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In: Business and Management

Submitted By carmella
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Vibal, Maria Carmella N.
BSA 2-1

COMPARISON BETWEEN MAIN TYPES OF COMPUTER

| Mainframe Computer | Network Computer | Personal Computer | Laptop | PDA | Capacity | Very powerful computers often connected to many individual PCs over a network. | Large hard disks combined with a work working memory (RAM) | Large hard disks combined with a work working memory (RAM) | Large hard disks combined with a work working memory (RAM) – Often less powerful than for aPC of equivalent price. | Much smaller storage capacity compared to a PC. | Speed | Much faster than PCs used for processing large amounts of data such as mail-shots, salaries, taxetc. | Fast. Normally measured in GHz. | Fast. Normally measured in GHz. | Fast. Normally measured in GHz. Often speed specifications are less than for a PC of equivalentprice. | Much less than a PC unless you pay a lot extra. | Cost | Very, very expensive, only affordable by large companies. | Getting cheaper by the day. | A PC only requires an inexpensive card to be added to it to connect it to a network. | Components need to be much more compact, so there is a price overhead when compared to a PCof equivalent power. | In relative terms expensive when compares to a PC. | Typical Users | Only used by large companies including banks, building societies etc. | Home users, large and small offer users. | Due to ease of networking a PC these days just about anyone can network PCs together. | Business users, people on the move, educational users. | Mostly business users. |

TWELVE CPU SPECIFICATIONS

1. Brand
You have two choice here: Intel or AMD. Both companies offer great products that will satisfy your needs. Simply make sure to research the pros and cons of each company’s products before stopping your choice on one. Note that this choice will affect which motherboards are compatible with your cpu.

2. Processor type: Mobile, Desktop or Server
I cover mainly desktop type of cpus, as they are the ones that you use to build a custom desktop computers, such as the custom Gaming PCs designs that I offer on Hardware Revolution. Mobile cpus are used for notebooks and other mobile computers. As for Server processors, the name says it all, they are used in servers. Each type have different performance, power consumption and price. If you’re building your own computer, you’ll must likely need a desktop chip, unless you’re building a server, with the appropriate motherboard, in which case you’ll go for a server type. As for mobile chips, you could use one to upgrade your laptop processor to a more powerful one, or one that consumes less power to extend your battery life.

3. Series:
A few examples of series include but are not limited to Core 2 Duo, Core i7, Athlon 64 x2, Phenom II x4, etc.
The series help you quickly identify if the processor is a low-end, mainstream or high-end one. That in return will give you an idea of the price range and performance to expect.
For example, the Athlon II X4 series from AMD is a budget series with no L3 cache at all, which reduce performance a bit, but the CPUs in this series come at a lower price than the more powerful Phenom II CPUs.
To choose the right series, you need to figure out how much performance you want (think of the programs that you want to use on a regular basis) and your budget.

4. CPU Socket Type:
The cpu socket is where you will be installing your cpu. You simply need to make sure to match your motherboard socket type with your cpu socket type to ensure that they are compatible. A notable exception to this rule are AMD’s AM3 cpus, which will fit and function in some AM2, most AM2+ motherboards and of course, in AM3 motherboards.
You will notice that recent AMD processors and motherboards use the AM2, AM2+ and AM3 socket, while recent Intel ones use pin-count based sockets, such as the LGA 775, LGA 1156 and LGA 1366, which feature 775, 1156 and 1366 pins respectively.
Note that matching socket type does not necessarily assure compatibility. An example of this would be an older Intel socket 775 motherboard which do not support the quad-core processors based on the Yorkfield core such as the Intel Core 2 Quad Q9200.
There are other requirements to ensure compatibility between a cpu and a motherboard, such as FSB speed and chipset, which I will tackle soon in a motherboard article.

5. Core:
This indicates the core that the cpu is based on. More recent cores will usually bring increased performance, reduced power consumption for the same performance compared to an older core, along with new features.
You’ll usually notice that a core is associated with a particular series. The core is a good indicator of performance, before considering other important factors such as frequency (speed in GHz) and cache (Very fast onboard cpu memory) that is.

6. Multi-core: Dual, Triple or Quad Core
Back a few years ago, Intel and AMD would raise the performance of their cpus by raising the frequency and would put most of their marketing emphasis on that frequency. Eventually, they both hit a speed wall, making it very difficult to go beyond a certain speed.
So what did they do? Intel decided to take two of their cpu cores and to put it on a single chip. They had created the dual-core processor. AMD did the same not too long afterward. With advancement in manufacturing technologies, Intel and AMD now produce processor with up to four cores in the same processor, effectively making it a quad-core processor.

7. Frequency:
Still the most important factor in performance for today’s cpus, the frequency represents the speed at which the processor runs, in GHz (1GHz = 1000MHz). Video games performance is very dependent on frequency, to the point where a fast dual-core processor will outperform a slower quad-core processor in most video games. 8. FSB, Hyper-Transport or QPI:
This is the speed at which your processor communicates with other components in your system, such as the memory for example. A higher speed means higher bandwidth, or in plain English, your system will be able to move more data in a given time, increasing performance in specific cases.
You must make sure that it meets or is lower than your motherboard supported speed in order for your processor to function with the motherboard.

9. L2/L3 cache:
Cache is really quick on-board cpu memory, much faster than RAM, that your processor use to store data that is about to be processed and/or is used often. The more cache you have, the more data your processor can store for ultra-quick access and the more performance you’ll get out of your processor.
Video games performance greatly benefit from more L2 and L3 cache.

10. 64-bit support:
Whether your processor supports 64-bit software or not. Just like everyone switched from 16-bit to 32-bit many years ago, in order to be able to use more memory in our computers, we are now switching to 64-bit, in order to lift the 4GB memory limit of 32-bit.

11. Manufacturing Tech:
In nm, the manufacturing size at which the processor transistors are produced. A smaller number is better, as this allows for more transistors on the same surface and reduced power consumption compared to an higher number.

12. Thermal Power Design (TPD):
This is a general measurement that indicates how much power, in Watts, that your processor will consume in the worst case scenario. This is also used to have an idea of how much heat your processor will produce.
Same here, a lower number is desirable, to lower your electricity bill. A processor which consumes more power and emit more heat will also need a better heatsink, or a faster fan, which usually results in a more noisy computer.

INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES

A. Output Devices

1. The Keyboard
The keyboard is still the commonest way of entering information into a computer. There are a number of different types, including those specially designed for use with Microsoft Windows. The quality of the keyboard is often overlooked when buying a PC; it should be robust and easy to use.

2. The Mouse
The mouse came into common use on a PC with the introduction of the Microsoft Windows operating system. Before this, the operating system (DOS) would normally be controlled via the keyboard. These days it is vital to be a competent mouse user. There are many different types of mice, a commonly used model now has a small wheel on it which when combined with the correct software allows additional functionality and fine control over the use of your applications.

3. Scanners
A scanner allows you to scan printed material and convert it into a file format which maybe used within the PC. You can scan pictures and then manipulate these inside the PCusing a graphics application of your choice. In addition, you can scan printed text and convert this not just to a picture of the text but also to, actual text which can be manipulated and edited as text within your word-processor. There are a number of specialist programs, generically called OCR (Optical Character Recognition) programs which are specifically designed for converting printed text into editable text within your applications.

4. Digital Camera A digital camera can be used in the same way a traditional camera can, but instead ofstoring images on rolls of film which require developing, the images are stored digitally inmemory housed within the camera. These pictures can easily be transferred to yourcomputer and then manipulated within any graphics programs which you have installed on your computer. Currently they are limited by the quality of the image recorded and the number of pictures which you may store within the camera.

5. Tracker Balls
A tracker ball is an alternative to the traditional mouse and favoured by graphic designers. Tracker balls often give much finer control over the movement of the items on the screen. They may take a while to get used to if you are used to the traditional mouse, but offer a lot in terms of added flexibility.

6. Touch Pads
A touch pad is a desktop device and responds to pressure. Used in conjunction with a special pen they can be used by graphic artists wishing to create original, digital artwork.

7. Light Pens
A light pen is used to allow users to point to areas on a screen and is often used to select menu choices.

8. Joysticks
Many games require a joystick for the proper playing of the game. There are many different types, the more sophisticated respond to movement in 3 axis directions, as well as having a number of configurable buttons. Like most things in life you get what you pay for with joysticks and it is worth investing in a good, strongly constructed model, especially bearing in mind that children will hammer these devices whilst playing games.

9. Voice input for PCs (microphones)
Early voice recognition systems offered very poor results, due to the limitations of the software combined with hardware limitations. It takes an awful lot of CPU processing power to convert the spoken word into text which appears on the screen. Things are changing rapidly however and recent systems allow you to talk to a PC and see text appear on the screen. Most of these systems require an initial training period, where you train the software to respond to your particular voice. Whilst still not perfect this is a key technology of the future.

10. Web Cams
Ever since it was invented, the Web has become increasingly interactive. You can nowuse a small digital movie camera (a Web cam) mounted on the PC monitor to allow twoway communication involving not just text communication but sound and video communication as well.

B. Output Devices

1. The VDU (computer monitor or screen) The VDU (Visual Display Unit) is the computer screen used for outputting information in an understandable format for humans. Remember that at the end of the day the computer works in binary code (a series of on/off impulses). It is hard to realise that the original electronic computers did not have a screen.

2. Flat screen monitors
Traditional computer monitors are based on the same sort of technology which is used within a television screen. More recently, flat screen computer monitors have become available. These take up a lot less room on a desk and use less energy than the traditional, more bulky monitors.

3. Screen size
You should be aware that often if you specify a screen of a certain size, say a 17-inch screen, this is the size measured diagonally, not horizontally across the screen. If you are upgrading you should also ask for the "visible viewing area" of the screen.

4. Graphics for games Many games require very advanced graphics cards (boards) to be installed within yourcomputer to make them run. These advanced graphics cards contain their own CPU which is dedicated purely to displaying the graphics on your screen. You should find that a recent PC has this advanced graphics capability built-in whereas PCs from only 2-3 years ago may not.

5. Computer presentation projection devices
These are projection devices which can be attached to your computer and are useful fordisplaying presentations to a group of people. They are best used in combination with presentation programs, such as Microsoft PowerPoint. They are used within education and are also very popular for sales presentations. The price of these devices has dropped dramatically recently. When purchasing one of these devices the two things to look out for are the resolution (go for a minimum of XGA) and the brightness of the lamp (the brighter the better). Other factors to be aware of are the quietness (or otherwise) of the device, as well as the cost of replacement bulbs.

6. Printer
A printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheets of paper. Printers are sometimes sold with computers, but more frequently are purchased separately.

7. Plotters
A plotter is an output device similar to a printer, but normally allows you to print larger images. Their use is common in the design and research sector.

8. Speakers
Most computers are sold with the capability to add a pair of speakers to your system unit. In fact, in some cases, the monitor may have speakers built directly into the unit. This enhances the value of educational and presentation products and can now be considered a standard PC component.

9. Speech synthesizers
A recent development is the ability not only to display text on a monitor but also to read the text to you. Thus, you could receive a text email from a colleague and the system could read that email to you. This is of enormous benefit to the visually impaired when using a computer. On the flip side, it is now possible to use a microphone to talk to the computer and for the computer to directly convert the spoken word into text which will be displayed within say your word-processor. Whilst these systems are far from fool proof they are getting better as more advanced software is being made available.

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY AND READ ONLY MEMORY

| Random Access Memory | Read Only Memory | Speed | the accessing speed of RAM is faster, it assist the processor to boost up the speed. | Speed is slower in comparison with RAM, ROM cannot boost up the processor speed. | Capacity | RAM memory is only used to store the temporary information. | ROM memory is used to store permanent information and cannot be deleted. | Accessibility | In reference with the processor, the information stored in the RAM is easily accessed. | The processor cannot directly access the information that is stored in the ROM. In order to access the ROM information, first the information will be transferred into the RAM and then it gets executed by the processor. |

LIST OF SOME COMMON OPERATING SYSTEMS

1. Ubuntu
Ubuntu is based on a version of the Linux operating system known as Debian GNU/Linux. Its main benefit is that it's free and open source. This means users can alter the code as they see fit. Ubuntu also stands out because it's updated once every six months, unlike other open source programs that have no strict upgrade schedule. Most Ubuntu-compatible software is also free and available in on-line software "repositories." Users can try Ubuntu on their PC using the program's "Live CD" mode. This allows you to run the system without actually installing it on your computer. Because Ubuntu programs are less ubiquitous than those for more well-known systems, users may need to do some research before finding the software solutions they need. 2. Android
Android is a "mobile" operating system maintained by the Open Handset Alliance, a group of companies and organizations that contribute to the system's development under the management of Google Inc. The system is an "open standard," meaning that an entire community of developers can alter the software, not just Google. Android comes pre-installed on smartphones and tablet PCs for which it was designed. As of the date of publication, all four major smartphone carriers -- Verizon, T-Mobile, Sprint and AT&T -- have Android devices available. A variety of manufacturers also make Android-compatible devices. One of the main benefits of the system's open source status is that developers can create different versions of its basic programs, allowing users greater freedom to customize their mobile devices.

3. Mac OS X
While a version of Mac OS X comes pre-installed on all Apple Macintosh computers, users must pay if they wish to use newer versions when they become available. The system is not open source, so only Apple developers have the ability to legitimately make alterations or improvements to its code. It differs from other computer operating systems in that it only works on Apple computers. Its key feature is its usability. The most recent version as of the date of publication includes a "resume" feature that re-opens applications in the same state they were in when you last closed them. It also includes a "Mission Control" feature, which allows you to see all of your open files at a glance.

4. IOS
IOS is Apple's mobile operating system. It runs on the company's iPod, iPhone and iPad devices. Like Mac OS X, it can only be used on Apple's mobile devices. One advantage of iOS is that more applications are available for it than for any other mobile operating system. As of summer 2011, it has approximately 400,000 to Android's 300,000. This increases the chances that users will find the type of app they're looking for. The system's key features include multitasking support, which allows users to run multiple apps simultaneously, and FaceTime, a video chat program that comes pre-installed on iOS devices.

5. Windows
Windows is an operating system owned and operated by Microsoft. It differs from open source systems in that only Microsoft has the ability to make changes to the code. However, it also differs from Mac OS X in that it can be installed on a variety of different computers from a host of competing manufacturers, offering the user more freedom of choice when it comes to hardware. According to Net Market Share, Windows is the most widely used operating system. The latest version as of the date of publication includes touchscreen support, which combines the usability of a touchscreen tablet with the power of a desktop computer. It also features "Play To" and "Remote Media Streaming," which allow you to play media from your computer on other devices in its vicinity and to access your media when you're away from your computer.

LIST OF SOME COMMON SOFTWARE APPLICATION

1. Word Processing software - Use this kind of tool to create worksheets, type letters, type papers, etc.
MS Word, WordPerfect, MS Works, AppleWorks, .... 2. Desktop Publishing software - Use this software to make signs, banners, greeting cards, illustrative worksheets, newsletters, etc.
Adobe PageMaker, MS Word, MS Publisher, AppleWorks, MS Works, Quark Express,..... 3. Spreadsheet software - Use this kind of tool to compute number-intensive problems such as budgeting, forecasting, etc. A spreadsheet will plot nice graphs very easily.
MS Excel, Quattro Pro, Lotus 1-2-3, MS Works, AppleWorks, .... 4. Database software - Use this software to store data such as address, membership and other text information. A database can be used to easily sort and organize records.
MS Access, Filemaker Pro, AppleWorks, MS Works, ... 5. Presentation software - Use this software to create multimedia stacks of cards/screens that can effectively present a lesson or a sales pitch. The user often clicks on buttons to advance to the next screen in a sequence.
MS PowerPoint, AppleWorks (slideshows), HyperStudio, Flash, Director, HyperCard, Digital Chisel, SuperCard, Corel Envoy,... 6. Internet Browsers - This software allows one to surf the Web. Often they can read email and create Web pages too.
Netscape Navigator (or Netscape Communicator), MS Internet Explorer, AOL Browser.... 7. Email programs - These programs send and receive email.
Netscape Messenger (part of Netscape Communicator), MS Outlook Express, MS Outlook, Eudora, AOL browser (has email built in).... 8. Graphics Programs (pixel-based) - This software allows one to touch up photographs and create graphics from scratch.
Adobe Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro, AppleWorks, MS Works, MS Paint (comes free on Windows PC's), Painter, .... 9. Graphics Programs (vector-based) - This software creates graphics that are similar to illustrations or cartoon drawings.
Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, AppleWorks, MS Works, MS Word, ..... 10. Communications software - This software allows two computers with modems to communicate through audio, video, and/or chat-based means.
MS NetMeeting, AOL Instant Messenger, IRC, ICQ, CU-SeeMe, ...

ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER NETWORKING 1. Allows File Sharing
Computer networking allows accessibility for the people to share their files easily. This greatly helps the people in saving their time and effort since they could already share some of the important files they need to share with other people effectively and accordingly.

2. Provides Convenient Resource Sharing
This is another benefit that you may be acquiring if you are going to access computer networking. This is very important particularly for those larger companies who are greatly in need to produce huge number of resources to be shared to all the people. 3. Inexpensive System
Installing computer networking software in your gadget would not cost you too much since you are assured that the software is durable and can effectively share information to the people you need it to.

4. Flexible to be Used
Computer networking is known to be very flexible since you are given the chance to explore everything about the software without affecting its functionality.

5. Increase in Storage Capacity of the Software
Since you are going to share files and resources to other people, you need to make sure that all the data and files are properly stored in the system. With computer networking you are assured that all the files would be stored properly depending on your saved file.

APPLICATION OF COMPUTER 1. Home
Computers in Homes provides training, technical support, refurbished computers and home Internet to students’ families in low-decile schools – so they can join the online world.

2. Education
Its uses in this field are infinite. The Internet is a huge source of information. There are online universities that deliver online degrees, and distance learning is spreading far and wide. Many schools and colleges have started making use of audio-visual ways of imparting knowledge. There are a horde of online tools and methodologies, which help students in many ways.

3. Government
In the government, this gadget is used for controlling equipment, launching weapons, maintaining crucial data, etc. It has also simplified the task of maintaining thousands of records.

4. Business
It is use in advertising has helped business scale new heights. Large volumes of information can be stored and many records can be diligently maintained. It is used in communication, storage, accounting, marketing, and documentation.

5. Health
They are used for diagnosis and cure of many diseases. For example, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scan, ultrasound devices, etc., are amongst the most ubiquitous uses of this device in hospitals. It is used in many surgical procedures, like a laparoscopy. Video conferencing software helps doctors deal with patients in remote areas.

6. Environment
You can use computer and search on the internet ideas that can reduce the wear and tear on the environment.

7. Society
To understand their impact on society, we will first have to understand their meaningIt is any machine or device that can compute and execute instructions given to it in the form of programs.…...

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...mock interviews and written assignments to maximize student involvement in the subject matter. The dynamic nature of the Business Cornerstone course requires an interactive teaching and learning format that utilizes experiential learning activities to enhance each student’s involvement with the course content. 2.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this course, the student will have strengthened the academic skills needed for success as a business major and will have a solid understanding of how ethics, teams, professionalism and a strong work ethic affect business operations. Specifically, the student will: 1. Employ critical thinking skills to develop well-reasoned solutions to business problems 1. Assess group dynamics and how they are utilized in creating effective teams 2. Demonstrate knowledge of ethical decision making 3. Apply job related skills and strategies for implementing career development plans 4. Produce written assignments that are professional and free of the fundamental writing errors 3. Prerequisites Prerequisites ARE NOT optional; pre-requisites ARE requirements or courses that must be completed PRIOR to taking the course.  The pre-requisite(s) for this course are described in the UHD catalog course description as:  Sophomore standing. It is the students’ responsibility to insure that they meet the pre-requisites prior to enrollment in this course.  If the student enrolls and does not meet the pre-requisites,......

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...Study - Student Gets a Better Job Offer Step 1: Recognize: Define the ethical problem from all perspectives. • The student did not tell company B after accepting to work there that he already accepted to work company A. • The student did not notify career services office about any of this. Step 2: Clarify the Facts • The student agreed to work for company A at the beginning, because he did not hear from company B (yet). • The student later was accepted to work for company B; since this was his first choice he accepted that offer as well. • The student went back on his words and declined company A after already accepting it. • Career services office only found out about this after the student had reneged upon the job offer. Step 3: Create Alternatives • The student will not be permitted to work in company A or B. • The student will go work for company A, as he approved that offer first. • The student will work for company B, but will never be allowed to use career services again. • The student will be kicked out of school. Step 4: Evaluate Alternatives (short/long term effects) • Short term: student will not have a job Long term: the student might not be able to find another job that year but will learn an important lesson for life. • Short term: student will work for company A and be disappointed since he is not fulfilling his true ability. Long term: student will realize that what he did was the ethically correct choice. • Short term: student......

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...post it. | | |M3D2: Student Aid: Will Many|Module 3 | |Low-Income Students Be Left | | |Out? [pic] |Preparation: | | |Think about the following: | | |What are the current issues with student financial aid? | | |What can Congress do to help? | | |Read: Issues for Debate in Sociology, Read Chapter 10, Student Aid, pgs 221-244. | | |[pic] | | |Now complete the following: | | |As most of you know, the cost of higher education continues to increase, yet the available aid to students is | | ......

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...college students have worked while attending school. And the number of working students has grown as college enrollment and tuition have increased. While the percentage dipped slightly during and after the recession, the overall number of working students has increased over the past quarter-century (Rapacon, 2015). Rationale of the Study Despite the fact that work is a fundamental part of life for nearly half of all undergraduate students – with a substantial number of “traditional” dependent undergraduates in employment, and working independent undergraduates averaging 34.5 hours per week – little attention has been given to how working influences the integration and engagement experiences of students who work, especially those who work full-time, or how the benefits and costs of working differ between traditional age-students and adult students (Perna, 2010). A college or university scholarship is a big help to students to attain higher education, especially in today’s society where a college education is a necessity for success. There are thousands of scholarships available, and the financial aid they offer gives a huge advantage to the student and his or her parents. But being supported by the government in paying for one’s college costs are not the only benefits included (Thomas, 2010). This study aims to discuss the views and opinions of the recipients of the school scholarship program of the Holy Cross of Davao College. This study aims to benefit the students......

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...I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a I I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of PGDM and is seeking answers. I am a student of......

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...challenge for educators, parents, and employers for at least 30 years [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Haycock & Huang]. For many public school students’ particularly male students from low-income or ethnic minority families graduating from high school has remained problematic, even as the nation’s general educational level has increased [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Dillow]. According to 2000 current population survey (CPS) of the U.S. census bureau are used to compute dropout and completion rates by background characteristics, such as sex, race/ethnicity, and family income. Dropout rates in U.S are typical calculated in one of two ways: status rates and events rates. Status dropout rates indicate the number and percentage of people aged 15–24 who are not enrolled in school and have not obtained a high school credential. Event dropout rates, on the other hand, measure the number and percentage of students leaving school over a particular time period typically one year. Dropping out of school seems to be the result of a long-term process of disengaging from school [Blue & Cook (2004); citing Alexander & Entwisle, Finn, Hess]. Although research conducted by Blue & Cook (2004) has identified no single cause for dropping out, researchers typically have followed two distinct lines of inquiry. The first line examines individual student factors such as social and economic environment and ethnicity. The second line identifies the institutional factors and the......

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