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TOPIC

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB PERFORMANCE AND ABILITY JOB FIT TABLE OF CONTENTS

• Abstract

• Introduction

• Problem statement

• Literature review

• Theoretical framework

• Hypothesis

• Research design

• Research techniques

• Data collections methods

• Questionnaire

• Data Analysis

• Conclusions

• Recommendation ABSTRACT

Purpose of this report was to investigate the relationship between job performance and the ability job fit of the employees of a business organization. Definitively this is an investigation of all correlations between job efficiency with due linkage to the required job ability in any working sphere of the professional status quo. The dependent variable in the study is job performance and the independent variable is the Ability Job Fit i.e. the match between an employee’s ability and the requirement of his job. Our data collection method is unstructured interview and questionnaire. A sample of 10 people was chosen for the study by non-probability convenient sampling method.

The sample includes 5 employees of both multinational as well as local companies. The result shows that a high ability job fit is the most important factor behind an employee’s job performance and thus contributes to the field of organization behavior.

Thus I found out in my study in a non-contrived setting that a cause and effect relationship exists between job performance and ability job fit (keeping other things constant).

INTRODUCTION

But in the past few years more and more important is being given to the aspects of organizational behavior. To contribute to the field of organizational behavior this report is an effort to find out the relationship between job performance and ability job fit.

Aspects of this research:

This research is being done to improve our understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational settings. The findings of this research will add knowledge in various management areas that deal with recruiting new employees and how to improve organizational performance by improving employee performance; by selecting the most eligible employee for a job.

It is commonly happen in organizational settings as well as field jobs that an employee’s ability (either physical or mental) does not match with his or her job ad that consequently leads to some negative effect to that employee’s job performance. An employee’s ability may either be “more” or “less” that the demand of the job and that might be due to various factors such as unemployment, influences, donations, inappropriate recruitments etc.

So, this report addresses to that fact that there must be a match for increased performance.

For the true understanding of this research report we must understand the significance and aspects of organizational behavior.

What is Organizational Behavior?

Organizational behaviour is the study that investigates the impact that individuals, group, and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving and organization’s effectiveness. It is observed that the study and prediction of human behaviour within organizations really helps in improving an organizations efficiency and thus productivity.

But on a structural stimulus it is also an introspective study of effective corporal functioning. How teams build and function in a professional setting is an important factor in almost every sphere of profession. Furthermore this factor serves to provide an important link in this research because where job requirement and individual skill comes short, teamwork between different employees serves to achieve the result.

Whether this is in the interest of the said organization or the employee is much debated and skewed argument as any conclusion is dependant on the sheer number of variables available in this practice.

An example of such a case can be the software house where there are a host of programmers. Now on a certain given interface, one programmer may run late or be unable to do the required task correctly; in such a setting it would be perfectly natural for another coder in the organization to assist him in the task. Such an assist would probably be in interest of the company since it does at the very onset ensure their product quality. From the employees’ perspective this serves as a tie between them and builds a certain sense of professional co-operation amongst them, assisting each other where need be.

This however has its negative implications side by side, this can breed a false sense of security for employees, create laziness in them from knowing that their colleagues or team mates will cover for them.

On an abstract measure this part of the report deals with the terminologies of Organizational Behaviour and how it relates to Job Fit at all. The above given example is the relative premise between employees. But organization has to be dealt with on an entire hierarchical calculus so the question of relation between employee and employer arises. And that’s the simplest relation to define; it depends on whether the employee can accomplish the task effectively and this can only ideally happen if the employee’s skill set matches with the profession’s requirement. Other variables that follow are all linked such as monetary benefit, adulation etc.

The current study tested a model that links perceptions of organizational politics to job performance and “turnover intentions” (intentions to quit). Meta-analytic evidence supported significant, bivariate relationships between perceived politics and strain (.48), turnover intentions (.43), job satisfaction (−.57), affective commitment (−.54), task performance (−.20), and organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (−.16) and organizations (−.20). Additionally, results demonstrated that work attitudes mediated the effects of perceived politics on employee turnover intentions and that both attitudes and strain mediated the effects of perceived politics on performance. Finally, exploratory analyses provided evidence that perceived politics represent a unique “hindrance stressor.” – Chang,Rosen, Levy 2009

Productivity:

A performance measure that indicates effectiveness and efficiency.

Absenteeism:

Failure to report to work.

Turn over:

Voluntary or involuntary permanent withdrawal from the organization.

Job satisfaction:

A general attitude toward one’s job; the difference between the amount of 0 rewards employees receive and the amount they believe they should receive.

Now for the further understanding of this critical issue let us find out what an ability job is.

What is Ability Job Fit?

Basically in the field of OB, ability job fit is the match between an employee’s abilities and the demands of his job. We know that jobs make differing demands on people and that people differ in the abilities they possess. The specific abilities required for adequate job performance depends on the ability requirement of the job. For example, airline pilots need strong spatial-visualization ability; senior executives need verbal abilities; high-rise construction workers need balance etc.

Physical Abilities:

Required to do task determining stamina, strength, dexterity and other similar characteristics; for example: labors, construction workers.

Intellectual Abilities:

. Mental activities as the term suggests needs more divisive defining for the sake of the purpose of this report. Because as the term stands each job has its own required intellectual challenge at hand with the physical one and more often this proves to be a stimulus on multiple levels in terms of job fit. Simply because challenges over normal routine of the job may arise that may require the employee to handle things in a very different manner, such exceptional scenarios cannot be effectively narrowed down in job description but instead have to be left to employees skill.

The breadth of such scenarios usually tends to have far reaching consequences on the company hence why job fit explicitly cannot narrow down all the skills of an employee. PROBLEM STATEMENT

In this research, I am evaluating that the impact of ability job fit on employee’s performance. How an employee’s abilities matches with demand of the job and how it affect the employees performance at work. Is an employee’s performance at work related to how much his or her ability matches with the demand of the job?

The problem itself widens itself into various questions once looked into introspection.

If the employee’s abilities are matched by job and that has a positive impact on performance then how often is the occurrence in a sample?

Do other variables like team building, pay rises, company enrichment etc also play a part?

Does the converse of this relationship also hold true?

Relatively we have to take note of varying professions in our sample space and construct any inference on our hypothesis with due note to the different jobs and professions we will construct our space out of.

There also has to be due assessment of psychological factors on the worker which produces the said effects on the worker. This all expands duly from our problem statement as we begin to answer our question. The most dominant factor in this case is pressure, both from the management and the peers and how does skill fit relate to your job’s performance in these scenarios. We also consider the mental readiness and reaction to increment or decrement of payment based on your professional performance and how that ultimately links back to your skill fit.

Ultimately we also study the effect on the company itself in such a relationship and we see whether the company benefits from a high lined policy of skill or does it tone down its merit argument to make room for innovation and creativity. Both arguments need not be considered exclusively since there are multiple grey areas in between. Ultimately these factors tend to lay down our hypothesis on a fundamental basis. LITERATURE REVIEW

A brief literature survey on the topic indicated that ability directly influence an employee’s level of performance and satisfaction through the ability job fit. An employee’s performance is enhanced when there is high ability requirements of the job ignores the fact that employee performance depends on the interaction of the tow.

What predictions can we make when the fit is poor? As alluded to previously, if employees lack the required abilities, they are likely to fail. If you are hired as a word processor and you cannot meet the jobs basic keyboard typing requirements, your performance is going to be poor irrespective of your positive attitude or your high level of motivation. On the contrary, if the employee has abilities that far exceed the requirements of the job, job performance is likely to be adequate but there will be organizational inefficiencies and possible declines in employee satisfaction. Abilities significantly above those required can also reduce the employee’s job satisfaction when the employees desire to use their abilities and are frustrated by the limitations of their job.

There is a two fold thought process to that argument though, the latter factor does depend on the ambition of the employee being considered.

If the employee is ultimately ambitious but due to crowding or other reason is put in a job which is below their skill level, then there will be a general feeling of discontentment which may adversely affect the output.

Thus ability is highly influential and should be considered for effective selections and requirements, promotions and transfers etc.

To quote Onne Jannsen :

“Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped demand-response relationships.”

Further analysis of this text conclusively states that jobs with median skill requirement are generally the ones which produce the best outputs in terms of job performance.

There are various psychological factors involved with such motivation but the most dominant of those is the lessening of the mental pressure of expectation from the employees whereby relaxing them and helping them be more calm in their efforts towards the job at hand.

“Researchers have traditionally thought of job performance in terms of what Borman and Motowidlo (1997) considered “task performance”—that is, employee effectiveness with regard to those activities that contribute to their organization's “technical core.” Only more recently has the role of employee work behaviors that fall outside the rubric of task performance been acknowledged in the research literature. Borman and Motowidlo reasoned that such behaviors are important because they “shape the organizational, social, and psychological context that serves as the catalyst for task activities and processes” (1997: 100). Of late, several researchers (e.g., Rotundo & Sackett, 2002; Viswesvaran & Ones, 2000) have speculated that overall job performance is a function not only of task performance but also of “contextual” behavior such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB).” – Dalal,Weiss, Lam,Welch,Hulin (2009)

The same writers go on further to quote:

“Compared to the traditional between-person approach, the within-person approach represents a shift in terms of philosophy (an acknowledgment that behavior varies in predictable ways even over very short time intervals), research methods (the use of intensive within-person methods like experience sampling), and statistical methods (the use of methods like hierarchical linear models that account for the nesting of time-points within persons).”

There is much hypothesis as to whether the research between job fit and job performance can ever fundamentally prove an implicit pattern given the diversity of cases on show according to the data of these authors. The sampling for this purpose would be a high number for theoretical purpose but on a minute spectrum even a sample of under a hundred could give us a mild indication as to how does do the two factors link with each other.

Creativity in workforce is also a strong link to be considered here and how that mixes up with job fit and employee skill. More often than naught we see employees not being technically sound but managing to pull off a job well because of their presentation or implementation uniqueness.

There is much debate as to whether this creativity is good or adverse for a company in the long and short run.

“This study focused on the conditions under which job dissatisfaction will lead to creativity as an expression of voice. The authors theorized that useful feedback from coworkers, coworker helping and support, and perceived organizational support for creativity would each interact with job dissatisfaction and continuance commitment (commitment motivated by necessity) to result in creativity. In a sample of 149 employees, as hypothesized, employees with high job dissatisfaction exhibited the highest creativity when continuance commitment was high and when (1) useful feedback from coworkers, or (2) coworker helping and support, or (3) perceived organizational support for creativity was high.” Zhou,George, 2001.

The above abstract discusses creativity not just a link of dissatisfaction but also an impeding consequence to it. How the employee chooses to display the latter can in turn be quite risky with company proceedings depending on how high the job dissatisfaction has gone for the employee in question.

This dissatisfaction can ultimately lead to a) turnover or b) lax working attitude, which again the employee may exhibit through an interesting creative medium. Authors argue that this dissatisfaction in turn can be used by management in favour of company output rather in destroying it.

So consequently we arrive at employee motivation and how these fits in this whole hypothesis of job fit.

Authors argue that whether the skill requirements are high or not, the employee’s output is maximum only when they feel truly motivated by the job being asked of them. Obviously a large part of that depends on their skill set as well but there is an onus on the company to make the environment engaging and yet competitive for them to work in to maximize output.

“Although improving performance is a prominent issue in public management and the term, performance management, is in heavy use in the public sector, systematic investigations on the subject are relatively rare. Defining performance management as a human resource management tool, this research empirically tests the associations between performance management and two outcomes: perceived work-unit performance and perceived agency performance. In addition, it examines the role of trust as a facilitator of the successful implementation of performance management. Using the Merit Principles Survey 2005, we test the ideas. Ordered logit regression analyses confirm that performance management promotes perceived performance of both work-unit and agency, and the leverages are further increased under a high level of trust in supervisors.”- Cho,Lee, 2011

This analysis ultimately brings us to subject of performance judgement as to how does the management goes on this important task. Performance judgement as in the converse case can be two fold.

Supervisors can judge employees purely based on technical skill or they can monitor the overall implementation method of the employee which may in turn not include pure technical work. In a workplace environment it’s normative for supervisors to commend employees on impromptu jobs not remotely linked to the work description of the employees.

Again this kind of managing can have positive and negative consequences based on the frequency of their occurrence. Authors argue that relaxed working standards lead to a lax working output whereas sympathetic researchers outline that a light balance between firmness and intermediate rigidity leads to a healthy working environment on a psychological level.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The variable of primary interest of the research was the dependent variable of job performance.

The independent variable in the study is the job fit.

The greater the ability job fit the greater the chances are of an increased job performance of the employees.

When employees know and realize that they have the required abilities for the job and that they are appropriate for the job, they level of job performance increases.

Thus their productivity increases, turnover decreases absenteeism also decreases and the level of job satisfaction increases.

If however there is low ability job fit, employee might feet pressurized and ant times frustrated that directly affects their job performance. The theoretical framework is depicted in fig.

[pic]

HYPOTHESIS

Ho: There is no relation between job performance and ability job fit.

Ha: There is a positive relation between job performance and ability job fit.

Productivity Increases: A positive link between job requirement and employee skill is going to increase productivity.

Absenteeism Decreases: Owing to the multiple reasons behind absenteeism it is difficult to contextualize it within this theory; however in tough assignments employees do generally take days off work to give themselves extra time for the said assignment.

Turnover Decrease: Similar to absenteeism if productivity increases the turnover of the employees’ decreases.

An abstract from Mitchell,Holtom ,Lee,Sablynski,Erez

“A new construct, entitled 'job embeddings,' is introduced. It includes individuals' (1) links to other people, teams, and groups, (2) perceptions of their fit with job, organization, and community, and (3) what they say they would have to sacrifice if they left their jobs. We developed a measure of job embeddings with two samples. The results show that job embeddings predicts the key outcomes of both intent to leave and 'voluntary turnover' and explains significant incremental variance over and above job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job alternatives, and job search.”

Voluntary turnover as expected on analysis turned out to be from feelings of discontentment arising because of job fit.

Interestingly enough the job fit went both ways, too high as well as the underskilled job fit.

Job Satisfaction Increase: A clear linkage between productivity and satisfaction, if the employee’s work contributes to the productivity of the company, the employee subsequently feels encouraged to continue on with his work.

Motivation scholars have argued that intrinsic motivation is an important driver of employee attitudes. This research tests the influence of intrinsic motivation on employee attitudes and explores three factors conditioning the effects of intrinsic motivation: managerial trustworthiness, goal directedness, and extrinsic reward expectancy. The analysis demonstrates that intrinsic motivation is substantively associated with both employee satisfaction and turnover intention. It also reveals that the three conditional factors interact with intrinsic motivation. Managerial trustworthiness and goal directedness increase the leverage of intrinsic motivation on employee satisfaction, whereas extrinsic rewards expectancy decreases the leverage. With respect to turnover intention, the factors directly influence it rather than affect it indirectly through intrinsic motivation. The implications of the results for theory and managerial strategies for employee motivation are discussed. – Cho, 2011

THE RESEARCH DESIGN DETAILS

Purpose of study:

The purpose of study is Hypothesis Testing since the researcher trying to prove one hypothesis and reject the other hypothesis.

Type of Investigation:

The type of investigation is Causal because the researcher is trying to find a cause and affect relationship between job performance and ability job fit.

Study Setting:

The study setting is Non Contrived because it is a field study.

Researcher’ s i nfl uence:

The researcher has no influence hence no manipulation because influence is Minimal.

Time Horizon:

Data is collected only once hence tome horizon is Cross Sectional.

Units of Analysis:

The units of analysis are Individuals working in the organizations.

RESEARCH TECHNIQUE

Population and Sample:

The population for the study comprised all the people who are employed and are working in any organization. A non probability convenient sample is chosen. The sample size is 10, 15 white collar workers of multinational organizations and 5 blue collar workers of local companies.

Sample Characteristics:

Sample was of 90 percent men while 10 percent women. The mean age was 35. Seventy percent of respondents are married. Thirty percent of them had bachelor degrees, forty percent had master’s degree, 10 percent were Ph.D, 20 percent were others. Their income was between 5,000 and 50,000 per month.

Sample Error:

There might be sample error since the sample is very small as compared to the population and might not completely be the true representative of the population.

VARIABLES AND MEASURE:

Our variables are job performance and ability job fit; job performance being the dependent and ability of being the independent variable. The sample though small is the true representative of the population and the measure are reliable and valid pr the study.

DATA COLLECTION METHODS

The methods use for data collection is questionnaire. Questionnaires were given to employees of different organizations. It was assured to the respondents that their responses would be anonymous and confidential and the respondents completed the questionnaire in 5 to 10 minutes. The immediate bosses of some of those employees were also interviewed.

Questionnaires:

Ten questionnaires were distributed to the sample and each of the questionnaires was comprises of 10 questions. The basic purpose was to give a chance to the employees of their self analysis on their job performance and productivity and ask them how much they feel that they are most appropriate for that particular job.

Unstructured interviews:

The immediate bosses of 3 of the people who were given the questionnaire were asked questions about what they think about the ability job fit of their employees and how does that affect their performance at job and their productivity, turnover, job satisfaction and absenteeism.

The exact content with the interview was an open ended discussion on specific job requirements and whether all of them followed the same relationship between their requirement and their performance. There was also inclusion of specified cases and preference on which kind of work policy do most CEOs like to adopt towards their employees as Job fit.

The interview required us to take more data so to justify their preferences so that we could present the data taken with the one from the employees to come up with a rudimentary calculus that can determine our founded hypothesis.

Justification:

“Second, because Study 2 (unlike Study 1) assessed task performance as well as several facets each of OCB and CWB, it was possible in Study 2 to examine another aspect of the within-person structure of the criterion. Specifically, in addition to their task performance, employees should consider their OCB and CWB directed toward the organization and the supervisor—but not toward coworkers—relevant to their overall/global job performance (see Hypotheses 5–7). This may have indirect implications for the OCB-CWB relationship: as suggested previously, the relationship between OCB and CWB may be weaker for a facet of behavior considered irrelevant to global job performance (e.g., coworker-directed behavior) than for a facet considered relevant (e.g., organization- or supervisor-directed behavior).” Dalal,Weiss, Lam,Welch,Hulin (2009)

The research will raise questions on credibility due to being empirically focal. Opposing viewpoints are easily occur able in this setting.

“Drawing on the compatibility principle in attitude theory, we propose that overall job attitude (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) provides increasingly powerful prediction of more integrative behavioral criteria (focal performance, contextual performance, lateness, absence, and turnover combined). The principle was sustained by a combination of meta-analysis and structural equations showing better fit of unified versus diversified models of meta-analytic correlations between those criteria. Overall job attitude strongly predicted a higher-order behavioural construct, defined as desirable contributions made to one's work role (r = .59). Time-lagged data also supported this unified, attitude-engagement model.” Newman,Roth, Harrison 2008

These focal opposites is exactly why we choose to include less open ended questions in the questionnaire so as to avoid too much focal conflict in the study.

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. What is your gender?

a) Male b) Female

2. What is your age group?

a) Under 20 b) 21-30 c) 31-40 d) 41-50

3. Your occupation?

a) Engineer b) Manager c) Business d) Other

4. What is your monthly average income?

a) 5,000 to 10,000

|b) |10,000 |to 20,000 |
|c) |20,000 |to 30,000 |
|d) |30,000 |to 50,000 |

5. How much do you think you are suitable for the job you are doing and does your job match with your abilities?

a) Very much b) Not at all c) A little

If you chose (a) go to question 6 If you chose (b) go to question 7 6. Why do you think you are suitable for the job you are doing?

a) It matches with my qualification and ability. b) Other reasons.

7. Why do you think you are not suitable for the job you are doing?

a) It does not match with my ability completely. b) I deserve a better more sophisticated job because of my high abilities. c) Others reasons.

8. How much are you satisfied with your job performance?

a) Very much b) A little c) Not at all

9. How much do you think your boss is satisfied with your job performance?

a) Very much b) A little c) Not at all

10.Is there a positive relation between job performance and ability job fit?

a) Yes, very much b) To a considerable extent c) Not at all

11. Do you believe that high work standards create unnecessary pressure on the employee?

a) Yes
b) No
c) Somewhat

12. How do you think the management of any company should go about designing the work skill policy of their company? (Please describe in less than 50 words)

DATA ANALYSIS

The results of the questionnaire and data analysis

The following is the results of the questionnaire that were filled by various respondents.

1. What is your gender? a- Male b- Female [pic]

2. What is your age group? a- Under 20 b- 21-30 c- 31-40 d- 41-50

[pic] 3. Your occupation? a- Engineer b- Manager c- Business d- Other

|Engineer |1 |
|Manager |3 |
|Business |2 |
|Other |4 |

4. What is your monthly average income? a- 5,000 to 10,000
|b- |10,000 |to 20,000 |
|c- |20,000 |to 30,000 |
|d- |30,000 |to 50,000 |

|Response |Frequency |Percentage% |
|5,000 to 10,000 |2 |20% |
|10,000 to 20,000 |4 |40% |
|20,000 to 30,000 |1 |10% |
|30,000 to 50,000 |3 |30% |
|Total |10 |100% |

Total 60% of the people are in the income bracket of 5,000 to 20,000. The remaining 40% are in the income bracket of 20,000 to 50,000.

[pic] 5. How much do you think you are suitable for the job you are doing and does your job match with your abilities? a- Very much b- Not at all c- A little If you chose (a) go to question 6 If you chose (b) go to question 7

|Responses |Frequency |Percentage |C.F |
|Very Much |7 |70% |7 |
|Not at all |2 |20% |9 |
|A little |1 |10% |10 |
|Total |10 |100% | |

70% of the respondents consider themselves as highly suitable for the job. 20% of the respondents consider themselves as unsuitable for their job. 10% of the respondents consider themselves a little suitable for the job.

6. Why do you think you are suitable for the job you are doing? a- It matches with my qualification and ability. b- Other reasons.

|Responses |Frequen |Percentage |C.F |
| |cy | | |
|Matches with ability |7 |87.5% |7 |
|Other reasons |1 |12.5% |8 |
|Total |8 |100% | |

87.5% of the respondents said that they think they are suitable for the job because it matches with their qualifications and ability whereas only 12.5% of the respondents think it is because of other reasons. [pic] 7. Why do you think you are not suitable for the job you are doing? a- It does not match with my ability completely. b- I deserve a better more sophisticated job because of my high abilities. c- Others reasons.

|Responses |Frequency |Percentage |C.F |
|Does not match |1 |50% |1 |
|I deserve better |1 |50% |2 |
|Other reasons |0 |0% |2 |
|Total |2 |100% | |

50% of the people who think they are not suitable for their job think so because their job does not match with their ability completely. Another 50% think that deserve better. [pic]

8. How much are you satisfied with your job performance? a- Very much b- A little c- Not at all

70% of the sample is very much satisfied with their job performance. 20% are a little satisfied and a little dissatisfied whereas only 10% are not satisfied. 9. How much do you think your boss is satisfied with your job performance? a- Very much b- A little c- Not at all [pic] 90% of the respondent think that their bosses are satisfied with their them very much, whereas 10% think that their bosses are a little satisfied and a little dissatisfied.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

HO: There is no relation between job performance and ability job fit

HA: There is a positive relation between job performance and ability job fit.

10. Is there a positive relation between job performance and ability job fit? a- Yes, very much b- To a considerable extent c- Not at all 80% of the respondent strongly agree where as 20% also agree too

|Responses |Frequency |Percentage |C.F |
|Very much |8 |80% |8 |
|To a considerable |2 |20% |10 |
|Extent not at all |0 |0% |10 |
|Total |10 |100% | |

[pic]

Results from the Questionnaire:

The responses of the respondents clearly showed that they really believe in the significance of the ability job fit and that they feel that a person’s performance at work is increased when his abilities completely match with the work requirement of his job.

Results from the interviews:

Interviews clearly told in the light of their experiences that the employees whose abilities match with the job demand are highly productive and are less absent, more productive, more satisfied with their jobs.

There were contentions noted as well in each interview, we noted similarities in how many employees fully agree that in having a hard and fast work policy is only destructive to the company’s own efforts. They also were of the opinion that skill level should be measured but on such a strict gauge.

This meant that our hypothesis rested on a loose link so obviously the question on what is the standard policy was the deal breaking question.

As expected there was a breadth of answers to this question, a definitive answer based on sample is not easy to give but theoretically we can imply that work policy where skill fits are flexible are the best ones, where employees can fit into their job with more than one type of methodology or knowledge. Obviously such a policy also requires the breadth of tools and diversity of the technology being on hand so the cost/benefit analysis comes into play here company by company.

There was unanimous agreement on the fact however that even on a generalized basis both the company and the employee have better performance outputs if the skill fit of job matches skills of the employee. Employees do cut back on absenteeism and turnover does decrease overall from an employee who falls into the above stated criteria.

I accept the alternative hypothesis the “THERE IS A POSITIVE RELATION BETWEEN JOB PERFORMANCE AND ABILITY JOB FIT”. CONCLUSION

On the basis of study conducted, I come to the conclusion that an employee’s job performance is directly related to the ability job fit. The higher the ability job fit the better the performance and the lower is the ability job fit the lower is job performance.

The study was undertaken to contribute to the field of Organizational Behavior. The results of the study clearly indicate that an employee is more satisfied with his job when he feels that there is a true match between his abilities and the technical and intellectual requirement of his job. The consequently these people are likely to be more productive workers, rating low on absenteeism and turnover and high in job satisfaction ( with other factors held constant).

Limitations

There might possibly be some inadequacies in the sampling design, measures, data collection methods, respondent bias, questionnaire design etc and thus generalization might occur; and that might be due to certain time and cost limitations and the business if the respondents.

The biggest limitation of this study is the sheer breadth of opinions that are plausible in such a case study.

The sample included less open ended questions owing to that reason and we readily accept the generalization being made here.

However the hypothesis goes on the most crude and on its most basic in defining the relationship. We fully consider the other scenarios and plausible variables that can affect the given link.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Keeping the above study in kind various alternatives may be generated like:

An organization’s recruitment policies should be very job specific keeping ability job fit at their top most priority level.

Promotions and transfer decisions affecting individuals should also reflect the abilities of the candidates.

The fit can be improved by fine tuning the job to better match an employee’s abilities. For that certain modifications can be done in one’s job.

Training for employees can also be provided to increase the fit.
-----------------------
|Under 20 |0 |
|21-30 |4 |
|31-40 |4 |
|41-50 |2 |

[pic]

[pic]

[pic]

|Responses |Frequency |Percentage |C.F |
|Very Much |7 |20% |7 |
|A little |2 |20% |9 |
|Not at all |1 |10% |10 |
|Total |10 |100% | |

|Responses |Frequency |Percentage |C.F |
|Very Much |9 |90% |9 |
|A little |1 |10% |10 |
|Not at all |0 |0% |10 |
|Total |10 |100% | |

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8…...

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...RESEARCH PAPER * Presents the results of the investigation on a selected topic * An individual investigation carried out on a topic of specific interest, unless specifically assigned by a teacher Parts of Research Paper 1. Title Page * Cover page * Indicates the title of the research, name of the author, institutional information and a few other relevant information 2. Introduction * Introducing to the reader the “problem” by providing a brief background of the research 3. Related Literature - Provide brief summaries or descriptions of the workers of other aurthors 4. Methodology * Provides the methods that you will be using in your research Typical Methodology * Laboratory expariments * Statistical or mathematical calculations/computations * Comparison of existing literature 5. Data Analysis * Analyzing data that were obtained from the methodological operation that have chosen 6. Results - Presentation of the actual results of the analysis that you have made based on your chosen methodology 7. Discussion * Discussing more of the results of your research, its implication on other fields as well as the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of the research 8. Conclusion - Provides the conclusion of the research paper 9. Page Reference - Lists of all the academic materials you have used as sources of information in your research paper Research Paper Title ......

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...The key characteristics and differences of research methodologies The methodologies used in research include qualitative, quantitative, mixed, and action research. First, mixed methodology entails the combination of the compilation and analysis of both qualitative and qualitative statistics. Second, action research is an informal methodology that obliges all the partakers to be mutual researchers. Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are the prevailing methods in research at present (Austin, 1978). Qualitative research methodology obtains an approach to evaluating information that looks at connotation rather than numbers. The statistics, therefore, normally consist of non-numerical data such as words or metaphors. Qualitative research is unbolt and receptive to its subject. There are various key characteristics of this research method. First, the perspective of investigation is not artificial; they are natural. Nonentity is undermined or taken for granted. Second, actions can be understood effectively only if they are spotted in context. Consequently, a qualitative researcher submerges in the setting. Under this method, interviews and observations are the most suitable strategies to be used. Quantitative research methods advance research in a different way and scrutinize the data based on figures and statistics, the consequential data is principally statistical (Trochim & Donnelly, 2006). It entails those methodologies, which include surveys, interviews, and...

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...Market Research Proposal ‐ PepsiCo  Is PepsiCo Healthy?  Team 5:  Ilaria Caputo    Aneesha Duga    Marga Galmes    Daria Ilgen       Jean‐Loup Senski    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The proposed research aims to measure the PepsiCo brand’s consumer perception as “healthy” within the North American market and to analyze the results in order to gather data to generate recommendations on the strategic marketing of the company. The research will survey a sample of 1,000 people in the US different by age, income, location and personal preferences for drinks. The population will be selected randomly by a computer by using the grocery store loyalty programs members as reference. The extent of the research is wide enough to ensure that the survey will give us a framework of the feelings towards the healthy feature of the PepsiCo brands. A questionnaire will be administered to the selected sample over the Internet and the results will be collected and analyzed by a computer. The criteria under which each question of the questionnaire has been conceived cover the main concerns for the company. For example, does the consumer perceive PepsiCo as provider of healthy drinks or not?. The research also highlights the main possible outcomes of the survey. For each type of result, the research has already identified a strategic direction the company should take. The research is extensive enough to provide a comprehensive understanding of the brand perception. The accuracy of the research is......

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...to develop effective marketing strategies and tactics and that the first step is to incorporate marketing research. Through the course of this paper the importance of marketing research will be addressed. An analysis of the importance of competitive intelligence and marketing strategy and tactics for Kudler Fine Foods will also be discussed. Importance of Marketing Research Marketing research is defining a marketing problem then systematically collecting and analyzing information and finally recommending actions (Day, 2005). Marketing research is essential to the success of any business whose main objective is, like Kudler's Fine Foods, to offer products or services that are well targeted (Day, 2005). When making business decisions based on market research, risk can be minimized and the business process is likely to thrive (Day, 2005). Market research helps organizations like Kudler‘s Fine Foods communicate better with current customers by gathering valuable information about products and service from them. Regular customers can provide the organization with valuable information about the shopping experience as well as what would make that shopping experience better (Day, 2005). If Kudler's Fine Foods asks the customers opinion, it shows them that not only do they care about their opinion and helps to increase the level of customer service they provide. Market research is a good way for Kudler's Fine Foods to identify opportunities and minimize risk. Before offering a......

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...ALABAMA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION SYLLABUS FOR RESEARCH METHODS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSE NUMBER: PED 506 CATALOG DESCRIPTION: Consistent with the College of Education Conceptual Framework, Part IV: Outcomes Context, this course is designed to provide graduate candidates with a knowledge base for scientific investigation. The course includes an overview of the methods and tools of research. Emphasis is on the planning and development of a research proposal. The research proposal will be appropriate for future use in the implementation of the thesis required in selected advanced level graduate programs. TEXTBOOK: Thomas, J. and Nelson, J. (2001). Research Methods in Physical Activity, 4th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books. CREDIT HOURS: 03 INSTRUCTOR: Pat Floyd TELEPHONE: 334-229-4522 OFFICE: JRA 243 OFFICE HOURS: TBA ATTENDANCE POLICY: See University Policy Prepared by: Dr. Pat Floyd, Ph.D. Date: 9/05 Approved by: ___________________________ Date: ____________ Department Chair Approved by: ___________________________ Date: ____________ Dean NOTE: Any candidate requiring alternative formats for testing and/or handouts for this course, or other types of accommodations due to a disabling condition, should advise the instructor within the first week of classes. PURPOSE Consistent with the College of Education Conceptual Framework, Part IV: Outcomes Context...

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...How To Formulate Research Problem? Posted in Research Methodology | Email This Post Email This Post Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. Research Process Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings. The research process consists of the following stages – 1. The Primary stage :– This stage includes – a. Observation – The first step in the research process is that of the observation, research work starts with the observation which can be either unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation.It can be said that an observation leads to research, the results obtained from research result in final observations which can play a crucial part in carrying out further research. Deliberate and guided...

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...ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research paper is made possible through the help and support from everyone including: Faculty members, mentor, friends, and in essence, all sentient beings. Especially, please allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude toward the following significant advisors and contributors: First and foremost, I would like to thank Prof. Mukesh Sehrawat for his most support and encouragement. He kindly suggested to make my research paper and offered invaluable detailed advices on grammar, Perfect content and the theme of the paper. Second, I would like to thank DR. Rajiv bhardwaj which has given a golden opportunity to do a specific topic research on it. He has given a right way to survive and sustain our life as all the other professors who have taught me about research and he studied about how to make report in systematically way. Finally, I sincerely thank to my personal friend who provide the advice and support to make this report. The product of this research paper would not be possible without all of them. So I have learnt many things and terminology of research on a particular topic and also learn how to compare two products taking a specific aspect. CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………Page no- 4 2. LITRETATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………Page no - 5 3. REASEARCH METHODLOGY………………………………………………………………page no -5 a. RESEARCH PROBLEM b. RESEARCH......

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...RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH...

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...activities for the quarter 4 which include weekly class discussion, class participation, midterm and final exam * Learned about what Research is and what Research is not. * Eight characteristics of research. * Sub problem – that is a question or problem that must be address before the main problem is resolved. * Hypothesis- that is a reasonable quests that needs to be proving. * I learned about assumption –that is a statement that is presume to be fact. * Learned about theory * Learned about methodology- that is a process a researchers use to collect data and information is research work. * Learned about internet – A researchers use internet to access information online. * Learned about two types of research report which is Juried or refereed – a reviewed report * Nonjuried or nonrefereed – none reviewed report. E.g. Journal report. * Learned about checklist evaluating research- that a report juried that is judge. * Learned that a research that is not screen or viewed by expert is not valid * Guidelines in reviewing research by going to library to sort for information needed for case study. * I learned as a researcher, you must read more than articles. * I learned about research paper / APA Style – that first thing is to choose the research topic. * Learned about what research paper entails, like cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, summary, conclusion and references. * I learned about......

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...and Public Relations Herzing University Pamela Zipfel March 15, 2015 Research Program Research Program In developing a research program for a new book store for Herzing University, I would first start6 with a research plan. This would prompt me to use a marketing research plan, consumer research, advertising research and strategic research. “Market research complies information about a product.” (Hall, Prentice 2009) Consumer research is used to see what consumers are in the market for. Advertising research focuses on getting your product out there, example would be social media. Strategic research is the final plan and becomes the base of your research it allows the company to compile information from the social media and what influences consumers to purchase a product. (Hall, Prentice 2009) During the exploratory research process I would start with the literature research process, because it is the cheapest. I would use the census bureau, newspaper, and magazines to collect whether there is a need for a bookstore and what sort of books people would want to read. I would then decide if I need Qualitative or Quantitative research. Quantitative research will give numerical data. Qualitative Research gives a more details, such as consumer behavior. It observes what consumers are interested in and explores the nature of the consumer’s insight on a product. I would choose Qualitative research because it would give me more of an overview on what consumers are......

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...Proposal on Research Research is a complicated process in order to find the right resources on a specific topic with the proper literature writing. Researching is to provide necessary information to individuals on a specific topic. Thus, this research can be used to write a paper or papers on a particular topic for intended audiences with the sources you used on your points and assertions. One job the writer needs to make sure he has done is to include a position he is on and that he has compressed or summarized all the research on various sources by focusing on the main key points. The writer also has the responsibility to provide a motivating, stimulating, or activating thesis statement. The writer’s purpose of writing a research paper is to provide specific details on all the sources that have been collected for the writing topic. He also needs to compress all the collected resources into highlighted key ideas from the passages. Also, he needs present a research paper that is consisting of three formats: a summary, a paraphrase, or a quotation. In a summary, you provide important key main points from the source’s idea and write to support the source’s idea. Paraphrase is when a person takes someone’s idea and put it into the writer’s own words. Lastly, quoting is to directly quote from an original source. Even though the writer provides information from various sources that is included to the written paper, the writer must put the researched information into their own...

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...qualitative research. A qualitative research design could be primarily used to solve customer satisfaction problems. It is a more straight forward, structured way to seek information from your customers. Through surveys and questionnaires that can be conducted in a number of ways information can be gathered from large groups of participants. Usually they involve closed ended questions, that can effectively organized. The organization of this data is then discussed in the form of numbers and statistics. Using this information the business owner is made aware of a customer’s interest, knowledge, and changes on a product or service. Based on this they can make more informed decisions on the quality of service to their customers. Although a quantative research design can be used primarily it would benefit to use a qualitive research design as well. Part of satisfying your customer is knowing your brand not only objectively but also subjectively. Through quantative research you can monitor your success based on clear cut facts. It does not go into depth as to why your brand is doing well and a qualitive research design can give you insight to customer’s opinions. A qualitive research design is more open to personal feedback. It explores a customer’s thoughts and having access to these thoughts can help in discovering new elements into keeping customers satisfied. A qualitive research is done in form of interviews, focus groups, participant observations and research of other......

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...RESEARCH Research is a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyse the information needed for decision-making in the desired / specific field of inquiry. The term research can be applied to any field of human activity. Research means ‘studious enquiry’ or a systematic, honest and impartial study conducted by trained men using scientific methods. It means detailed study relating to a particular subject. The purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing the problem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment, to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality more clearly, as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out some answers or solutions for a particular area-research. Every project has its scope of work, time-line and resources, that is why you may easily inter -relate research work with a project. There are two different types of research: basic and applied research. These two research types are used in a variety of studies and field disciplines including psychology, biology and chemistry. Basic research is about understanding the various processes between memory, learning, and knowledge. It is about finding information, while it may become applied later, researchers choose to research topic of interest to them. It is about figuring out the answer......

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...goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure): * Exploratory research, which helps identify and define a problem or question. * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two ways to conduct research: Primary research Using primary sources, i.e., original documents and data. Secondary research Using secondary sources, i.e., a synthesis of, interpretation of, or discussions about primary sources. There are two major research designs: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose one of these two tracks according to the nature of the research problem they want to observe and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. This type of research looks to describe a population without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.......

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