The first and second parts include whether or not the children attended daycare, and when they did attend. The third part is a follow-up to those confirming daycare attendance: the type of daycare. Each survey will therefore ask questions about these three areas. The first question would be worded: “Did your child attend any daycare: under 12 months of age? Between 12 and 24 months of age? Between 24......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Spiritual Needs Among Patients with Cancer and Family

...Running head: PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF SPIRITUAL Prevalence and Associated Factors of Spiritual Needs Among Patients With Cancer and Family Caregiver December 11, 2011 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Spiritual Needs Among Patients With Cancer and Family Caregiver Problem Statement Identify cancer patients and their caregivers spiritual needs and measure the prevalence of these spiritual needs. The patients and their caregivers can have similar spiritual needs that may require care. However, a nurse’s help with these spiritual needs, may not always be wanted. So how does the nurse identify the spiritual needs? If and when these needs are identified, how is the nurse to approach these needs? Study Purpose This study is significant to nursing because it reveals “nurses must be educated to recognize and nurture various spiritual needs” (Johnston Taylor, 2006, p. 734). Research Questions 1.) How prevalent are the spiritual needs of patients with cancer and family caregivers, from their perspective? 2.) What demographic and illness-related factors are associated with type and frequency of perceived spiritual needs? 3.) What are the patients’ and family caregivers’ expectations regarding nurses addressing their spiritual needs? ((Johnston Taylor, 2006, p. 730) Hypothesis/Hypotheses The study hypothesis is all people have spiritual needs, but the importance varies as do their beliefs. The desire for nurses to assist in these spiritual......

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Prevalence of Oral Hpv Infection

...Prevalence of Oral human papillomavirus Infection in the United States, 2009-2010 Protection of Human Participants Gillison et al., (2012), used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to establish the widespread of oral Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the United States. There was a sample of 5571 participants used to conduct the study. NHANES explains the benefits of participating in the research study are that the participants receive free examinations in which there are measurements and tests that are not a part of a routine exam done in the physician office. Participants benefited by having many important tests performed free of charge while they also gain new insight into their health. They receive a preliminary report of findings from the test performed after their examinations are completed. To maintain confidentiality, the participants are given a password and number to call for their results when they were tested for sexually transmitted diseases. Regardless of age, every participant receives a cash payment as a "thank-you" for their time and effort. NHANES will also reimburse participants for transportation and baby and elder care (NHANES 2009-2010). According to NHANES, the participants are selected through a complex statistical process using the most current census information. NHANES 2009-2010 divides the United States into communities. The communities are divided into neighborhoods. The neighborhoods are selected at random. From...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

LG TV Plus APK Mod | Ficção | Kana Hanazawa