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Review of Related Litirature

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Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature This chapter is divided into four parts: (1) Co-curricular Activities, (2) Time Management, (3) Academic Performance, (4) Tourism Education.
Part One, Co-curricular Activities, presents the definition, role of co-curricular activity in student, scope of co-curricular activity in school, its importance and benefits.
Part Two, Time Management, discusses how to manage your time wisely, its effect in academic performance and co-curricular activities, why time management is important, and its benefits.
Part Three, Academic Performance, provides meaning or definition, importance of academic performance, positive factors affecting academic performance, and the factors resulting to academic performance failure.
Part Four, Tourism Education gives the definition of tourism education, its importance, information about tourism education.
Co-curricular Activities
According to Mc Kown (1952) these activities are as old as education itself. They wereknown as used in different forms under different educational settings.The history reveals that the term was called Extra-curricular Activities before four-five decades. It includedathletics, music, oratorical competitions, clubs for students, debating, dramatics, honour awards, special day celebrations etc. These activities were organized mostly by the students themselves.

“Co curricular activities were mainly organized after school hours and so were the extra curricular but they are not an integral part of the activities of the school as its curricular work”- according to Aggarwal (2000).
“Various social and other types of activities like literary, dramatic, social services etc. which attracted the attention of the child were considered as extracurricular activities. Extracurricular activities have been renamed by educationists as co curricular, which implies that all these activities are a part of school curriculum”.- according to Mittal (1999).
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Role of co-curricular activity in student. To realize the all-round development of student, curricula should be amalgamated with co-curricular or extra-curricular activities. Co-curricular activities help in realization of aims and objectives of education. In the practical life, the students able to express their ideas freely due to active participation in debate and extempore. Discussion also helps in generating ideas and inculcating values. Games and Sports make them mentally and physically fit and sound. Games make them learn how to perform while losing or wining an event. Sometimes, classroom teaching becomes monotonous and routine. Here, co-curricular activities can bring pleasant and joyous experiences. Thus, co-curricular activity has many advantages in student’s life of school, college and university.
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Scope of co-curricular activities in school. Co-curricular activities not only make the students active and energetic but also enable to harness the in-depth potential of students. It enhances knowledge in many domains, which benefits the student as well as the school. Co-curricular activities are good platforms to secure your future both professionally and socially and promote leadership quality. It nurtures student’s ability in co-operation, co-ordination, organization and lead you toward leadership. Extra-curricular activities provide exposure to personality and helps in psychological and sociological transformation. Schools channelize the energy of students with the help of extra-curricular activities so that proper realization of student’s energy and potential can be ensued. The importance of co-curricular activities is extremely important in case of ADHD and problematic children who are full of energy.
Information. Co-curricular activities (CCAs) earlier known as Extracurricular Activities (ECA) are the components of non-academic curriculum helps to develop various facets of the personality development of the child and students. For all-round development of the child, there is a need of emotional, physical, spiritual and moral development that is complemented and supplemented by Co-curricular Activities.
These activities are organized after the school hours, so known as extra-curricular activities. Co-curricular Activities have wide horizon to cater to the cultural, social, aesthetic development of the child.
Importance and benefits. Its importance and benefits are: (1) Co-curricular activities stimulate playing, acting, singing, recitation, speaking and narrating in students, (2) Activities like participation in game debates, music, drama, etc., help in achieving overall functioning of education, (3) It enables the students to express themselves freely through debates, (4) Games and Sports helps to be fit and energetic to the child, (5) Helps to develop the spirit of healthy competition.

Time Management
According to Tolstoy, the two most powerful warriors are patience and time. It's important that you develop effective strategies for managing your time to balance the conflicting demands of time for study, leisure, earning money and job hunting. Time management skills are valuable in job hunting, but also in many other aspects of life: from revising for examinations to working in a vacation job.
The Stephen Covey Time Management Matrix is an excellent planning tool that is simple and straight forward. Once you learn the basic principles of organizing your activities according to the principles of this tool, you will likely be able to eliminate a number of timewasting activities and unproductive behaviors.
Effect on academic performance and co-curricular activities. Sometimes it may seem that there isn't enough time to do everything that you need to. This can lead to a build up of stress. When revising for examinations or during your final year when you have to combine the pressures of intensive study with finding time to apply for jobs good management of your time can be particularly important. Once we have identified ways in which we can improve the management of our time, we can begin to adjust our routines and patterns of behaviour to reduce any time-related stress in our lives.
Time management practices have been proven to be some of the top indicators toward achieving a high level of academic success and performance. They aren’t the only influences on achievement, but time management also doesn’t serve only one purpose. Participating in events and being engaged in other outside-class work, not necessarily a job, but being active in organizations also has a strong correlation to reaching a high GPA. And time management practices lead not only to a high level of academic performance, but to good health and lower levels of stress.
Why time management is important. Time management is important for your personal life and career success. It teaches you how to manage your time effectively and make the most of it. Here are a few of the reasons why it is so important, and how it can help you use and manage your time more advantageously: (1) Time is a special resource that you cannot store or save for later use. Everyone has the exact same amount of time each day. Time not well used cannot be retrieved. (2) Most people feel like they have too much to do and not enough time. They blame lack of time for their poor finances, stress, bad relationships and not exercising their body. Wise time management can help you find the time for what you desire to do or need to do. (3) You need time to get what you want out of life. If you wait for extra time to appear, you might lose the game of life. Through right time management, you can “create” the time you need, and not just wait for it to come. By planning your time wisely, you will have more time to do more things. (4) Time management will help you set up your priorities. (5) Time is limited to 24 hours a day, so plan your life wisely.
The benefits of time management. If you can control your time, you will be able to identify and set your priorities as well as develop a plan of action to achieve your goals. The effective management of your time can lead to effective communication with others to give assistance, support, motivation, and direction. Developing and using effective time management skills will allow time to plan, renew, and pursue personal and career goals.
Academic Performance
Most people know that academic performance generally refers to how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and studies, but there are quite a number of factors that determine the level and quality of students' academic performance.
Importance of academic performance. Academic performance is important because it prepares students for future careers. It also allows students to enter competitive fields. Academic performance is often a sign of refined intellect, which can help students in all areas of their lives. It also helps shape the minds of students. Academic performance is very important as it forms the foundation of future education. Performing well in early days and developing a standard for yourself is important. Getting the right education from the right place is very crucial for the success of any student. (Fran J. Alston, Parent/Teacher Conference)
Positive factors affecting academic performance. A good match between students’ learning preferences and instructor’s teaching style has been demonstrated to have positive effect on student's performance (Harb & El-Shaarawi, 2006). “I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.” (Confucius 551-479 BC) – A quote that provides evidence that, even in early times, there was recognition of the existence of different learning preferences among people. Indeed, Omrod (2008) reports that some students seem to learn better when information is presented through words (verbal learners), whereas others seem to learn better when it is presented in the form of pictures (visual learners). Clearly in a class where only one instructional method is employed, there is a strong possibility that a number of students will find the learning environment less optimal and this could affect their academic performance.
Factors resulting to academic performance failure. According to Saiduddin (2006), it is a convenient scapegoat to pass the blame and responsibility for the low academic performance to factors such as socio-economic status, family, culture and the learner being less intelligent then the others. Research conducted at high schools in South Dakota has shown that all learners are eduacateable, and that way in which the school is managed is the most critical factor in determining the quality of education for its learners. Researchers at Ohio State University attribute the academic failure to the economic and social conditions while administrators and educators have also developed this mindset. The study was undertaken at a high school on the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota. This argument can be disputed based on the status quo of most rural schools in South Africa because how can learners perform well in chemistry, life science, and physical science without the necessary facilities (laboratory) and chemicals that are necessary for them to perform experiments.

Tourism Education
Tourism education refers to any “program in which participants travel to a location as a group with the primary purpose of engaging in a learning experience directly related to the location” (Rodger, 2006).
Tourism education can be described as one of the main sub sectors of the multifaceted tourism phenomenon and one whose manifestation could impact on the whole of the tourism sector, directly or indirectly. The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has singled out tourism (higher) education as holding a potential to achieving customer satisfaction and also improving the competitiveness of tourism businesses and regions if specific education and training are guaranteed.
Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.
Benefits of tourism education. Tourism is one of the world’s largest employers and yet many communities are unsure of the benefits of tourism. The economic benefits are often the easiest to measure and the most effective; however the social and environmental benefits of tourism including protection of natural and cultural assets, supporting local events and cultural practices and provisions of services and public facilities should not be overlooked. For this reason effective destination managers should regularly engage in education and advocacy of the benefits of tourism with local influencers and key community stakeholders. This includes elected representatives, leaders of business and industry, community and environment groups, and residents.
Importance of tourism education. Tourism impacts are wide-ranging, as perceived differently by different interest groups, and are subject to extensive uncertainties. However, there appears to be widespread agreement that education has, at the very least, an important role to play in the achievement of sustainable tourism. It is widely agreed that education and training are important to the achievement of sustainable tourism and sustainable development (UNESCOUNEP, 1996). Unfortunately, there is much less agreement about who should learn what, from whom, and how. This is perhaps unsurprising, given that tourism probably touches, at all levels, upon a wider range of social interests and economic sectors than any other industry (Cater,1995).…...

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