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Resistant Bacteria

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Why do you think that some species/strains of bacteria are resistant to disinfectants? In your post, refer to the structural features we learned about in Module One and the mechanism of action of disinfectants that we have learned about in the current module. Some potential organisms to focus on in your discussion are Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas or Bacillus.
Many bacteria species are naturally unaffected by anti-microbial agents such as biocides and disinfectants. Microbial evolution has occurred for millions of years outpacing the diversity of all other taxa. It is therefore very difficult to effectively control the spread of infectious diseases because the pathogens themselves are able to mutate into other more resistant organisms rendering antimicrobial treatment useless. “Bacterial and archaeal species do not reproduce sexually. They increase their genetic diversity by horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT). During HGT, genetic information from a donor organism is transferred to a recipient, creating a new genotype.” (Willey, Sherwood, & Woolverton, 2014, p. 10). So we therefore see different mechanisms for genetic transfer: either between differeing microbial species or intergenerational - between the same species. HGT also means that the evolution of microbial species result in a myriad of new species with a diverse gene pool and according to Willey, Sherwood, & Woolverton, (2014), leading to the evolution of species with antibiotic resistance, new virulence properties, and novel metabolic capabilities (p. 10). The same is true for disinfectants and other germicides which are used extensively in the homes and healthcare settings. Research has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapted its metabolism to literally pump out the antimicrobial agents aded to the culture. The species even developed resistance to Ciproflaxacin – a popular antibiotic used…...

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