Free Essay

Relationship Politics Science

In: Science

Submitted By sdnil
Words 689
Pages 3
Las investigaciones sociológicas de Max Weber sobre la relación entre el político y el científico son esenciales en Ciencia Política. Weber deja insinuado el tratamiento de dos campos diferentes de la acción humana que a nuestro juicio son: el político busca la verdad de clase y el científico la verdad objetiva; el primero defiende intereses de grupo o clase social y su arma teórica es la ideología y el segundo defiende integralidades conceptuales de la humanidad y su arma teórica es la ciencia. Lucaks recordó la definición de ideología como conciencia falsa de la realidad, falsa en el sentido que es sesgada por los intereses económicos principalmente del grupo o clase social que la sustenta. Contrariu sensu la definición de Ciencia podría enunciarse como conciencia cierta de la realidad, por ser objetiva, integral, independiente de los intereses económicos.

Max Weber, el Político y el Científico

Max Weber, (Efurt 1864 - Munich 1920), historiador y sociólogo alemán. Estudió economia, derecho y filosofia.

Nacionalista y a la vez liberal, se opuso a la política de los epígonos de Bismarck y formó parte de la comisión redactora de la constitución de Weimar. Sus trabajos abarcan muchos aspectos y muy variados, y solamente de una manera parcial manifiestan las tensiones internas del autor y sus enfrentamientos con los utilitaristas, los marxistas y los historicistas. Preocupado por la influencia mutua de los intereses materiales i espirituales en la interacción de las clases y grupos sociales, ivestigó los vinculos entre ideas religiosas y conductas económicas tanto en las sociedades occidentales como en las orientales: en su obra más conocida, Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus (La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo, 1904 - 05), estudió nexos entre el protestantismo y la génesis del capitalismo. También se interesó por la naturaleza del poder y sus modalidades, y en todo momento remarcó la pluralidad de las causas del desarrollo de la histórico y la necesidad de conocer los contenidos culturales para interpretar los cambios sociales, en la perspectiva de llegar a una conceptualizaciñon de los colectivos en función del comportamiento social y no de las estructuras.

Al morir dejó inédito, un monumental tratado, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (Economia y sociedad) publicado a partir de 1922.

"El político y el científico" (Weber, 1984) tan oportuna en estos tiempos de descrédito de políticos y de escepticismo en las ciencias. Estos dos discursos de Max están encaminados a observar las diferencias entre la vocación del político y el deber del científico. Y se podria describir a éste como un político frutrado y un científico insatisfecho de sí mismo y de su objeto.

La primera pregunta que se formula en este libro es: ¿Qué debe ser un político? Weber sabiendo que el político, en su época, como hoy también, no era precisamente un modelo, propuso un "deber ser" de político a ser imitado por los que sentían esa vocación.

Decía: "un político debe contar con tres virtudes: pasión, sentido de responsabilidad y mesura".

Una definición difícil, por no decir imposible, de ser encarnada. Y es aquí donde está el problema.

Dos virtudes racionales y una irracional excluyentes entre sí y con un equilibrio donde es exigible el sacrificio de una de ellas. Sin duda, podríamos decir que el dilema del político de Weber proviene de dos filósofos griegos: Aristóteles que decía que la mayor virtud de un político era la prudencia, y la pasión, venida de Platón.

Por otro lado Max quiere diferenciar entre la moral de la convicción y la moral de la responsabilidad.

Weber decía que hay dos formas de luchar políticamente por los fines que cada quien concibe. Pero hay una diferencia fundamental: el sacrificio o no de cosas y personas en función de los fines. En efecto, estamos ante el viejo dilema de si el fin justifica los medios o no. Para el convencido de su causa, sólo hay el tipo de moral derivada de los fines por los que combate. "El que triunfa siempre tiene la razón".

Weber llama a estas personas "irresponsables" porque no miden las consecuencias de sus propios actos que recaerán de modo negativo precisamente sobre las generaciones que dicen defender.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Relationship Between Science and Nature Is an Important and Universal Concern

...Both Frankenstein and Blade Runner deal with issues of science and nature, and their implications upon their respective societies. Through their contextual basis, we understand the relationship between the two, and the concerns that arise by its exploration. Their confrontation is didactic, through their warnings of things to come; the texts voice these issues as of universal concern. Singularly, both texts confront the origin of creation. This corruption of nature, of faith is possibly the greatest crime, as stated by Shelley in her introduction to the 1831 edition of Frankenstein; “those who endeavour to mock the mechanism of the creator” will suffer grave consequences. This concept is a main idea of the novel, and the graphic consequences of Victor’s hubris are evident. The monster he creates is eloquent and rational, but corrupted by his lack of compassion is ravages his friends and family. This shirking of responsibility is most evident in the creature’s biblical allusion, “I ought to be thy Adam but I am rather thy fallen angel.” By referencing Lucifer, the creature has isolated the source of his violence, the irresponsibility of his creator. This relationship between creator and creation is mirrored in Blade Runner during the meeting between Tyrell and Roy. The awkward detachment of Roy from his masterpiece is shown through formal, scientific language and biblical allusions are also used, “nothing the god of biomechanics wouldn’t let you into heaven for.” This......

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Is It Dangerous for Politics to Define Science?

...Is it dangerous for Politics to define Science? Political discourses entail following cultural and unwritten behaviors, which in most cases are driven by organizational and personal agendas, aimed at attaining particular objectives. The need to practice politics effectively has led to the emergence of political science, which covers the study of governments, political systems and process, and political policies. On the other hand, science refers to a methodical approach that is used in understanding the natural world (McLelland 1). Science is one of the most fundamental disciplines that can be relied upon in an effort to transform the society through effective decision-making. This observation arises from the fact that, science leads to the formulation of scientific theories, which are comprehensive and well-integrated set of facts. The objective of this paper is to analyze if there are any dangers to this effect. The credibility of scientific ‘facts’ arises from the construct that, the facts are repeatedly tested and accepted, thus increasing their effectiveness in making predictions on certain natural phenomena. McLelland posits, “Science is a human endeavor, which subjects it to bias, misapprehensions, and personal prejudices” (4). This argument is in line with the assumption that humans can accurately observe and measure a given phenomenon in an effort to understand the universe. However, the conclusions arrived at by humans is limited by how effective they can make......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Politics and Its Relationship Between the Government and the State’s Minority Citizens

...Political science is governed by five myths: that it studies politics; that it is scientific; that it is possible to study politics separated off from economics, sociology, and history; that the state in our democratic capitalist society is politically neutral, that is available as a set of institutions and mechanisms to whatever group wins the election; and that political science, as a discipline, advances the cause of democracy.1 Politics, in the broadest sense, is the activity through which people make, preserve and amend the general rules under which they live. Politics is the process of who gets what, when, and how. Lastly, politics is a process of allocating scarce values.2 Various theorists and concepts define what the role of politics is in order to help us get a better understanding of how the study of politics is useful. Politics help us to understand the relationship between the government and the state’s minority citizens. Plato, the student of Socrates, defined politics in his own way. The ideal government proposed by Plato was the adherence of each individual to “universally valid principles” aimed at improving the lives of all the citizens instead of increasing power, prestige, or material wealth of a select few. Plato believed that this ideal government would be ran by individuals ho were full of wisdom and virtue instead of charisma and cunning. This is because in Athenian democracy, leaders were irrationally chosen based on irrelevant details such as......

Words: 1205 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Science and Politics

...Science and Politics Science and Politics It seems to me that science and politics do work hand in hand right now. The big question is should science and politics mix? As stated in the article by Gregory Lamb (Lamb, 2005) both sides of the spectrum, whether they are liberal or republican, have tried to incorporate science to their own agendas. Dwight D. Eisenhower sought after the first science advisor for the White House. Under Ronal Regan, C. Everett Koop Surgeon General was very influential in dealing with the AIDS epidemic and he was heavily involved in smoking related illnesses. Liberals have tried to have their hands in genetically engineered foods, animal rights and stem-cell research. Do I think that scientists should be cut out of the policy making process? Yes, of course they should. Scientists are not politicians and should not be making policies. Scientists form theories based on what they have researched and their knowledge. In the case of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, advocacy groups called the research “sound science, whereas opposition groups called it “junk science” (Pielke, 2006). In a testimony to the US Congress, a key scientist suggested that the paper is bad science due to the fact that the editor who oversaw the publication of the journal Climate Research has been critical of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. I believe that without the funding from the Government, a lot of environmental......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Politics

...the U.S.A. This was intensified by the war on terror and further obliterated by the global financial crisis which has the world grappling with issues such as unemployment, uncontrollable debt and increased poverty. In this contemporary era it is the first time this generation has witnessed the world hegemony at such an epic low. Who will help poor countries when there is no one to help the world hegemony? The world once again experienced drastic restructuring. Who are the rule makers? Who dictates what should be done in the international political economy? Realist like Waltz and Carr may claim it is powerful states. However contemporary studies of global political economy no longer portray the states as the sole manipulator of power. Politics is no longer confined to the power from the government officials of states, institutions in the global arena now wield legitimate power and authority, and global markets now form an independent arena of power. (Strange 1996) This can be said to depict the retreat of the state. For years power was understood to be wielded by the Westphalian sovereign state which is based on the principles of autonomy, territory, mutual recognition and control. (Krasner 2001) In the new world order power has shifted and moved from the state and is now exercised by markets and by transnational institutions.(Strange 1996) This paper seeks to assess the rise of global governance by briefly discussing some pressing issues in the contemporary global economy......

Words: 4309 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Politics

...preference over China. However because the US implement such strict property rights and regulations, the loopholes associated with the loose regard to Chinese business laws can be used by foreign businesses to their advantage by simply building meaningful relationships with the relevant Chinese counterparts (Jayaraman, 2009). Whilst China’s single party political regime may provide short term benefits with their relaxed legal system, long term costs are highly unpredictable under this political regime especially when property rights are not entirely enforced. It is this uncertainty that makes the long term stable environment and the strict regulatory democracy of the United States much more preferable for business. It should be further noted that whilst the United States is more preferable for general business, a study of a specific business industry may provide results of a different nature. References Anderson, S. 2006. State Sovereign Immunity for Claims of Patent Infringement: Seeking “Fair Relationships and Just Recourse” Franklin Peirce Law Centre Australian Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. 2010. Australia’s Exports Fact Sheet. Australian Government Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. URL: <http://www.innovation.gov.au/section/aboutdiisr/factsheets/pages/australia'sexportsfactsheet.aspx>. Accessed 19 March 2011. Curran, G. And E. Van Acker. eds 2007. Globalising Government Business Relations. NSW: Pearson......

Words: 1967 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Politics

...Author(s): Timur Kuran Source: World Politics, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Oct., 1991), pp. 7-48 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2010422 . Accessed: 26/02/2011 05:24 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=cup. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Cambridge University Press and Trustees of Princeton University are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to World......

Words: 15671 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

Science

...Aristotle (384—322 B.C.E.) Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and is famous for rejecting Plato's theory of forms. As a prolific writer and polymath, Aristotle radically transformed most, if not all, areas of knowledge he touched. It is no wonder that Aquinas referred to him simply as "The Philosopher." In his lifetime, Aristotle wrote as many as 200 treatises, of which only 31 survive. Unfortunately for us, these works are in the form of lecture notes and draft manuscripts never intended for general readership, so they do not demonstrate his reputed polished prose style which attracted many great followers, including the Roman Cicero. Aristotle was the first to classify areas of human knowledge into distinct disciplines such as mathematics, biology, and ethics. Some of these classifications are still used today. As the father of the field of logic, he was the first to develop a formalized system for reasoning. Aristotle observed that the validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content. A classic example of a valid argument is his syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. Given the structure of this argument, as long as......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Politics

...Personal Statement The multi-disciplinary background of Neuroscience has encouraged me to pursue a degree in this field. The debate between the schools of philosophy and neuroscience is exceptionally interesting as it has opened up an awareness of what it means to be human. Difficulties in describing the conscience using natural sciences is perhaps the most heated of debates and research into neurotheology such as the existence of the ‘god spot’ shows how vast the subject is. The subject encompasses many of the life sciences and would allow me to gain knowledge of several different disciplines. Combining knowledge of physiology from biology and with the structure of substances learnt in chemistry provides me the rigorous scientific background that is crucial in the neuroscience course. My understanding of molecules and chemical concepts developed in ‘A’ Level Chemistry will prepare me for this degree as the same knowledge can be applied to understand how simple neurotransmitters can impact on human behaviour. In class, we undertook a module called “What’s in a medicine?” where we learnt about the importance of medicines in curing diseases. This entire unit focuses on the mechanisms of action and the clinical significance of drugs such as aspirin or penicillin. This unit links well with the pharmacology aspects of the neuroscience degree as I believe that the knowledge I have gained thus far in this topic will prepare for the concepts introduced at university level. The......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Politic

...MGT4110: Organizational Behavior Power & Politics Professor Dr. AAhad M. Osman-Gani, MBA, MA, PhD (USA) Department of Business Administration Kulliyyah of Economics & Management Sciences Power  Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.  Power may exist but not be used.  Probably the most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency.  A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. 13-2 Power and Dependence Person B’s countervailing power over Person A Person A Person A’s control of resource valued by Person B Resource desired by person B Person B Person A’s power over Person B 10-3 Contrasting Leadership and Power • Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. • Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. 13-4 Contrasting Leadership and Power - Goal compatibility  Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. - The direction of influence  Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. 13-5 Five Bases of Power Formal Power:  Legitimate Power  Reward Power  Coercive Power Personal Power:  Expert Power  Referent Power 13-6 Bases of Power Legitimate    Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others Based on job descriptions and mutual agreement Legitimate power range varies across......

Words: 1295 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

World Politics

...Writing Assignments i n World Politics Courses Thomas 0. Schlesinger Walking out of Rounds Hall with me after class, Benny, a sophomore in one of my international relations courses, asked for, and received, some pointers on the required paper. “You’ve just told me to write exactly as I’ve been taught not to write,” said he. “And who, pray tell, taught you?” asked I. He gave an over-the-shouldernod across the street, toward Ellen Reed House--the English Department. "Hmmm. . . fine--I'mnot surprised to hear they tell you something different,” I told him. “The English profs teach you to write in a generic way, say, fiction, or generically expository stuff. I want you to write a social science paper.” With some ”Hmmm-ing” of his own, Benny shuffled off, wearing a mildly annoyed and not altogether convinced frown. How dare they teach different ways to write in different departments at the same college! Benny did make an effort to heed my suggestions, but it took persistence. For example, the introduction to his first draft, included a vague Writing Across the Curriculum, Vol. 11, August 1990 35 36 Writing Across The Curriculum (August 1990) statement like: ”Conflict between Arabs and Black Africans in the Sudan is a serious problem and should be examined in greater detail. . . including its history, causes, and future.” The purpose statement I eventually settled for read more like this: ”This paper will examine social, economic, and political......

Words: 2635 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Politics

...Critique of Nonviolent Politics From Mahatma Gandhi to the Anti-Nuclear Movement by Howard Ryan (howard@netwood.net) Preface 2 Part I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Problems of Nonviolent Theory Nonviolent Philosophy 6 Moral View: Violence Itself Is Wrong 9 Practical View: Violence Begets Violence 13 Nonviolent Theory of Power 21 Voluntary Suffering 24 Common Nonviolent Arguments 34 A Class Perspective 49 Part II 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Gandhi: A Critical History Father of Nonviolence 56 Satyagraha in South Africa 59 Textile Strike 66 Noncooperation Movement 1919-22 70 Religious Conflicts 80 Salt Satyagraha 87 Congress Ministries 97 The War Years 101 Independence and Bloodshed 111 Part III 17 18 19 20 Nonviolence in the Anti-Nuclear Movement Nonviolent Direct Action 120 Consensus Decision Making 123 Open, Friendly, and Respectful 136 Civil Disobedience 142 Epilogue 151 Notes 154 ©2002 by Howard Ryan. All rights reserved. Readers have my permission to use and distribute for non-profit and educational purposes. Critique of Nonviolent Politics 2 Preface (2002) Critique of Nonviolent Politics may be the only comprehensive critique of nonviolent theory that has been written. I wrote it between 1980 and 1984, while living in Berkeley, California. Since 1977, I had been active in the movement against nuclear power and weapons which, in California, focused its protests at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant near San Luis Obispo, and at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore......

Words: 74845 - Pages: 300

Free Essay

Politics

...IT MSY NOT WORK IN POLITICS Cynthia Jones Timothy G. Smith US Government Pol 110 March 10, 2016 IT MAY NOT WORK IN POLITICS Member of Congress who has been charged with ethics violations. State ethics investigators have charged Lt. Gov. Ken Ard with 69 counts of spending campaign money for his personal use and 23 counts of failing to disclose campaign expenses. Ard, who took office in November, has been under scrutiny since taking office for thousands of dollars of purchases, including meals and hotel rooms – particularly those made post-election – listed on his campaign finance reports. In a news release, the State Ethics Commission said it found probable cause for the charges and likely will send out a hearing notice. As lieutenant governor, Ard fills a part-time position with little real power, presiding over the state Senate and overseeing the state’s Office on Aging. The lieutenant governor also becomes governor should the governor die or resign from office. ethics investigators have charged Lt. Gov. Ken Ard with 69 counts of spending campaign money for his......

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The True Science in Politics

...The True Science in Politics Benjamin Bishin's subconstituency theory of representation is supported with the empirical evidence that Larry Bartels provides from his book, of which Bartels evaluates social equality and its relationship with the American government, to Bishin's observations. Ideas, such as hidden minority rule, activism, visibility's true impact on the average voter, and ideological and social groups, that Bishin describes are supported by Bartels' findings; these findings being senators responsiveness to income groups, citizen's knowledge, and voting actions and more. Bishin's book, Tyranny of the Minority, develops the Subconstituency theory of representation that counteracts the leading theory of representation, the Demand Model. Bishin's synopsis of his theory is, “...subconstituency politics merely articulates a phenomenon long described by politicians and observed by journalists...,” (Bishin 13). The phenomenon being that minority held opinion can triumph over a majority held public opinion. However, Bishin shows this phenomenon to hold a deeper dogma in that constituents, for the purpose of reelection, appeal to groups. Bartels' book, Unequal Democracy, attempts to answer a question by Robert Dahl of, “...who actually governs?” (Bartels 1). Bartels' book argues, with a statistical emphasis, that our classed based society is becoming more polarized and unequal by politicians and cyclically exacerbated by voter apathy and actions. These......

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Politics

...Canada and the United States. The Yukon Territory and Alaska, both located in the northwest, are directly experiencing the consequences of this meltdown. The neighboring allies will definitely witness a change in their special relationship while combating this issue of climate change. The three fronts which affect the Canada and U.S. relationship are environmental degradation in Alaska and Yukon, sovereignty and border disputes, and lastly the battle for the natural resources in the Arctic. The two approaches which will facilitate in comprehending and further analyzing these issues are realism and complex interdependence. Realism describes international politics as a struggle for power dominated by organized violence in an anarchic international system. Complex interdependence challenges the realist assumption while synthesizing elements of realism and liberalism. Complex interdependence rejects the realist notion of an anarchic international system, and instead works towards a system of cooperative security, instead of just a balance in power. To deal with the rising concerns in the Arctic, Canada and the United States will most likely resort to cooperation which will then bring forth compromises. This paper argues that the Canada and U.S. relationship in the Arctic is best described through complex interdependence as it is better portrayal of reality. Before the argument on these issues is further commenced, it is essential to have a reasonable understanding of......

Words: 2635 - Pages: 11

Dragon Ball – Bảy Viên Ngọc Rồng chap 93 | Love Complex (Thailand) | DDoS protection by Cloudflare