Free Essay

Sen 601

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By atikmorshed
Words 2773
Pages 12
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES (SEN 601)
Final Project BY S M Atik Morshed 023281994

1

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Document Conventions ......................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Project Scope.......................................................................................................................................... 3 1.4 References .............................................................................................................................................. 3 2. Overall Description .................................................................................................................................... 4 2.1 Product Perspective ............................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Product Features..................................................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Mission, Values, and Goals……………………………………………………………………..4 2.4 System Overview…………………………………………………………………………………4

2.5 Design and Implementation Constraints…………………………………………………...5
2.6 Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………..5 3. UML Models…………………………………………………………………………………………….6 3.1 Parking Gate Interface……………………………………………………………………………...6 3.2 Manager Interface…………………………………………………………………………………..6 3.3 Parking Lot Controller Interface……………………………………………………………………6 3.4 Parking Sensor System Interface…………………………………………………………………...6 3.5 Display Interface……………………………………………………………………………………6 4 System Models…………………………………………………………………………………………...7 4.1 Scalability…………………………………………………………………………………………..7 4.2 Timing……………………………………………………………………………………………...8 5 Goals and Scenarios……………………………………………………………………………………..8 6 Requirements…………………………………………………………………………………………..10 7 SUBCOMPONENTS………………………………………………………………………………..…11 Appendix A: Analysis Models .......................................................................................................................12 Use case Diagram……………………………………………...………………………………12 Activity Diagram………………………………………………………………….…………………..13 Sequence Diagram…………………………………………………………………………………….14 State Diagram………………………………………………………………………………………….15 2

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose

The most common problem that students and faculty face on campuses today is finding a slot to park their cars. Frustrated students waste time and gas every day driving around from parking lot to parking lot, from row to row, in order to find a place to park their car. When the student finally manages to find a parking spot they often find it to be restricted or a faculty parking. Often enough the student must make the choice to either be late for class or to park in a restricted area and risk receiving a parking ticket. Though, individually these parking tickets are not a large amount, over the school year the costs of these tickets pile up to quite a substantial amount. Furthermore, parking in restricted slots such as faculty parking slots introduces the same problem for the faculty – less available slots to park means faculty also has to search around to find parking slots risking tardiness and tickets.

1.2

Document Conventions

The following are list of conventions and acronym used in this document and the project. Intended Audience and Reading Suggestions * User: User of the system such as customer, visitor. Anyone who interact with the system using the user interface layer. * Use Case: A broad level diagram of the project showing basis overview.

1.3 Scope This document is intended to provide a detailed description of the application. However, it does not give description of tools used while developing the application.

1.4

References

1. Roger S. Pressman Software Engineering, A Practitioner’s Approach, 7e 2. James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, Grady Booch, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual 3. J Magee and J Kramer, “Concurrency State Models and JAVA Programming,” John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2nd Edition, 2006 4. Bruegge, Bernd and Allen H Dutoit. Global Control Flow: Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and Java. Prentice Hall, 2010 3

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

2 Overall Descriptions

2.1

Product Perspective

The current System as developed was not the original idea for the system. The original idea of the System was limited to multi-level parking garages. The system would assist in directing the driver to an empty parking space within a parking garage.

2.2

Product Features

I propose a more complete system for a parking garage to help drivers locate empty spaces. This system will actually direct the driver to an empty parking space. The system will utilize the parking space sensors previously mentioned to determine if a space is empty or occupied. When a driver pulls into the parking garage the system will locate the closest empty parking space. This space might be the closest to the elevator, stairs, or exit. The system will direct the driver to this space by using electronic signs throughout the garage that display arrows for the driver to follow.

2.3 Mission, Values, and Goals The mission of the project is to provide current parking availability of the different parking lots around the NU campus (as an example), reduce the average time it takes drivers to reach their destination once they enter the boundary of the NU campus, collect parking information for future parking optimization, and decrease the use of gas needed to find a parking space.

2.4 System Overview The System is motivated by the need for decreasing the time it takes drivers to locate parking spaces on the NU campus. Drivers can waste a significant amount of time and gas driving around a facility locating an empty parking space. The System will utilize sensors and computer networks to provide real time parking space usage to users of the system. The system will include a main server that stores parking usage data that can be utilized by operators of the system to optimize the parking capability of the university. An overview of the system is shown in Figure 1.

4

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Figure 1: System Concept Diagram

2.5 Design and Implementation Constraints The system will make use of electronic signs to give drivers, information regarding parking availability before they enter the facility. Once inside, color coded LED displays will lead motorists to the vacant spaces. Parking spaces can be made unavailable by the building manager bypassing the sensors. This and other configuration options will be made available through a GUI interface. 2.6 Definitions 2.6.1 Parking Lot The parking lot consists of one entrance and 1 exit. There are 72 (approximate) parking spaces with 8 being handicap and 4 being reserved for staff. 2.6.2 Entrance The entrance consists of a gate, a display showing the precise number of available parking spaces, a tag reader. The tag reader is activated as soon as the car is within range.

5

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

2.6.3 Exit The exit consists of a gate and an induction loop that is behind the gate to detect when a car approaches the gate 2.7 Assumptions and Limitations Every parking space can be reached from any entrance. • • • • • Every exit can be reached from each parking space. No entrances are convertible to exits and vice versa. Building manager assigns a unique tag to each authorized car. Tag number and vehicle information is stored in a database maintained by the building manager. Emergency situations (e.g. fire) will not be considered here.

3. UML Models
The Parking Lot Occupancy Tracking system can be divided into sub-components as seen in the deployment diagram shown above. The Parking Lot Occupancy Tracking system consists of a parking gate interface, manager interface, parking lot controller system interface, parking sensor system interface, display interface and network interface.

Figure 2: Deployment Diagram 6

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

3.1 Parking Gate Interface This subsystem is triggered as soon as a commuter/car arrives near the parking gate. The scanner scans the tag. The unit controller in the interface checks the authorization of the commuter with the database of the system. If authorization confirmed the unit controller triggers the gate to open and let the commuter in the parking lot. If authorization fails, the gate is not opened. 3.2 Manager Interface Manager interface system is an indirect component to the system. The owner/manager of the system plays the role of the manager interface. The system is automated and hence the only role of the manager during the running system is to start/stop, add/delete/edit details of commuters and generates report from the system database. The manager however has the privileges of changing the system configuration and display manually entered messages on the display board during maintenance or system troubleshooting. 3.3 Parking Lot Controller Interface Parking lot controller interface consist of servers and a database that records all the events the system goes through the day. The controller receives and sends information to the unit controllers as well as displays the information on the main display board. 3.4 Parking Sensor System Interface Parking sensor system interface consist of sensors, unit controllers, unit display boards and backup battery for the system. This system is triggered when a car parks or leaves the parking lot. When a commuter parks the car in the parking lot, the sensor detects the action and sends information to the unit controller. The unit controller receives the information and triggers the unit display board to record the action and also send the information to the main controller interface to display the action on the main display board. 3.5 Display Interface Display interface displays the status of the system. It has a unit controller, which records the information and displays the message through the display board. It also consists of a backup battery for the smooth running of the system.

4 System Models

4.1 Scalability The models assume the system is fully scalable. Thus, the models represent a limited number of entryways into the facility. A limited number of parking lots and spaces are modeled. Also, a limited number of users and their preferred buildings will be represented.

7

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

4.2 Timing The models include time, but time is relative and not true time. The time it takes for the user to walk from the parking space to their destination building is reflected. Time is noted to begin when the user enters the facility perimeter and to end when they arrive at their preferred building. Time is not a factor in the sensors, main system, or communication network. Any differences in these sub-architectures are relatively small compared to human perception. However, time may be a factor in the human interface component.

Figure 3: The System Timing Analysis Model

5 Goals and Scenarios

The use case describes all that can happen in the achievement of the system objective. Use Cases drive the requirements engineering phase of development. The various Goals and Scenarios critical to the system are depicted below: Goal 1: Operators must be able to edit and send messages to Display Boards Scenario 1.1: Operator will send messages from the system to the display board. Scenario 1.2: Operator wants to compose a new message that is not available in the list. Goal 2: There must be an on/off button at the control center Scenario 2.1: Emergency shutdown required for maintenance. 8

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Scenario 2.2: Control center to be evacuated in case of fire etc. Goal 3: Operators must be able to stop displaying current message on Display Boards. Scenario 3.1: A higher priority message or warning could be waiting to be displayed. Scenario 3.2: Displayed signs would no longer be valid. Goal 4: The Display Board must be “all weather proof” Scenario 4.1: Display board will be installed in outdoors as well as indoors. Scenario 4.2: Display board will be installed in far south as well as far north Scenario 4.3: There is likelihood of snow, rain; heavy winds etc (should be sturdy enough to withstand adverse conditions) Goal 5: There must be an indicator showing the status of the active Display Board Scenario 5.1: System sends a message to the display board but the display board was disconnected. Scenario 5.2: Display board out of service for maintenance. Scenario 5.3: Network or hardware failure on remote site. Goal 6: The system must store all information about every activity performed at each workstation. Scenario 6.1: Administrator wants to check the logs for specific information. Scenario 6.2: Periodic reports to be generated to check system performance. Goal 7: The system must be secure Scenario 7.1: Unauthorized person tries to login. Scenario 7.2: Operator tries to change system settings, which he is not authorized to. Goal 8: The display board/sensor system must have backup power Scenario 8.1: Power failure occurs. Scenario 8.2: Power cable is broken due to accident. Goal 9: The sensor must be capable of detecting any vehicle Scenario 9.1: Vehicle might be small in dimensions. Scenario 9.2: Vehicle might be parked wrong. 9

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Goal 10: The system must be capable of reporting any system failure to the manager. Scenario 10.1: The system is not displaying information. Scenario 10.2: The sensor is unable to recognize vehicles parked.

6 Requirements

1. The system must contain a database. 1.1. The database should contain all the information about the commuters. 1.2 The database must allow retrieval and addition of information. 2. The system must allow only the authorized users to enter the parking lot. 2.1 The entrance gate control unit should open after the authorization of the commuter. 2.2 The entrance sensor should verify the authorization through the database. 3. The system must display parking space availability. 3.1 The system should display the number of occupied spaces. 3.2 The system should display the number of vacant spaces. 3.3 The system should display messages from the manager during special instances. 3.4 The message should take less than 10 seconds from the control center to the display boards. 3.5 The system should display message on the display board for 3 minutes unless and until stated otherwise. 4. The system must receive a confirmation message for every message sent on the display screen. 5. The system should have individual display boards for all parking spaces. 5.1 The display boards must display green light for available spaces. 5.2 The display boards must display red light for unavailable spaces. 5.3 The display boards must display blue light for handicap parking spaces. 6. The system should recognize the parked vehicle. 10

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

6.1 The system sensor must recognize the parked vehicle irrespective of its size. 6.2 The system sensor must recognize and report wrongly parked vehicle. 7. The control center shall have security. 7.1 The control center shall have role based security system. 7.2 Role in the control center shall include supervisor, maintenance and operator. 7.3 The system shall have a counter for number of attempts.

7 SUBCOMPONENTS:
• • • • • • Parking entrance Parking Space Manager Interface Display Controller Sensors

11

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Appendix A: Analysis Models
Use case diagram

Figure 4: Use case diagram of parking monitoring system. Use case Narrative Car arriving Use case name Actor Description Assumption Initiation Typical Course Of Events /Dialog Car arriving Driver This use case describes the event of the system tracking when a car arrives at the parking lot Parking lot is open The use case is initiated when the car approaches t he entrance gate Actor action System response Step 1: Car approaches gate Step 3: car drive towards first row Step 4: system check the availability for first row Step 5: if a empty space system response Step 6: car drive through the first row and park the car Alternate Post condition Step 4: if no space is available then system display to go next row Parking space status is updated from vacant to occupied 12 Step 2: system detects the car

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Activity Diagram

Figure 5: Activity Diagram of car arrive

13

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

Sequence Diagram

Figure 6: Sequence Diagram of when car approach to the parking system

14

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.

State Diagram

Figure 7: State Diagram of parking space finder system

15

Create PDF files with PDF Writer for Windows 8. This is an evaluation copy. Buy full version now.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Panier Des Sens

...PROVENCE et AGRICULTURE BIOLOGIQUE DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE – Démarche et engagements Associant nature et recherche, nous recueillons le meilleur de la Provence pour élaborer des produits aux textures douces et aux parfums raffinés. Cette fascination pour la nature nous a conduits à améliorer nos produits, nos engagements mais également nos process de production à travers une politique écologique, économique et sociale de gestion de nos ressources et de notre patrimoine. Cette politique s’appuie sur différentes actions comme par exemple : Contrôler toujours plus la provenance des ingrédients et notamment des actifs végétaux qui sont au cœur de nos formulations: Huile essentielles Extraits Eaux florales Beurre…. Travailler avec des acteurs locaux : Pour limiter au maximum les transports et donc le bilan énergétique de nos produits ainsi que les émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Développer des partenariats locaux qui participent à la préservation des paysages, du patrimoine mais également des emplois dans notre région. Assurer nous même un contrôle qualité de ces matières premières au fil des saisons et des récoltes pour garantir à nos clients l’excellence de nos produits. Augmenter le pourcentage d’ingrédients issus de l’agriculture biologique certifiés par le label indépendant et reconnus dans le domaine des cosmétiques : Ecocert Packaging et Emballage Nos choix d’emballage veillent systématiquement à la légèreté et au recyclage du produit......

Words: 406 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mha 601 Week 1

...Ama Dente MHA 601: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION Error Avoidance in Post Modern/Complex Adaptive Systems Professor: Tricia Devin December 10, 2012 Post-modernist/complex adaptive systems are modern theories of management that deal with relationships within the organization and how the organization is structured. As in all positions of leadership, managers in these organizations have to possess tools necessary to keep their part of the organization running smoothly. Many of these managers employ the postmodernist complex adaptive systems theory because it allows for less rigid boundaries during the planning and implementation process as well as constantly reminding the manager that the staff is a critical component to the organization as well. Being in a position of leadership means that it is up to that person to handle any problems that may arise during the lifetime of the organization. This paper focuses on ten possible errors that can be found in health care organizations. For each of these errors, I will discuss what makes it an error and what way the error can be avoided. The first error that will be discussed is “failing to account for employees' ability to learn safe machine operation methods by experimenting on their own with ways to speed up production and thereby reduce the effort they are required to use.” The first criterion that proves this to be an error is that the failure to account for an......

Words: 1858 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Sen Difference

...inequality. Sen is born in Bengal in 1993 and he has spend the larger part of his working life at institutions in the UK and the US. He is an economist by training, but works with a philosopher’s skepticism about what we take to be fundamental truths. He is also a Nobel prize winners and he has also chosen not to “consult” with governments on the back of his ideas. Perhaps, the most widely known of those Sen’s work on famine. He argues that famines are rarely the result of a lack of food. They are more usually the consequence of a breakdown in people’s ability to access or produce food in the way that they usually do like for example, the result of political failures, not natural ones. He was also long haunted by the memory of the great Bengal famine of 1943 and Sen’s work has at hear most concerned itself with the idea of human freedom. Sen published a book called Development As Freedom in 1999 and in this book; he argues that the expansion of freedom is central to development. Sen also would have us conceptualize on the idea of development as freedom. Of these two instances, the goal is far greater, because it requires the thinking about poverty as the unusual way. This involves acknowledging the main problem of it. The problem of development lies as much in what we classify as wealth and how we go about promoting that as it does in poverty. That development represents a wider set of freedoms that GNP can help us with is also important because of a paradox that......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hoa Sen

...Hoa sen... [RIGHT]Trích từ: www.VanMau.Com[/RIGHT]hoa sen, thứ hoa gắn liền với con người Việt Nam tượng trưng cho sự thánh thiện, thanh khiết, và hoàn toàn thoát tục, luôn cố gắng vươn lên để đến được nơi tươi sáng nhất giống như con người Việt Nam. [RIGHT]Trích từ: www.VanMau.Com[/RIGHT] [RIGHT]Trích từ: www.VanMau.Com[/RIGHT] [RIGHT]Trích từ: www.VanMau.Com[/RIGHT] Không phải ngẫu nhiên mà hoa sen được ví von như thế. Hoa sen là một lọai hoa thanh khiết và có truyền thống lâu đời nhất ở phương Đông. Đây là một lòai thực vật sống dưới nước có nguồn gốc Á Châu và chiếm giữ một vị trí cổ xưa trong tất cả nền văn hóa đặc biệt của phật giáo . Những cánh, nhụy và gương hạt đã cấu thành một bông hoa sen có nét đẹp thanh thóat và màu tươi sáng. Sen được đỡ bằng một cuống hoa dài và đưa sen mọc khỏi trên mặt nước. Lá sen rất xanh có một lớp nhung trắng phủ trên bề mặt khi ánh náng chiếu vào làm lớp nhung trắng đó óng ánh li ti mơ ảo rất đẹp. Gương hạt sen là một cảm hứng cho các nhà nghệ sĩ và những người thợ thủ công sáng tạo những tác phẩm kỳ diệu của mình. Hoa sen mọc trong bùn, sống trong bùn nhưng vượt lên khỏi nó để hướng đến mặt trời mà không hề bị bùn làm ô nhiễm, vấy bẩn. Cũng giống như một người được sinh ra trên thế giới, tồn tại giữa cuộc đời nhưng đã vượt thoát khỏi sự tham lam, sâu hận, dục vọng và không bị vấy bẩn, ô nhiễm bởi dòng đời. [RIGHT]Trích từ: www.VanMau.Com[/RIGHT] [RIGHT]Trích từ: www.VanMau.Com[/RIGHT] Ở Việt Nam, sen được xếp vào bộ tứ quý ( 4......

Words: 2845 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Justice in the View of Amartya Sen

...When we pass through these chapters we find the philosophical state of the concept ‘justice’ especially how the great economist and philosopher Amartya Sen, explains the concept of justice and its features. We can see the different aspects or viewpoints of Amartya Sen about the concept of justice and how the actions of human lead to just. In philosophical sense justice is considered as an important factor of human being. Amartya Sen looks justice as the foundation of the society. He argues that it is necessary that the role of justice in the actions of human being. Amartya Sen considered as one of the most important figures in economics and the world of philosophy. Sen promoted the doctrine that impartiality is the core of justice in the society. We will face more about the life history and major works of Amartya Sen. Here chapter one consist general concepts of justice. If we go through this chapter we will meet the features of the theories of Amartya Sen and life and Works of Amartya Sen etc. Second chapter consist Amartya Sen’s concept of Justice. And when we pass through this chapter, we will meet concepts of justice according to Amartya Sen, importance of justice, types of justice, and what is to be justice etc. And at the end of this chapter there is the comparison between ‘idea of justice’ according to Amartya Sen and ‘theory of justice’ according to John Rawls. Chapter one GENERAL CONCEPT OF JUSTICE 1.0. Introduction Justice is a......

Words: 9389 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

The Economics of Amartya Sen “Social Choice and Welfare Economics” (Npwes, 2008) and as Related to Philippine Economy: National Budget Cycle

... The Economics of Amartya Sen “Social Choice and Welfare Economics” (NPWES, 2008) And as related to Philippine Economy: National Budget Cycle In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant By: Binalingbing, Jhan Ray N. February 2014 INTRODUCTION “…a budget is a useful tool to help ensure that what limited money is available will be spent for the family’s most important needs, like food, clothing and shelter.” -Florencio Abad Secretary, Department of Budget and Management Every household knows that their budget is indispensable, important and has the capability to turn and mobilize their life around. Every day, millions of Filipinos work just for a meager share to eat, drink, and live, and tomorrow, work again to live for a day. Yet reality, tells us that many still suffer and live in difficult conditions. The National Statistics Coordination Board (NCSB) reported that in 2012, 4.2 million Filipino families experienced or lived in poverty or that is 19.2% percent. The same report also stated that a family of five needed a budget of PhP 5,513 to meet basic food needs every month and Php 7,890 to stay above the poverty threshold (basic food and non-food needs) every month. Such can be attributed to the inflation rise to 4.1 % from the year 2009-2012. What could have caused this statistic to be constant and rise up even more? Is there lack in financial stewardship and accountability on the part of Filipinos? Or......

Words: 5675 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

601 Busi Paper

...Running head: Discussion Board One Reply   Discussion Board One Reply BUSI 601 Liberty University Discussion Board Reply One I believe Jackie did an exceptional job at thoroughly describing the sustainability technique that Starbucks uses in order to guarantee the company’s continuous success. Starbucks has done well over the years in making sure that the company excels in all aspects. The company has indeed managed to personalize each coffee that is made according to the customer’s preference. This ensures that the customer is always satisfied and any concern that is stated is taken into consideration by the company’s management team. Jackie mentioned the fact that Starbucks provides free wifi to all its customers. In my opinion, the free wifi is one of the best techniques that any company could use to draw more customers in and keep their current loyal customers happy. In this day and age, technology has taken over many aspects of our daily lives. It makes it easy when a customer is able to reply to their emails and conduct other activities using the free wifi thus saving their telephone data for emergency use. Sustainability has an effect on the market value of a company; “The evolving body of research has a large proportion focused on the normative effects of sustainability, indicating how sustainability "should" affect market value” (Warren-Myers, 2012). With that said, it is crucial that Starbucks continues to implement its sustainability techniques......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Amartya K Sen

...Amartya K. Sen Amartya K. Sen was born and raised in Santiniketan, India, on November 3rd 1933. His father Ashutosh Sen was a professor of chemistry at Dhaka University and his mother Amita Sen was the daughter of Kshiti Mohan of Kshiti Mohan Sen, A scholar and close associate of Rabindranath Tagore who became the second Vice Chancellor of Visva-Bharati University. Amartya K. Sen came from a well of family in which he received some of the best educations. In high school, he began his education at St. Gregory’ School, Dhaka, in 1941. As for University, he received a B.A. in Economics with a minor in Mathematics in 1953 from Presidency College, Kolkata. He then moved to Cambridge in which he attended Trinity College and received a second B.A. in Economics in 1956 and then a Ph.D. in 1959. During the time of working on his Ph.D. there was an occasion in which he had to return to India on a two year. In India, he become a professor and taught at Jadavpur University. However, after a few years he returned to Cambridge to finish off his Ph.D. From there forward he maintain being a professor for various university such as: Jadavapur University, Kolkata, Cambridge University, University of Delhi, London School of Economics, Oxford University and Harvard University. As a professor, Amartya K. Sen raised various questions about welfare theories and how market prices can be taken as reflections of welfare indicators. He chose a path different from your typical economist. His......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Busi 601

...Walmart and Benchmarking Discussion Board 1 Liberty University As the world’s largest retailer, Walmart has set the bar in the cost leadership strategy following its motto “Every Day Low Price”. In order to be competitive, other retailers have to strive to differentiate or match their prices and they look at Walmart as a benchmark (Yanrong, 2013). Being the leader is not good enough though. Walmart must remain dissatisfied with their current results. Melanie Hicks writes, “when things go according to plan, Tennessee companies have, when they are market leaders, is out of complacency” (2010). In Organization Theory and Design, Richard Daft defines Benchmarking as, “…the process of persistently measuring products, services, and practices against tough competitors for other organizations recognize as industry leaders” (2013). Even though Walmart is, in essence, a benchmark in their respective industry, benchmarking itself against other retail giants would benefit the company especially in areas such as technology so as to continue to challenge the company to grow and outperform their competition. Mike Duke, CEO of Walmart Stores Inc, stated that, “Technology will drive all sorts of changes, especially in our industry. And our competitors will be even more nimble and innovative” (Duke, 2010). As Walmart is a Cost Leader by strategy, technology innovation is a critical success factor for the company. By using advanced technology in its operations, it would help them in......

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mice: Emerging as the Profit Segment for the Industry, by Karishma Sen

...Citation: MICE: EMERGING AS THE PROFIT SEGMENT FOR THE INDUSTRY, By Karishma Sen, T3 , May 14, 2013 INTRODUCTION Domestic and outbound travel has been the talk of not just Indian industry stalwarts but international ones as well. The mere statistics of tourism in India is enough to raise eyebrows and contribute to heated discussions that fuel a growing opinion of India’s tourism potential. The creeper that grows alongside this sector is MICE. Not only has it been contributing to a large chunk of the tourism sector, it has also grown leaps and bounds in quality, services and, most importantly, demand.. Following research questions have been addressed by this research paper: (1) What is the status of current Indian MICE industry ?? (2) Why only convention centres are enjoying to MICE business ?? (3) Significant contribution of MICE to Hotel business ?? (4) Challenges for India is becoming an exotic MICE destination in comparison with other countries. LITERATURE REVIEW According to International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA) statistics, a total of 400,000 conferences and exhibitions are held worldwide every year at the total outlay of US$280 billion, and India’s share is pegged only at US$4.8 bn. Currently, India ranks 27th in the global MICE market. According to International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA) statistics, a total of 400,000 conferences and exhibitions are held worldwide every year at the total outlay of US$280 billion, and India’s......

Words: 850 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Accounting Acct 601

...Shaletrica Griffin Acct 601 Week 4 Term Paper Below is some literature about Forensic accounting. This particular crimes goes on each and every day in an office setting. It has ruined a lot of people lives and will do so , if they continue to commit fraud when it comes to money and transaction.. Financial statement fraud is a deliberate attempt by corporations to deceive or mislead users of published financial statements, especially investors and creditors, by preparing and disseminating materially misstated financial statements’ (Rezaee, 2005:279). An extensive literature on fraud exists (e.g. Apostolou et al, 2000; Rezaee, 2005; Ozkul and Pamukcu, 2012, etc.). Jointly, the litera-ture show some consensus that fraud may involve: (1) the alteration or manipulation of material financial records, supporting documents, or business transactions; (2) intentional misstatements, omissions, or misrepresentation of events, transactions, accounts or other significant information from which financial statements are prepared; (3) deliberate misapplication and misinterpretation of accounting standards, principles, policies and methods used to measure, recognize, and report economic events and business transactions; Fraud schemes vary in scope, context and with the position of the perpetrators within the firm. Some types of fraud are specific to some industries due to industry related incentives (e.g.......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ppa 601 Foundations of Public Administration

...Affordable Care Act PPA 601 Foundations of Public Administration Timothy Smith December 20, 2015 If an individual needs emergency medical care, the first place that most would seek treatment is through the emergency room at the closest hospital. Even if that individual does not have any medical insurance, they know that they can and will receive treatment if they go to the emergency room instead of going to the doctor’s office. The reason that individuals can count on this serves is because of the many women and men in Congress that have spent many hours making public policies around health care that showcase how providers will attend to their patients. Public policy is the way that the government maintains order and also how the government addresses the needs of its supporters through actions that are outlined by its constitution. That definition seems vague because public policy is not a concrete thing but rather it is a term that is used to describe a plethora of laws, mandates, or guidelines that are founded through a political process. There are many types of public policies because policies are put in place to address the needs of individuals and those policies are divided into different categories as they relate to society. For example, health policy includes not only insurance but also includes all policies that are related to the heath of a certain group. When the AIDS epidemic came about in the early 1980’s, governments from all over the world had to......

Words: 3049 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Amartya Sen

...1971. Sen in his Idea of justice has established the importance of objective reasoning. He states that justice is not a singular term but a pluralistic notion with many Dimensions. He criticizes John Rawls Theory of justice for its inadequacy in delivering actual justice. According to him concepts and principles of justice should change as per the changing needs of the society. In Idea of justice Sen makes an attempt to use basic tenets of the Theory of the Theory of Social choice to suggest possibilities that could be adopted in identification and minimization of injustice Key words: Economic reasoning, objective reasoning, utilitarian, egalitarian, libertarian, monolithic ideal, pluralistic notion Introduction- Amartya Sen is a much admired, award winning economist, writer and philosopher. A voice of the poor, and malnourished, tirelessly engrossed in the problems of the society’s poorest people. Born in West Bengal in 1933, Amartya Sen studied at Presidency college, Calcutta and Trinity college, Cambridge. He taught economics in Delhi then at Oxford, the LSE and Harvard. In 1998 became Master of Trinity, and in 2004 returned to Harvard. His major previous books include ‘Collective Choice and Social Welfare’ (1970), ‘Poverty and Famines’ (1981), ‘Development as Freedom’ (1999),and ‘Identity and violence’ (2006). A Nobel laureate, he is also a companion of Honour and hold India’s Bharat Ratna. Sen......

Words: 1832 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Busi 601 Exam 1

...BUSI 601 Exam 1 Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwaid.com/shop/busi-601-exam-1/ • Question 1 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is a contemporary management technique used by the management accountant to identify and monitor the costs of a product throughout all steps from product design to the finished product? • Question 2 2 out of 2 points The competitive strategy of differentiation requires that a product or service must be: • Question 3 2 out of 2 points Which of the following is not a benefit of using a lean manufacturing system? • Question 4 2 out of 2 points A strategy can be best defined as: • Question 5 2 out of 2 points In SWOT analysis, strengths and weaknesses are most easily identified by looking: • Question 6 2 out of 2 points Which of the following organizations presents awards to firms that excel at execution of strategy, based on criteria such as leadership, marketing, strategic planning and process management? • Question 7 0 out of 2 points Michael Porter's five competitive forces include which one of the following: • Question 8 2 out of 2 points Using value-chain analysis, a firm can develop a competitive advantage by specifically looking for ways to: • Question 9 2 out of 2 points The differentiation strategy requires all of the following resources, except: • Question 10...

Words: 1372 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Acct-601

...1. Prepare the journal entry for USA Posh Puppies to reflect the above accounting events. 2. Prepare the adjusting journal entries necessary for December 31, 20x8. 3. Prepare the journal entries to record the payment of the invoice to Bling and Things and to record the receipt of the Divine Dogs payment. Date Description Amount Amount Dec 20x8 Purchases $ 480 Accounts payable $ 480 Purchase of 10,000 collars @ 7,500 pesos equivalent to US$ 480 @ $0.064 per peso Dec 20x8 Accounts receivables $ 1,215 Sales $ 1,215 Sale of 1,000 rhinestone-studded collars @ 1,500 Canadian dollars equivalent to US$ 1,215 @ $0.810 per Canadian dollar Dec 20x8 Merchandise inventory $ 432 Purchases $ 432 Adjustment entry to record closing stock Dec 20x8 Cost of goods sold $ 48 Purchases $ 48 Transfer of balance in Purchases account to cost of goods sold Dec 20x8 Forex loss $ 60 Accounts payable $ 45 Accounts receivable $ 15 Revaluation of accounts receivables and payables at closing rate and recording resultant forex loss Jan 20x9 Accounts payable $ 525 Forex loss $ 19 Bank $ 544 Payment of 7,500 pesos @ $0.0725 to Bling and Things and recording resultant...

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Nhạc nước khác | Adaptador Micro SD a Memory Stick PRO DUO [ MicroSD - MS PRODUO - Sony - PSP ] | premiere annee