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Research Paper on 3g

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IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 5, No 3, September 2011 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 www.IJCSI.org

256

Comparative Study of 3G and 4G in Mobile Technology
K. Kumaravel Assistant Professor Dept. of Computer Science, Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, India – 641 048

Abstract—Mobile communication is one of the hottest areas and it is developing extremely fast in present times, thanks to the advances of technology in all the fields of mobile and wireless communications. Nowadays the use of 3G mobile communication systems seem to be the standard, while 4G stands for the next generation of wireless and mobile communications. This comparative study between 3G & 4G tells about the background and the vision for the 4G. We first present a review on the development history, characteristics, status of mobile communication and related 3G - 4G perspectives. An overall 4G framework features, having the basic keys (diversity and adaptability) of the three targets (terminals, networks, and applications). We present it in both external and internal diversity of each target to illustrate the causes and solutions of the adaptability feature. Then, the 4G domain of each feature in the framework is discussed from technical point, showing techniques and possible research issues for sufficient support of adaptability. At the end, a summary on 4G visions and some of the issues this new technology may face. Keywords: OFDM, HSPA, LTE, MIMO, MC-CDMA, WCDMA, UMB I.INTRODUCTION Mobile broadband is becoming a reality, as the Internet generation grows accustomed to

having broadband access wherever they go, and not just at home or in the office. Out of the estimated 1.8 billion people who will have broadband by 2012, some two-thirds will be mobile broadband consumers — and the majority of these will be served by HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) and LTE (Long Term Evolution) networks. People can already browse the Internet or send e-mails using HSPA-enabled notebooks, replace their fixed DSL modems with HSPA modems or USB dongles, and send and receive video or music using 3G phones. With LTE, the user’s experience will be even better. It will further enhance more demanding applications like interactive TV, mobile video blogging and advanced games or professional services. LTE offers several important benefits for consumers and operators: Performance and capacity - One of the requirements on LTE is to provide downlink peak rates of at least 100Mbit/s. The technology allows for speeds over 200Mbit/s and Ericsson has already demonstrated LTE peak rates of about 150Mbit/s. Furthermore, RAN (Radio Access Network) round-trip times shall be less than 10ms. In effect, this means that LTE — more than any other technology — already meets key 4G requirements. II. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN 3G & 4G 3G is currently the world’s best connection method when it comes to mobile phones,

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and especially for mobile Internet. 3G stands for 3rd generation as it just that in terms of the evolutionary path of the mobile phone industry. 4G means 4th generation. This is a set of standard that is being developed as a future successor of 3G in the very near future. The biggest difference between the two is in the existence of compliant technologies. There are a bunch of technologies that fall under 3G, including WCDMA, EV-DO, and HSPA among others. Although a lot of mobile phone companies are quick to dub their technologies as 4G, such as LTE, WiMax, and UMB, none of these are actually compliant to the specifications set forth by the 4G standard. These technologies are often referred to as Pre-4G or 3.9G. 4G speeds are meant to exceed that of 3G. Current 3G speeds are topped out at 14Mbps downlink and 5.8Mbps uplink. To be able to qualify as a 4G technology, speeds of up to 100Mbps must be reached for a moving user and 1Gbps for a stationary user. So far, these speeds are only reachable with wired LANs. Another key change in 4G is the abandonment of circuit switching. 3G technologies use a hybrid of circuit switching and packet switching. Circuit switching is a very old technology that has been used in telephone systems for a very long time. The downside to this technology is that it ties up the resource for as long as the connection is kept up. Packet switching is a technology that is very prevalent in computer networks but has since appeared in mobile phones as well. With packet switching, resources are only used when there is information to be sent across. The efficiency of packet switching allows the mobile phone company to squeeze more conversations into the same bandwidth. 4G technologies would no

longer utilize circuit switching even for voice calls and video calls. All information that is passed around would be packet switched to enhance efficiency. 1. 3G stands for 3rd generation while 4G stands for 4th generation. 2. 3G technologies are in widespread use while 4G compliant technologies are still in the horizon. 3. 4G speeds are much faster compared to 3G. 4. 3G is a mix of circuit and packet switching network while 4G is only a packet switching network. III. Features of 3G 3G telecommunications, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications2000 (IMT-2000) specified by the International Telecommunication Union.] Application services include widearea wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smart phones and mobile modems in laptop computers. The following branded 3G:


standards

are

typically

the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids.

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Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure: o The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. o The TD-SCDMAradio interface, was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China. o The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. IV. Features of 4G 4G, a range of new services and models will be available. These services and models need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G systems. Figures 2 and 3 demonstrate the key elements and the seamless connectivity of the networks.

Figure 2 4.1. Terminals Till date the “terminal” for accessing mobile services has been the mobile phone. With the advanced 3G and also the 4G in future, we can also expect to see a broadening of this concept. User interfaces of terminals will vary from traditional keyboard, display, and tablet, to new interfaces based on speech, vision, touch, soft buttons, etc. These will be general-purpose computing and communication devices, and devices with more specific purposes to serve particular marker segments. There will still be recognizable mobile phones. But many of these will have larger screens to display Internet pages or the face of the person being spoken to. There will be smaller "smart-phones" with limited web browsing and e-mail capabilities. The addition of mobile communication capabilities to laptop and palmtop computers will speed up the Convergence of communication and computing, and bring to portable computing all the functions and features available on the most powerful desktop computers. There will be videophones, wrist communicators, palmtop computers, and radio modem cards for portable computers. Innovative new voice based interfaces will allow people to

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control

their mobile communication services with voice commands.

4.2. Networks Worldwide roll-out of 3G networks are delayed in some countries by the enormous Costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. In many parts of the world 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G, requiring mobile operators to build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies. So that a number of spectrum allocation decisions, spectrum standardization decisions, spectrum availability decisions, technology innovations, component development, signal Processing and switching enhancements and inter-vendor cooperation have to take place before the vision of 4G will materialize. 4.3. Applications The emerging applications for 3G and 4G wireless systems typically require highly Heterogeneous and time varying quality of service from the underlying protocol layers. So adaptability will be one of the basic requirements to the development and delivery of new mobile services. Promising techniques and possible topics may include: Mobile application should refer to a user’s profile so that it can be delivered in a way most preferred by the subscriber, such as context-based personalized services. This also brings the applications with adaptability to terminals that are moving in varying locations and speeds. Techniques such as adaptive multimedia and unified messaging take the terminal characteristics into account and ensure that the service can be received and run on a terminal with the most suitable form to the host type. The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously), Wireless Internet, etc. The bandwidth would

be much wider (100 MHz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. Also the security features will be much better. Long-Term (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology. It’s a 3GPP its research item for Release 8. It’s also known as 3.9G or “Super 3G” by some researchers. It’s planned to commercialize in 2009. It was aims at peak data rates of 200 Mbps (DL) and 100 Mbps (UL). The WiMax lobby and the people who are working with the WiMax technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. I do not think this is popular with the researching community. WiMax can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km radius. As mentioned above, with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors). WiMax does not satisfy the criteria completely. Also WiMax technology (802.16d) does not support mobility very well. To overcome the mobility problem, 802.16e or Mobile WiMax is being standardized. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology is based around OFDM. WiMax is also based on OFDM. This gives more credibility to the WiMax lobby who would like to term WiMax as a 4G technology. Since there is no consensus for the time being, we have to wait and see who would be the winner.

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V. MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES 3G wireless multiple access techniques are widely based on CDMA and WCDMA. But 4G demands a better multiple access technique for reducing the MAI (Multiple Access Interference) and ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) and thus improve the bit error rate performance. MC-CDMA is the best candidate that would satisfy the demands of 4G wireless systems. Moreover adaptive modulation techniques have been proposed for 4G, where the modulation scheme is changed dynamically based on the current channel estimates. MCCDMA is the hybrid combination of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and MC-CDMA with adaptive CDMA. modulation promises to meet the demands of 4G regarding high data rate with a lower BER (Bit Error Rate). OFDM has the capability to cancel multipath distortion in a spectrally efficient manner. Rapid variation in channel characteristics are caused by multi-path and Doppler spread (due to the different speeds of mobile). Sometimes these time varying channels are characterized by very good SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), but worse SNR at other times. So a fixed modulation technique cannot achieve the best Spectral efficiency as the system has to be built with a modulation scheme considering the worst case scenario. Hence during good channel conditions the system would not be able to obtain the best possible spectral efficiency. This is where adaptive modulation shows its role. Adaptive Modulation techniques takes advantage of the time varying channel characteristics and adjust the transmission power, data rate, coding and modulation scheme for the best spectral efficiency.

MC-CDMA The basic idea of CDMA is to maintain a sense of orthogonality among the users in order to eliminate the MAI. This is done by employing orthogonal spreading codes to spread the data sequence. In MC-CDMA these spreading codes are defined in the frequency domain. Pseudo orthogonal codes can be used instead of orthogonal codes, thus increasing the number of users that can be accommodated. But pseudo orthogonal codes can increase MAI since the spreading codes are not fully orthogonal.

Figure

3:

MC-CDMA

Transmitter

Fig 3 shows the configuration of an MC-CDMA transmitter for user. It takes 3 the input data stream and converts into parallel data sequences each parallel data Sequence is multiplied with the spreading code. A guard interval in inserted between the symbols to eliminate ISI caused by multi-path fading.

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Figure 4: MC-CDMA receiver In MC-CDMA receiver the received data are first coherently detected and then multiplied with the gain to combine the energy of the received signal scattered in the frequency domain. The system model for adaptive MC-CDMA is shown in the below fig 8.

Services. Streaming is performed when a user requires real time video services, in which the server delivers data continuously at a playback rate. Streaming has little memory requirement as compared to bursting. The drawback of streaming video is that it does not take advantage of available Bandwidth. Even if the entire system bandwidth is available for the user, streaming video service will transmit data only at a particular playback rate. Bursting is basically file downloading using a buffer and this is done at the highest data rate taking advantage of the whole available bandwidth. The flaw with this type of transmission is that it demands a large memory requirement. So work is being done to come up with a new scheme that limits the memory requirements and can exploit the available bandwidth of the system. The simulation details and comparison of streaming and bursting video comparison. VII. Applications of 4G Virtual Presence: This means that 4G provides user services at all times, even if the user is off-site. Virtual navigation: 4G provides users with virtual navigation through which a user can access a database of the streets, buildings etc of large cities. This requires high speed data transmission. 7.1.Tele-Medicine: 4G will support remote health monitoring of patients. A user need not go to the hospital instead a user can get videoconference assistance for a doctor at anytime and anywhere. 7.2. Tele-geoprocessing applications: This is a combination of GIS (Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the location by querying. 7.3.Crisis management: Natural disasters can cause break down in communication

Figure 8: System model for adaptive MCCDMA VI. MULTIMEDIA – VIDEO SERVICES 4G wireless systems are expected to deliver efficient multimedia services at very high data rates. Basically there are two types of video services: bursting and streaming video

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systems. In today’s world it might take days or weeks to restore the system. But in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours. 7.4. Education: For people who are interested in lifelong education, 4G provides a good opportunity. People anywhere in the world can continue their education through online in a cost effective manner. VIII. Wi-Fi vs. WiMax Comparing WiMax to Wi-Fi is akin to comparing apples to oranges. Initially it’s easy to see why the comparison would exist, as most people think WiMax is merely a more robust version of Wi-Fi. Indeed they are both wireless broadband technologies, but they differ in the technical execution and ultimately their business case is very different. In addition to the technical differences that exist, the marketplace difference is that equipment is more or less non-existent for WiMax and certainly not geared towards a residential environment with very high pricing to be expected. It will take at least 2 years to see equipment of mass market uptake pricing. WiMax could not be commercially available until the second half of 2005, and even then at a very controlled level. This is primarily due to standardization issues. In fact, it could not be until 2006 that a robust production and implementation would happen due to the ramp-up period for manufacturers. This is certainly one challenge to the widespread adoption of WiMax. Additionally, WiMax will have issues of pricing, and will remain far more expensive than Wi-Fi. WiMax will be primarily adopted by businesses to replace or displace DSL, and offices that want to cover a lot of territory without entering the world of endless repeaters that are necessary with the 802.11 technologies. It will take

some time (2 years) for WiMax to significantly reduce its price-point for residential uptake. WiMax will not displace Wi-Fi in the home because Wi-Fi is advancing in terms of speed and technology. Each year brings a new variant to the 802.11 area with various improvements. Additionally, for commercial deployment, frequency allocation will be an issue. With the three dominant communications players controlling the best frequencies, it will be hard to get the type of traction needed with the remaining companies operating in the frequencies available. WiMax will become extremely robust and displace Wi-Fi as the deployment of choice for commercial deployments, but that could not even begin until the end of 2006. Based upon the number of public hotspots already deployed, WiMax will not be chosen to replace those as they are up and running adequately and personnel involved understand how to work with the technology. The business case does not exist at the hotspot level. Where it may exist is for wider free use deployments such as city deployments (free ones) and other government sponsored or carrier sponsored (with ultra inexpensive pricing for consumers) deployments. If this happens then it’s only Wi-Fi that will be displaced, but also cable and DSL will also lose a percentage of their subscriber base. What will cause the displacement is the consumer’s proven desire for a bundled package. IX. CONCLUSION 4G seems to be a very promising generation of wireless communication that will change the people’s life to wireless world. There are many striking attractive features proposed for 4G which ensures a very high data rate, global roaming etc. New ideas are being introduced by researchers

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throughout the world, but new ideas introduce new challenges. There are several issues yet to be solved like incorporating the mobile world to the IP based core network, efficient billing system, smooth hand off mechanisms etc. 4G is expected to be launched by 2010 and the world is looking forward for the most intelligent technology that would connect the entire globe. Someday 4G networks may replace all existing 2.5G and 3G networks, perhaps even before a full deployment of 3G. multiple 3G standards and springing up that would make it difficult for 3G devices to be truly global. REFERENCES 1.B.G. Evans and K. Baughan, “Visions of 4G,” Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 293–303, Dec. 2000. 2. C. R. Casal, F. Schoute, and R. Prasald, “A novel concept for fourth generation mobile multimedia communication,” in 50th Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Sep. 1999, Vol. 1, pp. 381–385. 3. S. Y. Hui, K. H. Yeung, “ Challenges in the migration to 4G mobile systems,” Communications Magazine, IEEE , Volume: 41 , Issue: 12 , Dec. 2003, pp:54 – 59 4.A. Bria, F. Gessler, O. Queseth, R. Stridh, M. Unbehaun, J. Wu, J. Zander, “4thgeneration wireless infrastructures: scenarios and research challenges,” Personal Communications, IEEE [see also IEEE Wireless Communications], Volume:8, Issue:6, Dec.2001, pp:25 – 31 [6] U. Varshney, R. Jain, “Issues in emerging 4G wireless networks,”Computer, Volume:34, Issue:6, June2001, pp:94 – 96 5. K. R. Santhi, V. K. Srivastava, G. SenthilKumaran, A. Butare, “Goals of

true broad band's wireless next wave (4G5G),” Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Fall. 2003 IEEE 58th , Volume: 4 , 6-9 Oct. 2003, Pages:2317 - 2321 Vol.4 6. L. Zhen, Z. Wenan, S. Junde, H. Chunping, “Consideration and research issues for the future generation of mobile communication,” Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2002. IEEE CCECE 2002. Canadian Conference on , Volume:3, 1215May,2002 , pp:1276 - 1281 vol.3 7. S. Chatterjee, W. A. C Fernando, M. K.. vasantha, “Adaptive modulation based MCCDMA systems for 4G wireless consumer applications,” Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , Volume: 49 , Issue:4, Nov.2003, pp:995 – 1003 8. J. B. Chia, “Video services over 4G wireless networks: not necessarily Streaming,” Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002. WCNC2002. 2002 IEEE , Volume: 1 , 17-21 March 2002 , pp:18 - 22 vol.1 Author: Kumaravel Krishnan MCA., M.Phil.,CCNA., Serving as a Asst. Professor in Computer Science, Dr.N.G.P. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore. He has presented many papers in various conferences and published referred journals. He is pursuing Ph.D programme in computer science. He has more than a decade of experience in teaching and research.…...

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...English 102— Research Paper Requirements and General Guidelines Dr. B. Bryant Office phone—671-6358 Office—Bldg. 1, room 119 E/ office 19 Research Paper due—May 2nd (Fri) 3:00 pm in my office It must contain copies of your research. 1. Your final paper needs to be 5-8 pages (not including “Works Consulted page”) in MLA format. NO PAPER UNDER 5 PAGES WILL BE ACCEPTED!!! 2. In your research folder—a folder that does not allow your research materials to fall out—you must have the following items: • Research Paper—11/25 • Rough Draft • Research proposal/outline due 4/24 for class time • COPIES OF YOUR RESEARCH! • Your paper must be sent to on safe assignment PLEASE NOTE: NO PAPER WILL BE ACCEPTED WITHOUT COPIES OF YOUR RESEACH! The paper will receive an F. 3. Research Materials—Included on your “Works Consulted” page, you must have at least 5 professional journal articles or books. You can have more; the research really depends on your topic. Also the research papers I gave you count as a source and Loot. 4. The journal articles can come from the internet, but make sure the article is a professional article with a thesis/research, not a general informational page. All internet articles must be cited as an internet source. You can use the museum websites and YouTube. 5. For books and articles in books, you must copy the title page, copyright page, table of contents and the......

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...Organizing a Research Paper Introduction A research paper is a combination and ultimate result of an involved procedure that entails source evaluation, critical thinking, planning and composition. No matter its objectives, any research paper must attain some common goals. As such, organizing a research paper requires a systematic approach that will enable the researcher to accomplish the intended objectives of the research. Apart from addressing the needs of the assignment, a research paper should have a clear purpose, thesis and discussing the quantity as well as quality of sources. In order to gain experience in research writing, an individual must be familiar with the whole process involved in organizing a research paper. There are two types of research paper namely; * Argumentative research * Analytical research Although each type has its own specified format, they bear seven similarities when it comes to their organization; a. Collect printed sources and evaluate them Assemble materials such as scholarly articles, state documents and other useful sources with regard to the research question. Skim through them to get hint on their importance. One can also evaluate online materials since most of them have useful although random information. b. Choose a method for keeping notes You should keep notes on different index cards and ensure to indicate the title or author as this will enable you to recheck the information obtained from the source material. c. Use...

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...Writing a Research Paper in Literary Studies1 The most important aspect to bear in mind is that you are writing a research paper and not an essay! This means that you are arguing a thesis with reference to secondary literature – it is essential that you conduct relevant research and that you integrate your findings into your paper. Things to keep in mind: • Your paper should have a well-defined topic and a precisely formulated argument. • Your approach should be recognizably systematic. • Your argument should remain relevant and clear-cut, consistent and coherent throughout. • Your secondary material should be discussed critically and documented accurately. • Writing is a process; you should constantly revisit and revise. DON’T FORGET TO PRINT, SIGN AND ATTACH THE “PLAGIATSHINWEIS”! First steps Many students neglect the preliminary work of the writing process, but if you give it sufficient attention the actual writing of your paper will be faster and more organized than if you just start writing. The most important thing is to be systematic in your approach. 1. Finding a topic Perhaps the most difficult part of any research paper is finding an adequate topic, formulating a title and making a coherent argument. Once you have decided on a topic or a title, which in literary studies will most likely involve a certain text, rephrase it as a question to guide your research. You should also think about the methodology you intend to apply to your analysis. • ...

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... Research is defined as "studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws" ("Research," 2012). It's said that research is one of the most important processes in the field of criminal justice. There are many ways to complete research which can cause the process of research to take the most time. This paper will discuss the different methods and the different terminology that is used in the criminal justice system. There are two common methods that are used in the criminal justice system and they are the qualitative and quantitative methods. As part of the readings, it was determined that there are so many different methods for researching. However, some of these research methods have never been heard of or people don't know anything about them. There are several steps that would need to be taken in order to complete the entire research cycle. The first term that will be discussed is Scientific Research, which means it's the "research into questions posed by scientific theories and hypothesis" ("Scientific Research," 2011). The most common research method that is used today is the scientific research method, which is used highly in the criminal justice system. Just about every aspect of the criminal justice system revolves around science. Doing......

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