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CompTIA A+ Certification
Exam Objectives
EXAM NUMBER: 220-901

About the Exam
Candidates are encouraged to use this document to help prepare for CompTIA A+ 220-901. In order to receive the CompTIA A+ certification, you must pass two exams: 220-901 and 220-902. CompTIA A+ 220-901 measures the necessary skills for an entry-level IT professional. Successful candidates will have the knowledge required to:
• Assemble components based on customer requirements
• Install, configure and maintain devices, PCs and software for end users
• Understand the basics of networking and security/forensics
• Properly and safely diagnose, resolve and document common hardware and software issues
• Apply troubleshooting skills
• Provide appropriate customer support
• Understand the basics of virtualization, desktop imaging and deployment
These content examples are meant to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of all the content of this examination.
CompTIA A+ is accredited by ANSI to show compliance with the ISO 17024 Standard and, as such, undergoes regular reviews and updates to the exam objectives.
CompTIA exams result from subject matter expert workshops and industry-wide survey results regarding the skills and knowledge required of an entry-level IT professional.
CompTIA Certifications, LLC is not affiliated with and does not authorize, endorse or condone utilizing any content provided by unauthorized third-party training sites (aka “brain dumps”). Individuals who utilize such materials in preparation for any CompTIA examination will have their certifications revoked and be suspended from future testing in accordance with the CompTIA Candidate Agreement. In an effort to more clearly communicate CompTIA’s exam policies on use of unauthorized study materials, CompTIA directs all certification candidates to the CompTIA Certification Exam Policies. Please review all CompTIA policies before beginning the study process for any CompTIA exam. Candidates will be required to abide by the
CompTIA Candidate Agreement. If a candidate has a question as to whether study materials are considered unauthorized (aka “brain dumps”), he/she should perform a search using CertGuard’s engine, found here.
The lists of examples provided in bulleted format are not exhaustive lists. Other examples of technologies, processes or tasks pertaining to each objective may also be included on the exam although not listed or covered in this objectives document. CompTIA is constantly reviewing the content of our exams and updating test questions to be sure our exams are current and the security of the questions is protected. When necessary, we will publish updated exams based on existing exam objectives. Please know that all related exam preparation materials will still be valid.

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

Required exam

CompTIA A+ 220-901

Number of questions

Maximum of 90

Types of questions

Multiple choice and performance-based

Length of test

90 minutes

Recommended experience Six to 12 months hands-on experience in the lab or field
Passing score

CompTIA A+ 220-901: 675 (on a scale of 900)

The table below lists the domains measured by this examination and the extent to which they are represented:



1.0 Hardware
2.0 Networking
3.0 Mobile Devices
4.0 Hardware & Network Troubleshooting


CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

1.0 Hardware

Given a scenario, configure settings and use BIOS/UEFI tools on a PC.
• Firmware upgrades/flash BIOS
• BIOS component information - RAM - Hard drive - Optical drive - CPU
• BIOS configurations - Boot sequence


• Monitoring - Temperature monitoring - Fan speeds - Intrusion detection/notification - Voltage - Clock - Bus speed

Explain the importance of motherboard components, their purpose and properties.
• Sizes - ATX - Micro-ATX - Mini-ITX - ITX
• Expansion slots - PCI - PCI-X - PCIe - miniPCI


- Enabling and disabling devices - Date/time - Clock speeds - Virtualization support - BIOS security (passwords, drive encryption: TPM, LoJack, secure boot)
• Built-in diagnostics

• RAM slots
• CPU sockets
• Chipsets - Northbridge - Southbridge
• CMOS battery
• Power connections and types
• Fan connectors

• Front/top panel connectors - USB - Audio - Power button - Power light - Drive activity lights
• Bus speeds
• Reset button

Compare and contrast various RAM types and their features.
• Types - DDR - DDR2 - DDR3 - SODIMM - DIMM - Parity vs. non-parity

- ECC vs. non-ECC - RAM configurations - Single channel vs. dual channel vs. triple channel - Single sided vs. double sided - Buffered vs. unbuffered

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

• RAM compatibility

1.0 Hardware

Install and configure PC expansion cards.
• Sound cards
• Video cards
• Network cards
• USB cards
• Firewire cards
• Thunderbolt cards


Install and configure storage devices and use appropriate media.
• Optical drives - CD-ROM/CD-RW - DVD-ROM/DVD-RW/DVD-RW DL - Blu-ray - BD-R - BD-RE
• Magnetic hard disk drives - 5400 rpm - 7200 rpm - 10,000 rpm
• Hot swappable drives
• Solid state/flash drives - Compact flash


• Storage cards
• Modem cards
• Wireless/cellular cards
• TV tuner cards
• Video capture cards
• Riser cards

- SD - MicroSD - MiniSD - xD - SSD - Hybrid - eMMC
• RAID types -0 -1 -5 - 10

• Tape drive
• Media capacity - CD - CD-RW - DVD-RW - DVD - Blu-ray - Tape - DVD DL

Install various types of CPUs and apply the appropriate cooling methods.
• Socket types - Intel: 775, 1155, 1156, 1366, 1150, 2011 - AMD: AM3, AM3+, FM1, FM2, FM2+
• Characteristics - Speeds - Cores - Cache size/type - Hyperthreading - Virtualization support

- Architecture (32-bit vs. 64-bit) - Integrated GPU - Disable execute bit
• Cooling - Heat sink - Fans - Thermal paste - Liquid-based - Fanless/passive

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

1.0 Hardware

Compare and contrast various PC connection interfaces, their characteristics and purpose.
• Physical connections - USB 1.1 vs. 2.0 vs. 3.0 - Connector types: A, B, mini, micro - Firewire 400 vs. Firewire 800 - SATA1 vs. SATA2 vs. SATA3, eSATA - Other connector types - VGA - HDMI - DVI


- IR - NFC
• Characteristics - Analog - Digital - Distance limitations - Data transfer speeds - Quality - Frequencies

Install a power supply based on given specifications.
• Connector types and their voltages - SATA - Molex - 4/8-pin 12v - PCIe 6/8-pin - 20-pin - 24-pin


- Audio - Analog - Digital (Optical connector) - RJ-45 - RJ-11 - Thunderbolt
• Wireless connections - Bluetooth - RF

• Specifications - Wattage - Dual rail - Size - Number of connectors - ATX - MicroATX - Dual voltage options

Given a scenario, select the appropriate components for a custom
PC configuration to meet customer specifications or needs.
• Graphic/CAD/CAM design workstation - Multicore processor - High-end video - Maximum RAM
• Audio/video editing workstation - Specialized audio and video card - Large fast hard drive - Dual monitors
• Virtualization workstation - Maximum RAM and CPU cores
• Gaming PC - Multicore processor

- High-end video/specialized GPU - High-definition sound card - High-end cooling
• Home theater PC - Surround sound audio - HDMI output - HTPC compact form factor - TV tuner
• Standard thick client - Desktop applications - Meets recommended requirements for selected OS

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

• Thin client - Basic applications - Meets minimum requirements for selected OS - Network connectivity
• Home server PC - Media streaming - File sharing - Print sharing - Gigabit NIC - RAID array

1.0 Hardware

Compare and contrast types of display devices and their features.
• Types - LCD - TN vs. IPS - Fluorescent vs. LED backlighting - Plasma - Projector - OLED


• Aspect ratios - 16:9 - 16:10 - 4:3

Identify common PC connector types and associated cables.
• Display connector types - DVI-D - DVI-I - DVI-A - DisplayPort - RCA - HD15 (i.e., DE15 or DB15) - BNC - miniHDMI - miniDin-6
• Display cable types - HDMI - DVI - VGA - Component - Composite - Coaxial


• Refresh/frame rates
• Resolution
• Native resolution
• Brightness/lumens
• Analog vs. digital
• Privacy/antiglare filters
• Multiple displays

• Device cables and connectors - SATA - eSATA - USB - Firewire (IEEE1394) - PS/2 - Audio
• Adapters and convertors - DVI to HDMI - USB A to USB B - USB to Ethernet - DVI to VGA - Thunderbolt to DVI - PS/2 to USB - HDMI to VGA

Install and configure common peripheral devices.
• Input devices - Mouse - Keyboard - Scanner - Barcode reader - Biometric devices - Game pads - Joysticks - Digitizer - Motion sensor

- Touch pads - Smart card readers - Digital cameras - Microphone - Webcam - Camcorder
• Output devices - Printers - Speakers - Display devices

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

• Input & output devices - Touch screen - KVM - Smart TV - Set-top Box - MIDI-enabled devices

1.0 Hardware

Install SOHO multifunction device/printers and configure appropriate settings.
• Use appropriate drivers for a given operating system - Configuration settings - Duplex - Collate - Orientation - Quality
• Device sharing - Wired


• Public/shared devices - Sharing local/networked device via operating system settings - TCP/Bonjour/AirPrint - Data privacy - User authentication on the device - Hard drive caching

Compare and contrast differences between the various print technologies and the associated imaging process.
• Laser - Imaging drum, fuser assembly, transfer belt, transfer roller, pickup rollers, separate pads, duplexing assembly - Imaging process: processing, charging, exposing, developing, transferring, fusing and cleaning
• Inkjet - Ink cartridge, print head, roller, feeder, duplexing assembly, carriage and belt - Calibration


- USB - Serial - Ethernet - Wireless - Bluetooth - 802.11 (a/b/g/n/ac) - Infrastructure vs. ad hoc - Integrated print server (hardware) - Cloud printing/remote printing

• Thermal - Feed assembly, heating element - Special thermal paper
• Impact - Print head, ribbon, tractor feed - Impact paper
• Virtual - Print to file - Print to PDF - Print to XPS - Print to image

Given a scenario, perform appropriate printer maintenance.
• Laser - Replacing toner, applying maintenance kit, calibration, cleaning
• Thermal - Replace paper, clean heating element, remove debris

• Impact - Replace ribbon, replace print head, replace paper
• Inkjet - Clean heads, replace cartridges, calibration, clear jams

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

2.0 Networking

Identify the various types of network cables and connectors.
• Fiber - Connectors: SC, ST and LC
• Twisted Pair - Connectors: RJ-11, RJ-45 - Wiring standards: T568A, T568B


Compare and contrast the characteristics of connectors and cabling.
• Fiber - Types (single-mode vs. multi-mode) - Speed and transmission limitations


• Twisted pair - Types: STP, UTP, CAT3, CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6, CAT6e, CAT7, plenum, PVC - Speed and transmission limitations - Splitters and effects on signal quality

• Coaxial - Types: RG-6, RG-59 - Speed and transmission limitations - Splitters and effects on signal quality

Explain the properties and characteristics of TCP/IP.
• IPv4 vs. IPv6
• Public vs. private vs. APIPA/link local
• Static vs. dynamic
• Client-side DNS settings


• Coaxial - Connectors: BNC, F-connector

• Client-side DHCP
• Subnet mask vs. CIDR
• Gateway

Explain common TCP and UDP ports, protocols and their purpose.
• Ports - 21 – FTP - 22 – SSH - 23 – TELNET - 25 – SMTP - 53 – DNS - 80 – HTTP - 110 – POP3 - 143 – IMAP

- 443 – HTTPS - 3389 – RDP - 137-139 – NetBIOS/NetBT - 445 – SMB/CIFS - 427 – SLP - 548 – AFP
• Protocols - DHCP - DNS

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

• TCP vs. UDP

2.0 Networking

Compare and contrast various WiFi networking standards and encryption types.
• Standards - 802.11 (a/b/g/n/ac) - Speeds, distances and frequencies


Given a scenario, install and configure SOHO wireless/ wired router and apply appropriate settings.
• Channels
• Port forwarding, port triggering
• DHCP (on/off)


- ISDN - Cellular - Tethering - Mobile hotspot - Line-of-sight wireless Internet service

• Network Types - LAN - WAN - PAN - MAN

Compare and contrast network architecture devices, their functions and features.
• Hub
• Switch
• Router
• Access point


• Basic QoS
• Firmware
• UPnP

Compare and contrast Internet connection types, network types and their features.
• Internet connection types - Cable - DSL - Dial-up - Fiber - Satellite


• Encryption types - WEP, WPA, WPA2, TKIP, AES

• Bridge
• Modem
• Firewall
• Patch panel

Given a scenario, use appropriate networking tools.
• Crimper
• Cable stripper
• Multimeter
• Tone generator and probe

• Cable tester
• Loopback plug
• Punchdown tool
• WiFi analyzer

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

• Repeaters/extenders
• Ethernet over Power
• Power over Ethernet injector

3.0 Mobile Devices

Install and configure laptop hardware and components.
• Expansion options - Expresscard /34 - Expresscard /54 - SODIMM - Flash - Ports/Adapters - Thunderbolt - DisplayPort - USB to RJ-45 dongle - USB to WiFi dongle


- Wireless card
- Mini-PCIe
- Screen
- DC jack
- Battery
- Touchpad
- Plastics/frames
- Speaker
- System board

Explain the function of components within the display of a laptop.
• Types - LCD - TN vs. IPS - Fluorescent vs. LED backlighting - OLED


- USB to Bluetooth - USB Optical Drive
• Hardware/device replacement - Keyboard - Hard drive - SSD vs. hybrid vs. magnetic disk - 1.8in vs. 2.5in - Memory - Smart card reader - Optical drive

• WiFi antenna connector/placement
• Webcam
• Microphone
• Inverter
• Digitizer

Given a scenario, use appropriate laptop features.
• Special function keys - Dual displays - Wireless (on/off) - Cellular (on/off) - Volume settings - Screen brightness - Bluetooth (on/off)

- Keyboard backlight
- Touch pad (on/off)
- Screen orientation
- Media options (fast forward/rewind)
- GPS (on/off)
- Airplane mode

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

• Docking station
• Physical laptop lock and cable lock
• Rotating/removable screens

2.0 Mobile Devices

Explain the characteristics of various types of other mobile devices.
• Tablets
• Smartphones
• Wearable technology devices - Smart watches


- Fitness monitors - Glasses and headsets
• Phablets
• e-Readers

• Smart camera

Compare and contrast accessories and ports of other mobile devices.
• Connection types - NFC - Proprietary vendor-specific ports (communication/power) - MicroUSB/miniUSB - Lightning - Bluetooth

- IR - Hotspot/tethering
• Accessories - Headsets - Speakers - Game pads - Docking stations

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

- Extra battery packs/battery chargers
- Protective covers/water proofing
- Credit card readers
- Memory/MicroSD

4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

Given a scenario, troubleshoot common problems related to motherboards, RAM, CPU and power with appropriate tools.
• Common symptoms - Unexpected shutdowns - System lockups - POST code beeps - Blank screen on bootup - BIOS time and settings resets - Attempts to boot to incorrect device - Continuous reboots


- No power
- Overheating
- Loud noise
- Intermittent device failure
- Fans spin – no power to other devices
- Indicator lights
- Smoke
- Burning smell

- Proprietary crash screens (BSOD/pin wheel) - Distended capacitors
• Tools - Multimeter - Power supply tester - Loopback plugs - POST card/USB

Given a scenario, troubleshoot hard drives and
RAID arrays with appropriate tools.
• Common symptoms - Read/write failure - Slow performance - Loud clicking noise - Failure to boot - Drive not recognized - OS not found - RAID not found


- RAID stops working
- Proprietary crash screens
(BSOD/pin wheel) - S.M.A.R.T. errors
• Tools - Screwdriver - External enclosures - CHKDSK

- File recovery software
- Bootrec
- Diskpart
- Defragmentation tool

- Distorted geometry
- Burn-in
- Oversized images and icons

Given a scenario, troubleshoot common video, projector and display issues.
• Common symptoms - VGA mode - No image on screen - Overheat shutdown - Dead pixels

- Artifacts
- Color patterns incorrect
- Dim image
- Flickering image
- Distorted image

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

Given a scenario, troubleshoot wired and wireless networks with appropriate tools.
• Common symptoms - No connectivity - APIPA/link local address - Limited connectivity - Local connectivity - Intermittent connectivity - IP conflict - Slow transfer speeds - Low RF signal - SSID not found



Given a scenario, troubleshoot and repair common mobile device issues while adhering to the appropriate procedures.
• Common symptoms - No display - Dim display - Flickering display - Sticking keys - Intermittent wireless - Battery not charging - Ghost cursor/pointer drift - No power - Num lock indicator lights


• Hardware tools - Cable tester - Loopback plug - Punchdown tools - Tone generator and probe - Wire strippers - Crimper - Wireless locator

- No wireless connectivity
- No Bluetooth connectivity
- Cannot display to external monitor
- Touchscreen non-responsive
- Apps not loading
- Slow performance
- Unable to decrypt email
- Extremely short battery life
- Overheating
- Frozen system

- No sound from speakers - GPS not functioning - Swollen battery
• Disassembling processes for proper re-assembly - Document and label cable and screw locations - Organize parts - Refer to manufacturer resources - Use appropriate hand tools

Given a scenario, troubleshoot printers with appropriate tools.
• Common symptoms - Streaks - Faded prints - Ghost images - Toner not fused to the paper - Creased paper - Paper not feeding - Paper jam - No connectivity

- Garbled characters on paper
- Vertical lines on page
- Backed up print queue
- Low memory errors
- Access denied
- Printer will not print
- Color prints in wrong print color
- Unable to install printer
- Error codes

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

- Printing blank pages - No image on printer display
• Tools - Maintenance kit - Toner vacuum - Compressed air - Printer spooler

CompTIA A+ Acronyms
The following is a list of acronyms that appear on the CompTIA A+ exams. Candidates are encouraged to review the complete list and attain a working knowledge of all listed acronyms as a part of a comprehensive exam preparation program.


Alternating Current
Access Control List
Advanced Configuration Power Interface
ACT Activity
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Accelerated Graphics Port
Advanced Host Controller Interface
Access Point
Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing
Advanced Power Management
Address Resolution Protocol
Automated System Recovery
Advanced Technology Attachment
Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Advanced Technology Extended
Acceptable Use Policy
Audio Video
Basic Input/Output System
Bayonet-Neill-Concelman or British Naval Connector
Balanced Technology Extended
Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart
Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp
Compact Disc
Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory
Compact Disc-Rewritable
Compact Disc File System
Central File System or Common File System or Command File System
Common Internet File System
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
Communications and Networking Riser
Communication Port (x=Port Number)

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)





Central Processing Unit
Cathode Ray Tube
Discretionary Access Control
Serial Communications D-Shell Connector, 25 Pins
9 Pin D Shell Connector
Direct Current
Distributed Denial of Service
Double Data Rate
Double Data Rate Random-Access Memory
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic
Random-Access Memory
Distributed File System
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dual Inline Memory Module
Deutsche Industrie Norm
Digital Linear Tape
Digital Light Processing
Direct Memory Access
Demilitarized Zone
Domain Name Service or Domain Name Server
Denial of Service
Dynamic Random Access Memory
Digital Rights Management
Digital Subscriber Line
Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc
Digital Video Disc-Random-Access Memory
Digital Video Disc-Read-Only Memory
Digital Video Disc-Recordable
Digital Video Disc-Rewritable
Digital Visual Interface
Error Correcting Code or
Error Checking and Correction
Extended Capabilities Port
Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read-Only Memory



Encrypting File System
Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
Electromagnetic Interference
Electromagnetic Pulse
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
Enhanced Parallel Port
Emergency Repair Disk
Electrostatic Discharge
End-User License Agreement
Extended Video Graphics Adapter/Array
Evolution Data Optimized or Evolution Data Only
File Allocation Table
12-Bit File Allocation Table
16-Bit File Allocation Table
32-Bit File Allocation Table
Floppy Disk Drive
Function (referring to the function key on a laptop)
Fast Page Mode
Field Replaceable Unit
Front Side Bus
File Transfer Protocol
Fully Qualified Domain Name
Gb Gigabit
GB Gigabyte
Graphics Device Interface
GHz Gigahertz
Graphical User Interface
Global Positioning System
Global System for Mobile Communications
Hardware Abstraction Layer
Hardware-Assisted Virtualization
Hardware Compatibility List
Hard Disk Drive
High-Definition Media Interface
High-Performance File System
Hypertext Markup Language
Home Theater PC
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Over Secure Sockets Layer
I/O Input/Output
Internet Control Message Protocol
Intelligent Character Recognition
Integrated Drive Electronics
Intrusion Detection System
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Internet Information Services
Internet Mail Access Protocol

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)



International Mobile Equipment Identity
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol Configuration
Internet Printing Protocol
In-Plane Switching
Internet Protocol Security
IR Infrared
Infrared Data Association
Incident Response Plan
Interrupt Request
Integrated Services Digital Network
International Organization for Standardization/ Industry Standards Organization
Internet Service Provider
Just a Bunch Of Disks
Kb Kilobit
Kilobyte or Knowledge Base
Local Area Network
Logical Block Addressing
Lucent Connector
Liquid Crystal Display
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Light Emitting Diode
LI-ON Lithium-Ion
Line Printer Daemon/Line Printer Remote
Line Printer Terminal
Low Voltage Differential
Media Access Control or Mandatory Access Control
Messaging Application Programming Interface
Media Access Unit or Media Attachment Unit
Mb Megabit
MB Megabyte
Master Boot Record
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
Multi-Function Device
Multi-Function Product
MHz Megahertz
MicroDIMM Micro Dual Inline Memory Module
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
Multiple Input Multiple Output
Microsoft Management Console
Moving Picture Experts Group Layer 3 Audio
Moving Picture Experts Group Layer 4
Moving Picture Experts Group
MSCONFIG Microsoft Configuration
Material Safety Data Sheet
Multilingual User Interface
Network Access Control
Network Attached Storage
Network Address Translation
Networked Basic Input/Output System



input/output system
Networked Basic


Extended User Interface
Network File System
Network Interface Card
Nickel Cadmium
Nickel Metal Hydride
New Low profile Extended
Network News Transfer Protocol
New Technology File System
New Technology Loader
Network Time Protocol
Optical Character Recognition
Original Equipment Manufacturer
Organic Light Emitting Diode
Operating System
Personal Area Network
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment
Personal Computer
Peripheral Component Interconnect
Peripheral Component Interconnect express
Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended
Printer Control Language
Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association
Preinstallation Environment
Pin Grid Array
Pin Grid Array 2
Personally Identifiable Information
Personal Identification Number
Public Key Infrastructure
Plug and Play
Post Office Protocol 3
Point of Sale
Power On Self Test
Plain Old Telephone Service
Point-to-Point Protocol
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
Primary Rate Interface
Preferred Roaming List
Programmable Read-Only Memory
Personal System/2 Connector
Public Switched Telephone Network
Power Supply Unit
Permanent Virtual Circuit
Preboot Execution Environment
Quality of Service
Redundant Array of Independent
(or Inexpensive) Discs
Random Access Memory
Remote Access Service
Remote Desktop Protocol
Radio Frequency
Radio Frequency Interference

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)



Red Green Blue
Routing Information Protocol
Remote Installation Service
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
Registered Jack Function 11
Registered Jack Function 45
Returned Materials Authorization
Read-Only Memory
Real-Time Clock
Storage Area Network
Serial Attached SCSI
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
Subscription Channel
Secure Copy Protection
Small Computer System Interface
Small Computer System Interface Identifier
SD Card
Secure Digital Card
Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory
Single Edge Connector
System File Checker
Small Form Factor
Scalable Link Interface or System Level Integration or Scanline Interleave Mode
Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology
Server Message Block or Small To Midsize Business
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
Small outline Dual Inline Memory Module
Small Office, Home Office
Service Pack
Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format
Staggered Pin Grid Array
Static Random-Access Memory
Secure Shell
Service Set Identifier
Secure Sockets Layer
Straight Tip
Shielded Twisted Pair
Super Extended Graphics Array
TB Terabyte
Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Time Domain Reflectometer
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
Trusted Platform Module
User Account Control
User Defined Functions or Universal Disk Format or Universal Data Format
User Datagram Protocol
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface
Universal Naming Convention
Uninterruptible Power Supply




Uniform Resource Locator
Universal Serial Bus
User State Migration Tool
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Ultra Extended Graphics Array
Video Electronics Standards Association
Virtual File Allocation Table
Video Graphics Array
Virtual Machine
Voice over Internet Protocol
Virtual Private Network
Video Random-Access Memory
Wide Area Network
Wireless Access Protocol or Wireless Access Point
Wired Equivalent Privacy
Wireless Fidelity
Windows Internet Name Service
Wireless Local Area Network
Wireless Protected Access
WiFi Protected Setup
Wide Ultra Extended Graphics Array
Extended Graphics Array
Zero Insertion Force
Zig-zag Inline Package

CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives Version 1.0 (Exam Number: 220-901)

A+ Proposed Hardware and Software List
CompTIA has included this sample list of hardware and software to assist candidates as they prepare for the A+ exam. This list may also be helpful for training companies who wish to create a lab component to their training offering.
The bulleted lists below each topic are a sample list and not exhaustive.

• Apple tablet/smartphone
• Android tablet/smartphone
• Windows tablet/smartphone
• Windows laptop/Mac laptop/Linux laptop
• Windows desktop/Mac desktop/
Linux desktop
• Monitors
• Projectors
• SOHO router/switch
• Access point
• VoIP phone
• Printer - Laser/inkjet - Wireless
• Surge suppressor

• Motherboards
• Hard drives
• Power supplies 
• Video cards
• Sounds cards
• Network cards
• Wireless NICs
• Fans/cooling devices/heat sink
• CPUs
• Assorted connectors/cables - USB - HDMI - etc

• Adapters
• Network cables
• Unterminated network cable/connectors
• AC adapters
• Optical drives
• Screws/stand-offs
• Cases
• Maintenance kit
• Mice/keyboards

• Screw drivers
• Multimeter
• Wire cutters
• Punchdown tool
• Crimper
• Power supply tester
• Cable stripper
• POST cards
• Standard technician toolkit
• ESD strap
• Thermal paste
• Cable tester
• WiFi analyzer
• SATA to USB connectors

• Operating system disks
• Antivirus software
• Virtualization software
• Anti-malware
• Driver software

© 2015 CompTIA Properties, LLC, used under license by CompTIA Certifications, LLC. All rights reserved. All certification programs and education related to such programs are operated exclusively by CompTIA Certifications, LLC. CompTIA is a registered trademark of CompTIA Properties, LLC in the U.S. and internationally.
Other brands and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks or service marks of CompTIA Properties, LLC or of their respective owners. Reproduction or dissemination prohibited without written consent of CompTIA Properties, LLC. Printed in the U.S. 02082-Dec2015…...

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...In the history of western society, women constantly struggled to be free from the degradation and forced submission which is accurately portrayed by the performance of (Re)Singing from the Underspace from the play Fall for Dance. Fall for Dance is a collection of works choreographed by David Parsons, Robert Battle, Andy Noble, and Charles O. Anderson. The first of the collection, (Re)Singing from the Underspace, is motivated by feminist critiques of womanhood in the western society and contradicts the western society by demonstrating non-western imagery. The performers were dressed in blue, white, and black dresses as they danced contemporary or lyrical style to modern music. Although all of the dresses were the same general style, they each had a unique difference to emphasize individualism within women. The play used front lighting to illuminate every woman, implying that society shouldn't leave anybody out. A fourth wall existed between the cast and the audience. The cast seemed to dance without caring about the audience's existence. Throughout this first performance, there was one main performer. Sometimes she would express her own movements, while other times, she would join the other performers. The music had lyrics stating the conditions of the women. At one point, the music seemed dark and listed words such as, "Servant, bitch, Jezebel, whore..." When the music arrived at this part, the movements of the performers would be sharp, rather than fluent. The girls......

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The Fall of Enron

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Falls in Construction

...Falls in Construction Every foreman or construction site manager recognizes the importance of providing workers with fall protection equipment and educating them about dangerous situations in their industry, particularly when heights are involved. Yet, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, of the most common fatal injuries on already-hazardous construction sites, falls claim the most lives each year. While the number of fatal falls have declined since the 2007 high of 847, (Gary,2012) the number is still higher than in the first year the agency collected data, making the need for safe practices even more pressing. Falls were the second-most common type of fatality experienced on the job, after traffic accidents. In 2010, the most recent year for which statistics are available, 55 percent of fatal falls on construction sites were cause by just four scenarios: from a ladder (20 percent), from a roof, (18 percent), on the same floor (15 percent) and from a parked vehicle (12 percent). (Gary, 2012) The construction industry recorded the highest number of fatalities in that year, with 774. The next highest recorded was in the transportation sector, at 664, followed by agriculture and hunting, which listed 621 incidents. (Crane 2012) The long and short of it is that falls are the most common cause of death in, by number of fatal injuries, the most dangerous field of work. While the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)......

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Fall of the Wall

...Fall of the Wall Fall of the Wall The Berlin Wall was a physical division between West Berlin and East Germany from 1961 to 1989 and the symbolic boundary between democracy and Communism during the Cold War. After World War II, the Allied powers divided Germany into four zones, each occupied by the United States, Great Britain, France, or the Soviet Union. Berlin, Germany’s capital, was also divided. As the liaison between the Soviet Union and the other three Allied powers abruptly broke up, the new relationship turned Germany into West versus East, in other words, democracy versus Communism (Rosenberg, n.d.). The demolition of the Berlin Wall and the global market revolution that followed liberated millions of people, and two decades later the world has gained significantly from the democratic and economic incorporation. The destruction of the Berlin Wall is one of the most extraordinary political events of history. It set millions of people free and brought to an end a global conflict that threatened nuclear obliteration. For business, far reaching changes in the global economic atmosphere started at that time: The changeover to the market based economies in most Central and Eastern European countries created considerable opportunities for the markets, resources, supplies, and manufacturing. There was a large increase in cross-border trade and foreign direct investments. Almost simultaneously, the materialization of the digital revolution brought a reduction in...

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The Fall of Iraq he has it all together and dismiss him without a second thought. They see a thin wiry guy who works in the cubicle next door and keeps to himself and think he’s socially awkward. They see… absolutely nothing. They don’t see you. The real you. The man you are. The one you became in those streets and houses and rooftops, the orchards and roads. The man you still are. The man you will always be. They don’t see what courage means, or honor, or love that is stronger than death. So, why does Iraq’s fall bother me? Because I see a generation of men who will have Iraq woven into their souls for the rest of their lives.
I see the pain, the struggle, the cost to hearts and how it plays out in daily lives.
I know what it has cost and what it still does.
I cry with these guys, I carry their secrets, I know the stories so painful and horrific they can hardly find words to whisper it. But they do. Because they are men. Brave.
And unafraid to be afraid. But the fall of Iraq? The fall of Iraq rips open tender wounds, starts the bleeding again, tugs at the part of these men that longs to be powerful and fierce and vicious, that part of them that knows expertly how to take those motherfucking extremists out — that part of them that can kill evil and has. These men know power. They know it unlike anyone else. And that desire… that desire forces them to come face to face with the reality that now… now they are that guy at the Walmart checkout, the overweight one who’s invisible at the......

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...Falls have been defined as unintentional descents to the floor, which can be due to a variety of factors such as clinical and environmental factors. Fall rates are calculated as the number of patient falls divided by the number of patient bed days multiplied by 1000. Similaril, injury rates are calculated as the number of injuries due to falls divided by the number of patient bed days multiplied by 1000. Up to 12% of hospitalized patients fall at least once during their hospital stay; falls can lengthen hospital stays and result in poor quality of life, increased costs, admission to a long-term care facility, serious physical injuries, and death. Falls in hospital settings have multiple causes. Ressarch shows that patients who exhibit more of these risk factors are at greater risk of falling than those exhibiting fewer. Risk factors for falling can be classified as intrinsic (e.g., older age, balance disorders, history of falls, decreased vision, altered cognitive status, or history of arthritis, heart attack, stroke, postural blood pressure changes, syncope, dizziness, or chronic lung disease), extrinsic (e.g., polypharmacy and use of certain medications known to increase fall risk [e.g., benzodiazepines, sedatives, neuroleptics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, class I antiarrhythmics, and diuretics]), and environmental (e.g., inadequate lighting, slippery floors, lack of handrails, and inadequate nurse/patient staffing ratio. Research studies show that fall rates vary...

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Creon's Fall

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Fall Prevention

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Free Fall

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Fall in Geriatrics

...Falls are very common in the geriatric population. They are the leading cause of injury and death by injury in adults over the age of 65 years (Lee, 2013, p.37). Falls can have devastating results in the geriatric population. Fear of falling is a defined geriatric syndrome that may contribute to further functional decline in an already frail patient. When people experience something unpleasant, their natural response is an aversion to that experience. People may begin to limit their activities after a fall or as they become weaker and less agile with increasing age. This leads to a more sedentary lifestyle and physical atrophy, which further predisposes them to falls (Lee, 2013, p.37). According to Al-Aama (2011): A fall is a complex multifactorial phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanism of falls, it is essential to understand the prerequisites of normal gait. Essential substrates for a normal gait include fine neural networks such as the cortical–basal ganglia loop and the basal ganglia–brainstem system, exquisite musculoskeletal structures with appropriately regulated muscle tone, and proper processing of sensory information (p. 772). A fall in the geriatric population could be the result of various long-term or short-term factors. A short-term factor could include an acute illness or an adverse drug reaction. Normal gait and balance requires freely moving joints; muscles contracting at the right time with the appropriate strength; and accurate visual,......

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...Falls A medical surgical unit where falls began to jump, and we don’t know why. Was it that we weren’t assessing correctly, were we not putting the right interventions in place, or was it that our patient population changed—or a combination? That’s the question that started us down this road. A record called a hybrid version of several other falls risk assessments. During the next several months, the committee has the following four goals: • Decrease falls at North Adams by 10% 12 months after plan implementation • Review and revise falls policy and procedures based on evidence-based data • Recommend necessary education for staff members • Develop ongoing performance improvement monitoring Once the falls problem was identified and brought to the attention of the hospital’s patient safety committee, a falls subcommittee was formed and staff nurses recruited. The committee has representation from inpatient and outpatient areas of the hospital and meets weekly to discuss current practice and published research on the subject. The committee discussed various journal articles and literature found online and evaluated models used by other healthcare organizations. The committee examined the assessment, Morse and Hendrick models, used by a handful of neighboring organizations. The committee started by analyzing its current falls assessment process, including interventions. A revised model for assessing a patient’s risk and preventing falls based on the research and......

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Wolsey's Fall

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The Fall

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