Free Essay

Short History of Morrocco

In: Historical Events

Submitted By dlong2
Words 1918
Pages 8
A Short History and Summary of the Current Conditions in Morocco and Its Geographical Situation
Student Name
HUMN 305 Section
Professor
Date

Title: A Short History and Summary of the Current Conditions in Morocco and Its Geographical Situation
No Abstract Needed for Global Issues Research Papers
Geography and Background Our nation, the Kingdom of Morocco, is situated in a historically strategic location along the Strait of Gibraltar in North Africa, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea to the north and Algeria and Western Sahara to its south. Today’s Morocco is a Muslim nation, slightly larger than the state of California in the U.S., which boasts an estimated population of 33 million people. Although Morocco claims Arabic as it’s official language, French is primarily spoken in the business and commerce sectors (Morocco, 2007). But these are merely basic facts. To better understand our current position in the global arena, one must first examine the recent history of Morocco, both as a nation and as a people.

Following the arrival of the Arabs in the seventh century and hundreds of years of subsequent ruling dynasties, Morocco’s natural resources were fully discovered by European nations during their explorations to Africa in the 1800’s. According to Youngblood-Coleman), “the Algeciras Conference in 1906 formalized France’s ‘special position’ and entrusted policing of Morocco to France and Spain jointly. In 1912, the area was divided into French, Spanish and international zones.” (p.1) The Treaty of Fes followed in 1912, officially naming Morocco as a French protectorate (Background Notes, 2006). Despite the ebb and flow of various independence movements throughout the following decades, it wasn’t until 1953 that France took real action in quelling any potential uprisings by exiling Morocco’s sultan, Sidi Muhammad. Unfortunately, this only made the situation worse. After two years of being governed by what Moroccans deemed to be an “illegitimate” ruler, the French caved to increasing pressure and, in 1955, reinstated Muhammad as ruler (Morocco, 2009).

By 1956, Morocco won its independence from France and in 1957, Muhammad was officially named King. It is important to note that beginning in 1956 and spanning to today, Spain still retains control over a handful of Moroccan locations, but its influence simply impacts local culture more than anything else. Upon Muhammad’s death in 1961, the monarchy was passed down to his son, Hassan II, and various governmental changes occurred over the course of the next couple of decades, including the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and a bicameral parliament (Morocco, 2009). A new constitution was drafted in 1996 that provided for a House of Representatives, but, according to Country Watch (Political Conditions, 2007), “In so doing, in theory, political power was fully constitutionally instituted for the first time in Moroccan history. Real power, however, remained securely concentrated in the throne.” (p.1) Muhammad VI succeeded the throne upon his father Hassan’s death in 1999 and so began the current era of reign, notably marked by its advocacy of social and economical progress.

The Current Political Situation

The following is an examination of Morocco’s current governmental structure, a constitutional monarchy led for the past twenty years by the initially popular King Muhammad VI.

Logistically speaking, King Muhammad is the head of state that holds effective power and appoints the prime minister, a position currently held by Driss Jettou. Prime Minister Jettou oversees the government, a Parliament consisting of a 270-seat Chamber of Counselors and a 325-seat Chamber of Representatives (Morocco, 2009). Members of the Chamber of Counselors serve nine-year terms and last held elections in 2006. The Counselors, who were most recently elected in 2007, hold terms of five years each. But this is all information that reads nicely on paper. As one delves deeper into the administration, a more realistic photo emerges. The Economist (2007) is quick to point out, “Aside from heading the army and state, and being Commander of the Faithful, [the King] appoints and fires ministers, governors and judges, and issues or vetoes laws. To insult him is a crime.” (p.50) In referring to the Moroccan Constitution, Background Notes (2006) concurs, “Ultimate authority rests with the King. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the prime minister….appoints all members of the government….and may, at his discretion, terminate the tenure of any minister, dissolve the Parliament, call for new elections or rule by decree.” (p.2) When defining itself as a constitutional monarchy, it seems in Morocco that the emphasis is on “monarchy”. But what about those elected to Parliament? Despite an average of three representatives allotted to each of the country’s 95 districts, “all the kingdom’s elected institutions together represent a mere fifth of actual decision-making clout.” (Economist, 2007, p. 51) Unlike the bi-partisan congress in America, the vast number of parties represented in each of Morocco’s Chambers makes it nearly impossible for anyone to ever gain substantial footing over another, let alone garner a majority vote. There are even parties elected to represent the people that are not formally recognized. Consider the Justice and Welfare Party, whom in spite of its elected presence in Parliament, “is formally banned for its refusal to accept the king as Commander of the Faithful.” (Economist, 2007, p. 51)

Clearly there are still some governmental wrinkles in need of ironing out and instances such as a 2002 Senate commission of inquiry declaring the kingdom’s “absence of a reliable accounting system” (Youngblood-Coleman, 2007) certainly aren’t helping. Youngblood-Coleman (2007) goes on further to state, “political change in Morocco has no central, domestic driving force. The pro-democracy parties are alienated from the people, and the Islamists have no credible modernization or democratization plans. Corruption continues to be omnipotent.” Indeed, the Moroccan government has made significant progress in a relatively short amount of time, but there are still considerable improvements necessary before truly becoming legitimate in the eyes of the Western World. And maybe in the global scheme of things, that isn’t so bad. All Western governments have experienced some form of corruption in their pasts but the ability to overcome these without foreign intervention probably ultimately helped contribute to their integrity. The Economist (2007) notes, “The pace of political reform is frustratingly slow, for sure, with the palace still wielding crushing influence. But this has let the system absorb, and to a certain extent co-opt, the Islamists.” Morocco will get there; it will just take time.

The Economic Situation

As Morocco’s government has one foot in the Third World and one foot in the present, so too does its economy. Abundant in natural resources, Morocco’s top exports include phosphates, raw metals and iron ore in addition to clothing, textiles and fish. Tourism is a significant contributor to the Gross National Product as well and one that is increasing exponentially. Approximately 40% of the country’s workforces are rural farmers and roughly 19% of the population lives below the poverty level (CIA, 2007). Again, these are the facts, but not the entire story. As is typical in many Third World countries, initial efforts toward modernization have resulted in a greater divide between the upper and lower classes. The Economist (2007) confirms, “the distribution of wealth and social services is strikingly skewed. A recent acceleration of economic growth, which now tops 7%, has so far enriched few people, even as property prices, boosted by an influx as European and Gulf Arab investment, have soared further out of reach of ordinary Moroccans.” Rural farmers who sought a better life by moving to the cities now find themselves part of the urban poor. This has led to a phenomenon that Aksikas (2007) refers to as an “informal economy”, a collective group of workers who earn their living as drug smugglers, dealers in the black market, shoe-shiners, street vendors, etc. These are not documented professions per se, but the fact that they cumulatively comprise nearly 40% of the overall urban economy makes them a faction far too large to be ignored. And so Morocco’s current economy trudges along in a state of modern limbo, where the upper, industrialized class becomes increasingly wealthier as the middle and lower classes sink further into hardship. The expansion of capitalism brings with it a much-needed increase in global presence and GNP. This is both necessary and good. But as Aksikas (2007) also notes, there is a consequence. “[T]he decrease in government funding for basic social services such as education, health care, economic housing, and public services has equally contributed to the worsening of the living conditions of this class of marginal workers. At the same time, the income levels of the working and lower-middle classes – the primary consumers of this marginal sector – have also decreased.”

Analysis and Conclusions

So how can Morocco maintain internal balance and order as it moves further into the global community? To be sure, improving the economy and reducing poverty are two crucial elements. Following the 2002 elections, King Muhammad “stressed the need for social and economic reform, citing poverty alleviation, the reduction of illiteracy, educational improvements, and a decrease in the unemployment rate, as the most vital matter facing Morocco’s future.” (Country Watch: Political Conditions, 2007) This is, however, a conspicuously politically correct statement and perhaps one that was made by part of the problem itself. The Economist (2007) counters, “There are economic troubles apart from poverty, such as the persistence of monopolistic practices by royal favourites, a capricious legal system, low education standards and an entrepreneurial class that has learned to avoid risk.” But the fact remains that the King probably isn’t going away anytime soon. So as the government continues to work through its glitches, it also needs to step up the pace of growth. The 2004 free trade agreement with the United States was indeed helpful. An increased presence by companies such as Dell, Accenture, Airbus and Boeing (Morocco Rising, 2009), and increased efforts to promote tourism alone will undoubtedly allow Western influence to further spread throughout the people and their culture. “Other measuring sticks of increased democratization and liberalization will be the establishment of a real electoral process, the rule of law, and an efficacious judicial system.” (Youngblood-Coleman) Fortunately, once a country takes steps towards modernization and makes an appearance in the global arena, there’s no going back. Unfortunately, the process must occur while the rest of the industrialized world impatiently taps its foot. Stay the course, Morocco. Continue to expand and grow yourself economically, politically, and culturally and soon enough you will no longer face maladies exclusive to the Third World. Upon your arrival, there will undoubtedly still be plenty of Western adversities for you to face as well.

References
Aksikas, J. (2007, July). Prisoners of Globalization: Marginality, community and the new informal economy in Morocco. Mediterranean Politics, 12(2), 249-262. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
History. (2006, July). Background Notes on Countries of the World: Morocco, 2-3. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Morocco. (2007). CIA World Fact Book, 156. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Morocco, country, Africa. (2009, January). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th edition, 1-3.
Morocco Rising, (2009, May/June). Foreign Affairs, 88(3), 1-6. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
The king still runs the show. (2007, September). Economist, 384 (8545), 50-52. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete.
Youngblood-Coleman, Denise, editor. Country Review: Morocco. 2007. Houston, Texas: CountryWatch Publications, 2005. Country Review: Morocco. Online. Available URL: www.countrywatch.com.olinkserver.franklin.edu/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=61…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

A Short History and Summary of the Current Conditions in Chile and Its Geographical Situation

...A Short History and Summary of the Current Conditions in Chile and Its Geographical Situation Stephanie McFearin HUMN 305-Q3WW A Short History and Summary of the Current Conditions in Chile and Its Geographical Situation Geography and Background Chile is a country situated on the west coast of South America. It is also known as The Republic of Chile. The size of Chile is 289,112 square miles with a width of less than 100 miles. It is basically a little larger than Texas. Chile is divided into three main parts, mainland and two territorial islands named Isla Sala y Gomez and Easter. Chile has an interesting history and it has seen many ups and downs in its economic development (Hudson, 1994). A description of the history of the 20th century of Chile and its current economic and political situation is presented below. The history of the 20th century of Chile is mainly focused on its entrance to the parliamentary system and thus it saw the changes in its political situation. In the beginning of the 20th century, Chile was stable despite of having lesser power in the hands of presidents. During this time, congress selected the president for the country. The presidents of this century mainly includes: Germán Riesco Errazuriz, Pedro Montt, Ramón Barros Luco, and Juan Luis Sanfuentes. During the 1920’s, there was an increasing gap between the middle class and lower class of society (Bizzarro, 1987). Due to this gap, the masses were dissatisfied and they called a new......

Words: 1297 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

History - Short Assignments

...Wild West shows, saloons, and sports to name a few Growing family incomes and urban transportation Enabled people to enjoy new cultural recreation Now urban in outlook and demeanor Similarities between farms and cities are weaker Assignment 4: Development of the Spanish-American War "Remember the Maine, and to hell with Spain" In the summer of 1898, the United States fought Spain in one of the shortest and most pathetically one-sided wars in modern history. The war represented a powerful resurgence of the same doctrine of Manifest Destiny that had led the United States to expand westward by defeating Mexico in 1846-48. This impulse toward imperialism took place as major European nations were establishing colonies throughout Africa. As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States became a world power that controlled an empire stretching from the Caribbean Sea to the Far East. The Conflict In the summer of 1898, the United States fought Spain in one of the shortest and most one-sided wars in modern history. The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain that began in 1895. The extraordinary brutality of the Spanish forces on the island of Cuba was played up in American newspapers and aroused a great deal of sympathy across the United States. In addition the United States had a genuine economic interest in seeing Cuba become independent. Business investments on the island were estimated at 50 million dollars, and trade with Cuban ports......

Words: 5444 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Frenc Colonial Rule in Morrocco

...should be equivalent to those for other sectors and that domestic workers should be covered by minimum wage requirements.  The draft law does not set working hour limits for domestic workers, however, and would allow employers to pay domestic workers only 50 percent of the minimum wage for the industrial sector. Morocco voted to adopt the Domestic Workers Convention at the International Labour Conference in 2011, but has not yet ratified it. The convention was adopted with overwhelming support from governments and will enter into force in 2013. “Morocco’s draft domestic workers law includes important provisions, such as an employment contract and a weekly day of rest, but in other respects, such as working hours and minimum wage, it falls short of new international standards,” Becker said. “Amending and adopting the law will show Morocco’s commitment to this issue and improve the working conditions for Morocco’s domestic workers.” http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/15/morocco-abuse-child-domestic-workers...

Words: 1956 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Short Critical Analisys of History

...The experiences we learned of ordinary citizens and soldiers who fought for the patriot cause deepen and enrich our understanding of the American Revolution is that not only respect people from that time such as George Washington but also Indians, Black slaves , middle and even the poor class. These groups were in a term where they really did not have value in society and could believe it could change their social status. Native Indian Americans supported the American side as well as the British side. British promised them land that Americans took from them if they won the war according the readings the way we lived. Although this made the Iroquois Confederacy divide and therefore ended an era were Native Americans had the biggest alliance with groups among themselves. However, Black slaves who fought in the American Revolution fought for their own liberty and for the status of slavery be ended. According to the readings and lectures they fought for both sides. White men were not really comfortable to let them fight. They were afraid that because since they were armed there was always a chance they would up rise against them. Middle and poor class also had their own personal interest besides fighting for freedom for America but also for a better future. Army was consider to be a place where poor could rise from the bottom earn money for themselves since most of the men in the army where single but they were men that had families to support. This was an opportunity......

Words: 331 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

A Short History on Taxation in America

...million. In fact, the national debt went down, from $24 billion to $16 billion (the surplus grew at an average of $20 per second!). The annual growth rate was 5.2%, and the lowest misery index in American history was during President Coolidge's tenure (Mellon was still Treasury Secretary and remained so until 1932): 4.3% (3.3% unemploynent plus 1% inflation). As a result, America witnessed a boom in invention and technology. It was during this time that air conditioning, the radio, scotch tape, and the zipper were invented — things we cannot live without today. The number of people using vacuums increased, even. What caused the Great Depression? The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, the largest tax increase; an increase in the interest rate, taxes on foreign item, and retaliatory export tariffs. By impeding the free market, the economy took a drastic tumble. When FDR came into power, he increased the income tax for those making more than $100,000 to 79%. Because of this, tax revenue plummeted from $1002 million to $450 million. After all, how can the country get out of a depression when the rich have to spend their money on taxes instead of investing it in businesses? But FDR didn't stop there. He created excise taxes, which are taxes on commodities — the largest in history. He taxed car tires, movie tickets, telephone calls, grape concentrate, bank checks, telegrams, alcohol, and tobacco. He even implemented the first gasoline tax (1 cent per gallon). These......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Short of It

...The short of it: Investor sentiment and anomalies Robert F. Stambaugh, Jianfeng Yu c, Yu Yuan The authors consider that sentiment may partly explain the returns to equity pricing anomalies by combining two concepts. The first concept is that investor sentiment has a market wide component with the potential to affect the stock prices in the same direction at the same time. The second concept concerns about the impediments to short selling like mutual funds being prohibited by their charter or deterrence of individuals due to risks in arbitrage, limited knowledge, cost involved etc. Hence it has been rightly said that “It is not as easy to short as it is to go out and buy a stock”. They also identified 11 anomalies that are partly explained by sentiment related mispricing. Some of the anomalies are related to financial distress, net stock issues and equity issuance, asset growth, net operating assets, momentum etc. They also used the Baker and Wurgler market wide investor sentiment index to explore the sentiment effects They develop and test three hypotheses that result from combining the presence of market-wide sentiment with short sale argument. They are as follows: 1) Anomalies should be stronger following high sentiment as the most optimistic views will be very optimistic and will result in considerable overpricing as compared to low sentiment period where, the optimistic views will be by rational investors and hence less mispricing. Moreover, selling a stock......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

A Short Account of a Short Account

...A Short Account of a Short Account In A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, Bartolomé de las Casas records numerous atrocities committed by the Spanish against the natives of the New World in an attempt to persuade the king of Spain to intercede somehow, and stop the violence. In order to persuade the king, he presents crimes in two categories: Crimes against the Spanish crown, and crimes against God and The Church. Besides violating the natives’ basic humanity, las Casas maintains, the Spaniards are guilty of a host of crimes including murder, blasphemy, and theft. In our exploration of the crimes recorded by las Casas, we will begin with those crimes which he presents as mostly against the Spanish Crown. First and foremost in A Short Account, las Casas brings to the reader’s attention the murders and wholesale slaughter of entire populations. “…killing off these poor innocents to such effect that where the native population of the island was certainly over six hundred thousand…fewer than two hundred survive…” (las Casas, 26) Because the Spanish claim the land of the new world as their own territory, as Las Casas points out when he writes, “It should be recalled that the pretext upon which the Spanish invaded each of these provinces…was purely and simply that they were making good the claim of the Spanish Crown to the territories in question.” (las Casas, 52) This amounts to the mass slaughter of Spanish subjects who are supposed to be under the......

Words: 1084 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Short Summary of Google's History

...“Yes sure, I’ll Google it right now!” And pull out their smartphones and come up with an answer right away. If you asked somebody in, say, South America they would answer the exact same way. Many people believe Google became this popular by strategically placed partnerships and company acquisitions like Mozilla, MySpace, Youtube, Blogger and DoubleClick. Criticism Despite Google being the biggest search engine at the moment, it has to deal with a lot of criticism as well. Google saves everything you search and uses it for advertising purposes. A lot of users see this as a violation of privacy. As of now, there still isn’t a way to monitor what Google gets to see from you and what not. Sources: http://www.google.com/about/company/history/ http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=100660&org=NSF http://www.velvetblues.com/web-development-blog/googles-popularity-is-no-accident/ http://www.economist.com/node/9725272...

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Short-Termism

...116181927 MDC individual assignment Short-termism Introduction Short-termism or ‘myopia’ has long been a matter of great controversy. The effects led by this dysfunctional behavior are perceived negatively across all sectors of the economy. This report is going to define and analyze the problem in both theory and real world by the example of Lehman Brothers. Recommendations are also made to mitigate the issue. Overview of the issue In order to last, there is a need for firms to take appropriate actions to secure long-term sustainability. However, the short-term outcomes must not be precluded from consideration, if the firms at least want to survive. Therefore, both long-term and short-term goals need to be equally considered. The most important point is whether the firm can maintain the balance between long-term and short-term. The problem, so called ‘short-termism’ or ‘myopia’, arises when an organization acts in favor of short-term targets at the expense of the long-term (Marginson and Mcaulay, 2008). There are a number of reasons for the occurrence of short-termism. The first reason which causes the issue here is the frequency of financial reporting. More frequent financial reporting is considered as a solution for a more accountable and transparent accounting system. However, this solution leads to another problem for managerial accounting because it pressures companies’ executives to focus more on short-term results, which promotes short-termism (Gigler,......

Words: 1520 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Richard Brautigan's a Short History of California

...this moment and in this moment lays beauty. A religious experience is about what he/she felt at that given moment. It has less to do with the events that led up to that feeling. I can find religious experience anywhere. It could be at a football game, beach, playground, or bus. Anywhere. It doesn’t have to be on your knees at a church, synagogue, or mosque. I have personally felt religious experience in the most random places and times. I find bus rides to be a religious experience for me. It clears my head, puts “conflicts” into perspective, and gives me a sense of “oneness” with the world. The feeling one gets during a religious is priceless and something we live for. It is also something found by being present. Brautigan’s A Short History of Religion in California revolves around the concept of religious experience. The narrator found his “electric surge” of an experience on a hike with his daughter in front of the beauties of nature. He described how overwhelmingly excited his daughter was about everything. His daughter served as the narrator’s lens. He seemed unresponsive initially. His daughter’s spirit and reactions demanded the narrator to be present to his surroundings. She was especially in awe of the deer. Her love of the deer rubbed off on the narrator when she said, “Look the deer! The same electrical surge against me, enough perhaps to light a couple of christmas tree lights or make a fan turn for a minute or toast half-a-slice of bread (Brautigan).” His......

Words: 1282 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Short History of English Literature

...Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has also proven significant for historical study, preserving a chronology of early English history.  The lyric and epic poetry they wrote told of the hardships of survival and the importance of courage in performing heroic deeds. English Literature during the Medieval Period  Is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of this time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. Just as in modern literature, it is a complex and rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane, touching all points in-between. Works of literature are often grouped by place of origin, language, and genre.  Latin was the language of the Roman Catholic Church, which dominated Europe.  The Church was the only source of education  Latin was a common language for medieval writings. Literature during the English Renaissance or the Elizabethan Period  “Renaissance” means “Rebirth”, rebirth of interest in the Greek and Latin classics.  This age was also the flowering of poetry and the golden age of drama.  Queen Elizabeth, the most regal monarch at the age, was the key figure in influencing the life of her constituents. She was a great advocate of peace and order.  This was considered as the most splendid in the history of English literature because of the immense vitality and richness that characterized literary works.  Drama......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

History Short Essay

...The social dimension of the Lakota religion differs from the social dimension of Hinduism because historically they have been a group of nomadic people who organize their lives and ceremonies around the movement of the sun and stars. The stories were told over and over again every year so that they would not be forgotten. Lakota history was passed from generation to generation through storytelling. Elders shared tales with young ones to preserve the culture, rituals, and tradition to ensure the continuation of their people. Lakota history and religion was also written on winter counts, which was a pictorial account of the year. Lakota religion and spirituality was also an important factor that kept the people’s minds and bodies strong. Their sacred ceremonies helped keep them in balance. When they went through intense suffering, starvation, and death. They all came together and participated in the Ghost Dance movement in an effort to restore lost relatives and the traditional way of life. The vision quest is also an important religious ceremony. The vision quest was used as rite of passage for young men. Some one that undertook the vision quest would have to pray on hill for as long as four days and nights, without food or water. The individual would have to maintain a state of mental awareness while praying, and try their best not to fall asleep. It was important, because during this time they might receive a vision that would bring insight to themselves and their......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Short History of Marijuana Addiction

...History of marijuana Early Marijuana Use Marijuana has been used as an agent for achieving euphoria since ancient times; it was described in a Chinese medical reference traditionally considered to date from 2737 B.C. Its use spread from China to India and then to N Africa and reached Europe at least as early as A.D. 500. Marijuana Plants / Cannabis The first direct reference to a cannabis product as a psychoactive agent dates from 2737 BC, in the writings of the Chinese emperor Shen Nung. The focus was on its powers as a medication for rheumatism, gout, malaria, and oddly enough, absent-mindedness. Mention was made of the intoxicating properties, but the medicinal value was considered more important. In India though it was clearly used recreationally. The Muslims too used it recreationally for alcohol consumption was banned by the Koran. It was the Muslims who introduced hashish, whose popularity spread quickly throughout 12th century Persia (Iran) and North Africa. Marijuana in America In 1545 the Spanish brought marijunana to the New World. The English introduced it in Jamestown in 1611 where it became a major commercial crop alongside tobacco and was grown as a source of fiber. By 1890, hemp had been replaced by cotton as a major cash crop in southern states. Some patent medicines during this era contained marijuana, but it was a small percentage compared to the number containing opium or cocaine. It was in the 1920’s that marijuana began to catch on...

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

T.V.E.E History 222 Short Paper

...T.V.E.E History 222 Short Paper John Moss Professor Gunshore History 222 African American History Since 1877 January 21, 2012 Topic: Women in the Civil Right Movement Women played a significance role in the Civil Rights Movement Viewpoint: Women played a major role in the Civil Rights Movement Evidence: “?[Women in the Civil Rights Movement] helps break the gender line that restricted women in civil rights history to background and backstage roles, and places them in front, behind, and in the middle of the Southern movement that re-made America. . . . It is an invaluable resource which helps set history straight.” —1 Four of the six women were born in nineteenth century but five of them died in this century: Wells-Barnett in 1931; Terrell in 1954; Bethune in 1955; Roosevelt in 1962; Baker in 1986; Parks is still alive. There are also some common threads that weave their way through each of these women’s lives. They all valued education, not just formal schooling but a love of learning making them truly life long learners. Each woman kept her mind open to new possibilities and each cared deeply about people 2 In 1963, for example, Betty Friedan, founder of the National Organization for Women, published The Feminine Mystique, which exposed the strict and confining gender roles instilled in U.S. society in the 1950s and 1960s -- and, arguably, today 3 Ida Wells-Barnett was one of two black women to sign the call for the formation of the National Association......

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Tangible History: a Short Study in Mayan Languages and Writing

...Tangible History: A Short Study in Mayan Languages and Writing The distinctive characteristics that set men apart from animals have always baffled the minds of scientists and philosophers alike. Amongst these characteristics, language in and of itself remains one of the key ingredients to the puzzle. As a species, we humans have the ability to not just form distinctive sounds (like most animals can), but words—not just one set, but many; thousands of languages have existed over the centuries, each one more unique and complex than the last. The ability to communicate is as old as the human race is itself, and while we may not be able to understand every language in certainty, it does not mean we are going to stop trying. The first written languages as a whole appeared in the Mesopotamian and Egyptian areas simultaneously about 15,000 years ago. (Coe 1992: 13) Since then, thousands have sprung—seemingly out of nothing. Languages influence and loan to each other, words that have very little change (whether in pronunciation or spelling) no matter what language they are in. (Wichman and Brown 2003: 57, Coe 1992: 50) Without spoken language, a writing system is impossible—verbalized languages are one of the key ingredients to achieving a written language. (Coe 1992: 21) And it is here that we come to perhaps one of the most important ideas about ancient peoples: without a written language, it is hard to know practically anything about ancient peoples. Without......

Words: 2217 - Pages: 9

BlueLife (3) | 10 mm Reflexband, Reflektorband, Reflexborte, Reflexstreifen, 13 Farben | Marvel's The Punisher