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Problems Faced by Muslim World

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ELECTIONS OF 2013 IN PAKISTAN.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the 14th National Assembly and to the four provincial assemblies of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Elections were held in all four provinces, the federal capital territory of Islamabad and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The remaining two territories of Pakistan, the Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, were ineligible to vote due to their disputed status.
Pakistan is the world's fifth largest democracy[3] and the world's second largest Muslim democracy after Indonesia.[4] The elections are noted for the first civilian transfer of power following the successful completion of a five-year term by a democratically elected government.[5] The election took place in 272 constituencies, whilst a further 70 seats were awarded to parties having been reserved for women and minority groups. None of the parties achieved the 172 seats needed for an overall majority.[6] The Pakistan Muslim League (N), led by Nawaz Sharif, won the largest number of votes and seats but still fell six seats short. This resulted in a hung parliament where no party was able to command a majority in the National Assembly.[7] This was the second consecutive general election to return a hung parliament, the first being the prior 2008 general election. Unlike in 2008, the potential for a hung parliament had this time been widely considered and predicted and both the country and politicians were better prepared for the constitutional process that would follow such a result.[8][9]
Speculations for the potential hung parliament were dismissed when the independent candidates who had won seats in their respective constituencies joined the PML(N) which allowed party to formed a simple-majority government by bringing on-board nineteen independent candidates, thirteen more than the minimum required to form a government. This swing ultimately resulted for Nawaz Sharif become the new Prime Minister of Pakistan.[10][10]
Prior to the elections, the leftist PPP formed an alliance with PML(Q), while on the conservative side, the PML (N) allied with PML(F) and Sunni Tehreek. Cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan led the centrist PTI, while the Majlis Wahdat-e-Muslimeen, Jamaat-e-Islami and Bahawalpur National Awami Party also contesBy Constitution's stipulation on Time of conducting elections in the country, the [general] election are to be be held at an interval of five years or whenever parliament is dissolved by the President.[15] Upon dissolution of the National Assembly (a lower house of the Parliament), the elections are to be held within a period of sixty days immediately under a caretaker set–up.[16] The previous elections were held in February 2008 and its term naturally expired on February 2013.
In mid-January 2013, Sufi cleric and politician Dr. Tahir-ul-Qadri led a Long March from Lahore to Islamabad, which is over 350 km, demanding the electoral reforms, the quick dissolution of the National Assembly and a precise date for the election. The march attracted about ~60,000 participants from across Pakistan and ended peacefully. However, this appeared to have little impact on the PPP government who continued on as per normal, and were seemingly following their plan as to when to announce elections. The anti-corruption activism led by Imran Khan gathered momentum and political interests.[17]
In the run up to the elections, a US Congressional report provided a brief overview of the PPP government between 2008 to 2013. The annual report included the input of 16 US intelligence agencies, including the CIA, which pointed the policies and performances of the PPP government during their five-year term. The report wanted that "Economically, trouble looms. Pakistan, with its small tax base, poor system of tax collection, and reliance on foreign aid, faces no real prospects for sustainable economic growth. The government has been unwilling to address economic problems that continue to constrain economic growth. The PPP government has made no real effort to persuade its disparate coalition members to accept much-needed monetary policy and tax reforms, because members are simply focused on retaining their seats in the upcoming elections."[18]
Process
Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP)announced the printing of computerized electoral rolls, the first of its kind database which resulted in the elimination of 35 million bogus voters off the list.[19] In 2012, the ECP awarded contracts for the development and testings of the Electronic voting machines (EVM) to KRL, NUST, and COMSATs.[20]
On 24 January 2013, the ECP approved electoral reforms ahead of the upcoming general elections. According to the approved reforms, the entire government machinery would come under the authority of the ECP once the election schedule is announced. Another clause in the reforms also empowers the ECP with administrative authority over the announcement of the election schedule. Moreover, the Election Commission would be allowed to make transfers and postings of high-ranking officials including Inspector Generals, secretaries and chief secretaries. The motive behind these reforms is to ensure transparency of the upcoming general elections, which the Chief Election Commissioner had termed crucial.[21]
Schedule
* March 30, 2012: Contracts for the Electronic voting machines (EVM) were awarded to KRL, NUST, and COMSATs.[20] * August 1, 2012: The Election Commission of Pakistan announces 2012 general elections would be held on the basis of same old constituencies.[22] * December, 2012: The Supreme Court of Pakistan orders delimitation of constituencies and door-to-door verification of voters with the help of Pakistan Army in Karachi.[citation needed] * January 17, 2013: The Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP) starts door-to-door verification of voters list.[23] * February 3, 2013: President Asif Ali Zardari announced the date for the general elections in the country, between 8 March and 14 March 2013.[24] * March 31, 2013: Last date to submit the candidates' papers.
Caretaker set–up
According to the Constitution, the caretaker government operates in the interim period between the normal dissolution of parliament for the purpose of holding an election and the formation of a new government after the election results are known.[25] Prime Minister Pervez Ashraf had written a letter to then-Leader of the Opposition Nisar Ali Khan, requesting him to propose names of persons for appointment as caretaker Prime Minister.
The PML(N), JI, PTI and JUI(F) had agreed on the name of retired senior justice Nasir Aslam Zahid as the Acting Prime Minister until the elections take place.[26] However, the consensus between the PPP and the opposition failed, and the matter was forwarded to a parliamentary committee, comprising four members from the opposition and the government.[27] Provided stipulation by the Constitution[28] , the Election Commission announced the appointment of retired Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court Mir Hazar Khan Khoso on 24 March 2013, in a press conference held by Chief Election Commissioner Fakhruddin G. Ebrahim.[29]
Registered voters
Following was the final list of registered voters in each district of Pakistan who were eligible to cast their vote.[30] * The total number of registered voters for the election were 86,194,802. * The province of Punjab had the highest number of registered voters. * In cities, five districts of Karachi which form the city of Karachi had a total of 7,171,237 registered voters; more than total voters of the province of Balochistan and more than any other city or district in Pakistan. * In Balochistan, due to sparse population, some NA seats were shared by two / three districts.…...

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