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România , formerly also spelled Roumania and Rumania, is a country located between Central Europe and Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea. Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south. At 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the ninth largest country of the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest population of the European Union with 20,121,641 people (20 October 2011). Its capital and largest city is Bucharest – the sixth largest city in the EU.


Romania: According to the 2011 census, Romania's population is 20,121,641. Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to gradually decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. In October 2011 Romanians made up 88.6% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are the Romanians, who make up 89% of the population, ,Hungarians who make up 6.5% of the population and Roma, who make up 3.2% of the population, the 1.3% are from the other countries.

Romania: Owing to its distance from the open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. Romania enjoys four seasons, though there is a rapid transition from winter to summer. Autumn is frequently longer, with dry warm weather from September to late November.
China: Owing to tremendous differences in latitude, longitude, and altitude, the climate of China is extremely diverse, ranging from tropical in the far south to subarctic in the far north and alpine in the higher elevations of the Tibetan Plateau.


Romania:The official language of Romania is Romanian, a Romance language related to Italian, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population. Hungarian and Vlax Romani are the most important minority languages, spoken by 6.7% and 1.1% of the population, respectively. Until the early 1990s, there were also a substantial number of German-speaking Transylvanian Saxons, even though most have since emigrated to Germany, leaving only 45,000 native German speakers in Romania. There are approximately 32,000 Turkish speakers in Romania.
China: The most spoken varieties are Mandarin (spoken by 70% of the population), Wu (including Shanghainese), Yue(including Cantonese and Taishanese), Min (including Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka. Non-Sinitic languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities. Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on theBeijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.


Romania : Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. However, an overwhelming majority of the country's citizens identify themselves as Christians. 86.7% of the country's population identified as Orthodox Christian according to the 2002 census, the vast majority of which belongs to the Eastern Orthodox Church. Other major Christian denominations include Protestantism (5.2%), Catholicism (4.7%) and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (0.9%).The latter two religious organizations suffered most severely under the Communist regime.

China: Religion in China is very interesting. Almost half of the population is atheist. Religions are family-oriented. You can believe in whatever you want, no one will be judged for what they believe in. Some people don't like to refer to it as a religion, like Buddhism and Taoism. They don’t feel comfortable calling it a religion, they like to refer to it as cultural practices or thought systems.

Natural environment
Romania: A high percentage (47% of the land area) of the country is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Since almost half of all forests in Romania (13% of the country) have been managed for watershed conservation rather than production, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe. The integrity of Romanian forest ecosystems is indicated by the presence of the full range of European forest fauna, including 60% and 40% of all European brown bears and wolves, respectively. There are also almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians in Romania. The fauna consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate.
China: Although China's forest cover is only 20%,the country has some of the largest expanse of forested land in the world, making it a top target for forest preservation efforts.China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), 1,221 species of birds (eighth), 424 species of reptiles (seventh) and 333 species of amphibians (seventh). However, desertification remains a serious problem, consuming an area greater than that taken by farmlands. Although desertification has been curbed in some areas, it still is expanding at a rate of more than 67 km² every year. 90% of China's desertification occurs in the west of the country.


Romania: At social occasions Romanians are usually accustomed to shake hands at first .At the same time ,they need to watch each other to show respect. When the girl/boy meets her/his boyfriend/girlfriend, they often hug the other’s shoulders. Generally, women want to hug gently and have a kiss on both cheeks with the female. Romanians love to entertain guests. They consider it as a great honor. If you are invited to the Romanians, although this is rare, do not forget to send flowers to the hostess (but do not send red roses). The gift can also be perfume, cosmetics, jeans or coffee .They enjoy talking about sports, travel, music, fashion and books. Remember, do not talk about politics or any negative aspects of Romania.

China: Unlike Westerners, Chinese people do not usually greet people who they have not been introduced to or are not familiar with. It would seem odd if a person would offer a "Hi" or "Hello" when passing on the street. Giving gifts and treating people to dinner is a common practice, especially during festival days. When if a gift is given, it should be offered with two hands. Any gift offered with two hands should always be received with two hands. The main difference between Chinese and western eating habits is that unlike the West, where everyone has their own plate of food, in China the dishes are placed on the table and everybody shares. If you are being treated by a Chinese host, be prepared for a ton of food. Chinese are very proud of their culture of cuisine and will do their best to show their hospitality. Sometimes the Chinese hosts use their chopsticks to put food in your bowl or plate. This is a sign of politeness. The appropriate thing to do would be to eat the whatever-it-is and say how yummy it is. If you feel uncomfortable with this, you can just say a polite thank you and leave the food there.


Romania: Romanians are very friendly and hospitable. Even for the strangers, once they come to somebody’s home ,they are also welcomed. They pay attention on politesse. Under normal circumstances , they are accustomed to call men " Sir" politely, the women "Mrs. " or " Miss" according to the identity of the woman. They love roses, especially the white roses .Because white roses are symbolized as "pure" and " happiness". Therefore, roses are also known as the national flower . They are keen on giving flowers to their relatives and church members to wish them have a good luck. They love green .They consider green as the source of beauty and happiness . Romanians like white as well. They think white is purity of color and a symbol of light. They are used to drinking water. Even if they are in a foreign country , the habit of drinking water is stick to the same. They never delay or miss appointments on account of their strong sense of time.

China: Chinese people are always very friendly and kind, but what you should pay attention to is that Chinese people also has their own ways to get on with others. When you meet the Chinese, if you want to start a talking with him or her, you'd better ask like this; Have you had your meal? Actually you can begin everything with “Have you had your meal?” If Chinese people need your favor, they will compliment you first before starting the real conversation. The Chinese are keen on red. They think red symbolizes good luck and prosperity. In China,gold is the imperial color, white is the color of death (and is the color traditionally worn at funerals), black symbolizes misfortune. Spring Festival is the most important holiday in China. From late January to early February, Chinese people are busy preparing for the New Year. They clean their houses ,have their hair cut, and buy new clothes .They usually have dumplings or jiaozi .To those who live far away from their home, this festival is also a reunion occasion. They often go back home to celebrate the festival with their family.


Romania: The Romanian folkloric costumes characterize own attributes of the Romanian people and contribute essentially to the definition of the ethnic specificity. Closely related to the human existence, the folkloric costumes reflect over time, as they reflect nowadays, the mentality and artistic conception of the people. The folkloric costume has been developed along the people's history, being a genuine expression of coherent traditions throughout centuries. Distinct clothing ornamentation, traditional methods used for sewing and tailoring the pieces of clothing, and a wide variety of costumes from one region to another customize the defining spirit of the Romanian people.

In rural areas of Romania you can experience a way of life that has disappeared in the West nearly a century ago. Traditions, such as baking, weaving and carpentry are still living in Romanian villages. In Romania you can see people ploughing with horses, cutting hay with a scythe, cow milking, making such horseshoes further, etc. Power supply in rural Transylvania is often organic and, surprising to visitors from the West, full of flavor.

China: Kung Fu, especially, has had a great impact on the millions of people who first learned about China through it. From that, they may come to China and learn about other aspects of this culture, such as traditional operas like the Beijing and Sichuan ones. Asian nations have long known about the greatness of ancient Chinese culture. Their own cultures are a mix of native ones and those Chinese characteristics. Korea and Japan long ago adopted ideas such as Confucianism is something that continues today even as it is challenged by Pop Culture. This strength comes from the ideas given in the Four Books of Confucianism. These books built upon the ideas of an even more ancient period codified in the Five Classics. From them, the West learns such things as Fengshui and other concepts that are uniquely Chinese. China has taken steps to further this spread of its culture by establishing Chinese Cultural Centers in such places as the United States and Europe.


Romania :With a GDP according to CIA's The World Fact Book of around $274 billion in 2012 and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $12,800 for the year 2012, Romania is an upper-middle income country economy and has been part of the European Union since 1 January 2007. Growth dampened to 6.1% in 2007, but was expected to exceed 8% in 2008 because of a high production forecast in agriculture (30–50% higher than in 2007). The GDP grew by 8.9% in the first nine months of 2008, but growth fell to 2.9% in the fourth quarter and stood at 7.1% for the whole 2008 because of the financial crisis. Thereafter, the country fell into a recession in 2009 and 2010, where the GDP contracted −7.1% and −1.3% respectively, and a group including the IMF needed to finance a €20bn bailout program. However, the GDP grew again by 2.2% in 2011 and 0.7% in 2012. It is estimated the GDP will continue to grow by 1.6% in 2013 and 2.2% in 2014.

China :As of 2013, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totaling approximately US$9.3253 trillion according to the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. In 2013, its PPP GDP per capita was US$10,253, while nominal GDP per capita was US$6,853. Both cases put China behind around ninety countries (out of 183 countries on the IMF list) in global GDP per capita rankings.

Foreign relations

Romania & China: China and Romania established diplomatic relations on October 5, 1949. China and Romania maintained long close relations of friendship. President Jiang Zemin's visit to Romania in 1996 and Romanian President Emil Constantinescu's visit to China in 1997 to further develop bilateral relations. In August 2003, Romanian President Ion Iliescu paid a state visit to China. The two sides signed a joint statement. In 2004, President Hu Jintao paid a state visit to Romania, the two sides signed a joint statement as well. In 2006, President Traian Basescu state visit to China. As of 2003, Romania has 19 pairs of sister cities with China. In recent years, bilateral trade has more than 20% growth rate every year, even in the context of the current international economic crisis in 2010,the bilateral trade volume is still up 33.8 percent to $ 3.76 billion.…...

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...December 2011 Mini Country Report/Romania under Specific Contract for the Integration of INNO Policy TrendChart with ERAWATCH (2011-2012) Mini Country Report Thematic Report 2011 under Specific Contract for the Integration of INNO Policy TrendChart with ERAWATCH (2011-2012) December 2011 Author: Marina Ranga, Stanford University Table of Contents Preface ii  Executive Summary iii  1. Innovation policy trends 1  1.1 Trends and key challenges for innovation policy 1  1.2 Innovation governance 7  1.3 Recent changes in the innovation policy mix 12   1.4 Internationalisation of innovation policies 15   1.5 Evidence on effectiveness of innovation policy 16   2. Innovation policy budgets – an overview 19   2.1 Trends in funding of innovation measures 19   2.2 Departmental and implementing agency budgets for innovation policies 2 1  2.3 Future challenges for funding of innovation policy 22  3. Thematic report: Demand-side innovation policies 23  3.1 Trends in the use of demand-side innovation policies 24  3.2 Governance challenges 30  3.3 Recent demand-side innovation policy measures 3 1  3.3.1 Sectoral specificities 3 1  3.3.2 Good practice case 3 1  Appendix A : Plan to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of RDI expenditure (Summary of provisions) 32  Appendix B : Recommendations of World Bank’s Functional Review for the reform of the Romanian......

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