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Sukuk

In: Business and Management

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Islamic Banking
Operations and
Regulatory Framework
Workshop
Organized by Centre for
Banking Studies, Central
Bank of Sri Lanka
24 – 26 January 2012
Colombo – Sri Lanka

Sukuk: Shariah
Guidelines for
Islamic Bonds

Presented By:
MOHD NAZRI BIN CHIK
 Member, Shariah Supervisory Council of Amana Bank
 Head of Shariah Division, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad

AGENDA o Overview on Sukuk

o

Fundamental Shariah Requirements

o

Sukuk Structure

o

Example of Sukuk Structuring and Shariah Issues

o

Sukuk Trading

o

Bank Islam and Amana Bank Involvements in
Sukuk Structuring

Capital Market: The Heart of A
Nation’s Financial System
Overall economy are divided into:
 Real sector – produces the nation’s output of goods and services
 Financial sector – providing financing needed to fund the real sector

REAL SECTOR
Surplus Units






Households
Corporate
Government
Foreign
Investor

FINANCIAL SECTOR

REAL SECTOR
Deficit Units

Indirect Funding
Banking System &
Financial
Intermediaries

Capital Market
Direct Funding

Source: Adopted from Professor Dr Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha (2010)






Households
Corporate
Government
Foreign
Investor

Introduction to Sukuk (Islamic securities) and Sukuk Market
 Sukuk market is one of the fastest growing segments of the Islamic capital market (“direct funding market”).
 Usually translated as Islamic bond is the most active Islamic debt market instruments (in addition to Islamic equity market).
 Provide alternative funding avenue for corporate entities and the government, besides the bank funding.
 Benefits of sukuk:
 Larger funding amounts
 Provide liquidity to the investors as they can trade it in the secondary market.
 Islamic financial system expanded into capital market since the late of 1990s.

Definition and Origin of Sukuk
 Originates from the Arabic word sukuk (‫ك‬￿‫و‬￿‫ك‬￿‫ص‬￿) i.e. plural of sak
(‫ك‬￿‫ص‬￿)
 Islamic Financial Services Board
(IFSB-2) defines:
“Certificates that represent the holder’s proportionate ownership in an undivided part of the underlying asset, where the holder assumes all rights and obligations to such asset.”  Medieval Times – the word “cheque” or “check” derived from “sak”

Why Shariah Prohibits
Conventional Bond?
 The main issue in the conventional debt market to interest bearing loan transaction.
 In case of zero coupon bond, investors will receive accumulated interest at maturity of the bond as the bond will be issued at a discount.
Conventional Bond

Asset Backed
Securities

Sukuk

Primary Level
Relationship

Lending and borrowing transaction (loan); thus haram. Sale of debt or income generating asset

Variety underlying Shariah contracts (‘uqud)

Return to
Investors

Interest on loan.

Income generated from underlying asset

Profit elements in underlying contracts (sale, lease or partnership) Recourse

To issuer

To asset

To the rights and obligations of the contracts. Tradability in
Secondary
Market

Sale of debt

Sale of debt or income generating asset

Depends on nature of underlying assets. Majority scholars allow sale of tangible asset, some intangible asset and interest in ventures, except issues on receivables. History of Sukuk
Usage of sukuk can be traced back to the 1st Century AH during the Umayyad Caliphate under the rule of
Khalifah al-Marwan ibn al-Hakam as recorded by Imam Malik in Al-Muwatta’, Book 31, Number 31.19.44

َ‫ع‬￿َ‫ي‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ب‬￿َ‫ت‬￿َ‫ف‬￿ ِ‫ر‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ج‬￿ْ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ ِ‫م‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ع‬￿َ‫ط‬￿ ْ‫ن‬￿ِ‫م‬￿ ِ‫م‬￿َ‫ك‬￿َ‫ح‬￿ْ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ ِ‫ن‬￿ْ‫ب‬￿ َ‫ن‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫و‬￿ْ‫ر‬￿َ‫م‬￿ ِ‫ن‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫م‬￿َ‫ز‬￿ ‫ي‬￿ِ‫ف‬￿ ِ‫س‬￿‫ا‬￿َّ‫ن‬￿‫ل‬￿ِ‫ل‬￿ ْ‫ت‬￿َ‫ج‬￿َ‫ر‬￿َ‫خ‬￿ ‫ا‬￿ً‫ك‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ك‬￿ُ‫ص‬￿ َّ‫ن‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ ُ‫ه‬￿َ‫غ‬￿َ‫ل‬￿َ‫ب‬￿ ُ‫ه‬￿َّ‫ن‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ ‫ك‬￿ِ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫م‬￿ ْ‫ن‬￿َ‫ع‬￿ ‫ي‬￿ِ‫ن‬￿َ‫ث‬￿َّ‫د‬￿َ‫ح‬￿ ‫و‬￿
‫ى‬￿َّ‫ل‬￿َ‫ص‬￿ ِ‫ه‬￿َّ‫ل‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ ِ‫ل‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫س‬￿َ‫ر‬￿ ِ‫ب‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ح‬￿ْ‫ص‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ ْ‫ن‬￿ِ‫م‬￿ ٌ‫ل‬￿ُ‫ج‬￿َ‫ر‬￿َ‫و‬￿ ٍ‫ت‬￿ِ‫ب‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ث‬￿ ُ‫ن‬￿ْ‫ب‬￿ ُ‫د‬￿ْ‫ي‬￿َ‫ز‬￿ َ‫ل‬￿َ‫خ‬￿َ‫د‬￿َ‫ف‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ف‬￿ْ‫و‬￿َ‫ت‬￿ْ‫س‬￿َ‫ي‬￿ ْ‫ن‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ َ‫ل‬￿ْ‫ب‬￿َ‫ق‬￿ ْ‫م‬￿ُ‫ه‬￿َ‫ن‬￿ْ‫ي‬￿َ‫ب‬￿ َ‫ك‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ك‬￿ُّ‫ص‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ َ‫ك‬￿ْ‫ل‬￿ِ‫ت‬￿ ُ‫س‬￿‫ا‬￿َّ‫ن‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿
ِ‫ه‬￿ِ‫ذ‬￿َ‫ه‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ق‬￿َ‫ف‬￿ َ‫ك‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ذ‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫م‬￿َ‫و‬￿ ِ‫ه‬￿َّ‫ل‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ِ‫ب‬￿ ُ‫ذ‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ع‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ َ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ق‬￿َ‫ف‬￿ ُ‫ن‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫و‬￿ْ‫ر‬￿َ‫م‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ي‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ب‬￿ِّ‫ر‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ َ‫ع‬￿ْ‫ي‬￿َ‫ب‬￿ ُّ‫ل‬￿ِ‫ح‬￿ُ‫ت‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ق‬￿َ‫ف‬￿ ِ‫م‬￿َ‫ك‬￿َ‫ح‬￿ْ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ ِ‫ن‬￿ْ‫ب‬￿ َ‫ن‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫و‬￿ْ‫ر‬￿َ‫م‬￿ ‫ى‬￿َ‫ل‬￿َ‫ع‬￿ َ‫م‬￿َّ‫ل‬￿َ‫س‬￿َ‫و‬￿ ِ‫ه‬￿ْ‫ي‬￿َ‫ل‬￿َ‫ع‬￿ ُ‫ه‬￿َّ‫ل‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿
‫ي‬￿ِ‫د‬￿ْ‫ي‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ ْ‫ن‬￿ِ‫م‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿َ‫ن‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ع‬￿ِ‫ز‬￿ْ‫ن‬￿َ‫ي‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿َ‫ن‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ع‬￿َ‫ب‬￿ْ‫ت‬￿َ‫ي‬￿ َ‫س‬￿َ‫ر‬￿َ‫ح‬￿ْ‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ ُ‫ن‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫و‬￿ْ‫ر‬￿َ‫م‬￿ َ‫ث‬￿َ‫ع‬￿َ‫ب‬￿َ‫ف‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ف‬￿ْ‫و‬￿َ‫ت‬￿ْ‫س‬￿َ‫ي‬￿ ْ‫ن‬￿َ‫أ‬￿ َ‫ل‬￿ْ‫ب‬￿َ‫ق‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ع‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ب‬￿ َّ‫م‬￿ُ‫ث‬￿ ُ‫س‬￿‫ا‬￿َّ‫ن‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿َ‫ع‬￿َ‫ي‬￿‫ا‬￿َ‫ب‬￿َ‫ت‬￿ ُ‫ك‬￿‫و‬￿ُ‫ك‬￿ُّ‫ص‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿
Yahya narrated to me from Malik, that he had heard that receipts (sukuk) were given ْ‫ه‬￿to people ُ‫د‬￿inَ‫ي‬￿َ‫و‬￿ ِ‫س‬￿‫ا‬￿َّ‫ن‬￿‫ل‬￿‫ا‬￿
‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿ِ‫ل‬￿ َ‫أ‬￿ ‫ى‬￿َ‫ل‬￿ِ‫إ‬￿ ‫ا‬￿َ‫ه‬￿َ‫ن‬￿‫و‬￿ّ ُ‫ر‬￿ the time of Marwan ibn al-Hakam for the produce of the market at al-Jar. People bought and sold the receipts
(sukuk) among themselves before they took delivery of the goods. Zayd bin Thabit and one of the
Companions of RasululLah (SAW) went to Marwan and said, “Marwan! Do you make usury halal
(permissible)?” He said: “I seek refuge with Allah! What is that?” He said, “These receipts (sukuk) which people buy and sell before they take delivery of the goods.” Marwan therefore sent a guard to follow them and to take them from people’s hand and return to their owners.”
Example of sukuk to raise funding – In 1775, the Ottoman Empire issued esham to fund its budget deficit after its defeat by the Russians. The government securitised the tobacco custom collection, in which the investors received annuity (variable return) for the rest of their life. The government may buy back the sahim at their discretion (Ref: Professor Murad Cizakca – 2009)

AGENDA o Overview on Sukuk

o

Fundamental Shariah Requirements

o

Sukuk Structure

o

Example of Sukuk Structuring and Shariah Issues

o

Sukuk Trading

o

Bank Islam and Amana Bank Involvements in
Sukuk Structuring

Sukuk Must Comply To The
Underlying Shariah Principles
1. Funds raised must be used for Shariah compliant
(halal) activities.
2. Fund raised may be used to finance needed tangible assets. Specificity of assets is important, since Sukuk unlike conventional bonds cannot be used for general financial needs of the issuer.
3. Income received by sukukholders (investors) must be derived from the cash flows generated by the underlying. 4. Sukukholders have a right to the ownership of the underlying asset and its cash-flows.
5. Clear and transparent specification of rights and obligations of all parties to the transaction, in particular the originator (customer) and sukukholders.
6. No fixity in returns.

AGENDA o Overview on Sukuk

o

Fundamental Shariah Requirements

o

Sukuk Structure

o

Example of Sukuk Structuring and Shariah Issues

o

Sukuk Trading

o

Bank Islam and Amana Bank Involvements in
Sukuk Structuring

Structuring Sukuk
 Indebtedness/ obligation must be created first between the issuer and the investors. It must be originate from one of the nominated Shariah contracts (‘uqud al-musamma).
 Normally, the names or types of sukuk is determined by the Shariah contract into which both the issuer and investor entered into at the first place.

Sukuk Structures
Murabahah (Mark-Up Sale)

Sukuk Based on Shariah
Contracts

Sales-Based

Istisna’ (Manufacturing
Sale)

 Most common sukuk classification is based on underlying Shariah contracts.
 From Shariah perspective, there is no preference for the usage of one contract over the other.

Salam (Forward Sale)

Ijarah Muntahiah Bit
Tamleek (Lease Ended
With Transfer of Ownersip)

Factors for considering a Sukuk structure:  Economic objectives of the Issuer.

Lease Based
Ijarah Mawsufah fi
Dhimmah (Forward Lease)

 Availability of assets.
 Level of debt that the company has.

Agency Based

Wakalah lil Istihtmar
(Agency for Investment)

Mudharabah

 Credit rating of the Issuer
 Legal framework
 Tax implication of a structure

Partnership
Musharakah

Permissible Sukuk Structure AAOIFI
 AAOIFI has specified several categories of permissible sukuk i.e. securitization of:
No

Securitization of/ Purpose

Contract

1

Existing or to be acquired tangible asset

Ijarah

2

Existing or to be acquired leasehold asset

Ijarah

3

Presale of services

Ijarah

4

To fund construction

Istisna’

5

Presale of the production of goods or commodities at a future date

Salam

6

To fund the acquisition of goods for future sale

Murabahah

7

To fund capital participation in a business or investment activity

Mudarabah/
Musharakah

8

To fund various asset, goods or services acquisition which are then entrusted to an agent to manage on behalf of the owners.

Wakalah

9

To raise funds for agricultural land cultivation, land management and orchard management activities

Muzara’ah

Distinctions Between Sukuk Based on Shariah Structure
Nature of Sukuk
Represents ownership of asset, its usufruct or services (the “Underlying
Asset”)

Contract

Feature


the sukuk are akin to trust certificates bearing undivided ownership in the leased asset and the rights to the cash flow stream arising from it as well as proceeds from sale of the assets

Murabahah and
Istisna’



the claim is on the obligations arising from the applied contract of exchange.



Evidences of indebtedness arising from sale of asset

Ijarah

In this case, the sukuk does not represent ownership on the physical asset as the ownership of the asset has been transferred to the obligor, though in certain cases, depending on the credit strength of the obligor, assets are provided as collateral or security to the indebtedness.



Returns due to the holders as owners of capital are distributed according to the percentage of ownership.



Losses are borne in totality by the sukuk holders in accordance to percentages of the shares owned unless the losses are attributed to the negligence and/or wilful misconduct of the mudharib, who will be responsible for the same.



Returns and losses due to the holders as owners of capital are distributed according to the percentage of ownership. Represents ownership of units of equal value in the equity and are registered in the names of holders on the basis of undivided ownership of shares in the scheme Mudharabah

Represents ownership of units of equal value in the equity and are registered in the names of holders on the basis of undivided ownership of shares in the scheme Musharakah

AGENDA o Overview on Sukuk

o

Fundamental Shariah Requirements

o

Sukuk Structure

o

Example of Sukuk Structuring and Shariah Issues

o

Sukuk Trading

o

Bank Islam and Amana Bank Involvements in
Sukuk Structuring

Sukuk Ijarah - Overview
 Under this structure, the Issuer must have taken a particular “asset” from the Investor on lease (Ijarah).
Normally, there asset is originally that of the Issuer, and sold to Investors (normally intermediated by a
SPV), before being leased back to the Issuer for a rental.
 The lease contract has created a financial indebtedness/ obligation i.e. obligation to pay the lease rental.
To evidence this, the Issuer issue Sukuk Ijarah to the Investor. The Investor may sell the Sukuk to the secondary market based on selling of debt which is backed by a tangible asset.

Segari Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd (SEV) Sukuk Ijarah
1. Sale of assets by SEV to the Financier for RM 522 million

Financiers/
Primary
Subscribers

2. Financiers lease back assets to SEV in return for Ijarah rental streams

3. SEV issue RM522 million Sukuk Ijarah as documentary evidence of lease rental arrangement

4. Sale of Sukuk Ijarah

Investors

SEV

Sukuk Ijarah
Sukuk Ijarah – Malaysia Global Sukuk Incorporated
Government of Malaysia (GOM)

2. SPV enters into a Master Ijarah
Agreement with GOM (lease of land parcels) 7. At maturity, SPV sells the land to
GOM at an agreed price.

5. Proceeds

Federal Land
Commissioner
1. Sells “beneficial interest” in land parcels to
SPV for USD600 million
(transfer of beneficial title)

3. SPV issues Sukuk representing undivided proportionate ownership in the underlying land parcels which gives rise to rights to a share in the rental payment in the Master Ijarah arrangement.
6. Periodic payment of rentals
8. GOM pays cash to SPV

SPV (Malaysia
Global Sukuk
Inc.)

9. Payment of rental and at maturity pay cash for sukuk redemption 4. Payment of proceeds from sale of Sukuk

Sukuk Ijarah
Owners

Sukuk Ijarah – Shariah Requirements
APPLICATIONS
 Segari Venture
(Malaysia)
 Guthrie Sukuk Ijarah
(Malaysia)
 Government of Bahrain
Sukuk Ijarah
 Government of
Malaysia’s Global
Sovereign Sukuk
 Qatar Sukuk
 Caravan Sukuk

1. The rental payments maybe structured such that it comprises of (i) profits on the rental and (ii) redemption amount on the principal.
2. Sukuk Ijarah does not represent debts; but undivided proportionate ownership of the leased asset
(participatory certificates).
3. Because the Sukuk Ijarah are not debts nor monetary, the issue of sale of monetary-debts with a discount do not arise. Hence Sukuk Ijarah maybe traded in the secondary market freely.

Sukuk Istisna’ - Overview
 Structured to finance projects which will be completed in the future e.g. power plant, highways etc.
 Under “parallel Istisna’”, the Issuer, being awarded the project by awarding party, will enter into Istisna 1 with the Investors i.e. Investors to deliver the completed project to the Issuer and the Issuer is supposed to pay the Istisna’ Price + Profit Margin to the Issuer, to be paid deferred at an agreed maturity date.
 The Issuer, being indebted to the Investors, will issue Sukuk Istisna’ to the Investors.
 The Issuer will create an SPV for project management purposes
 The Investor will then enter into Istisna’ 2 with SPV where the payment of the purchase price (equivalent to construction cost) is paid by Investor based on the contractually agreed terms e.g. progressive payment, one lump sum etc.
Istisna’ 1 (Construction Cost + Profit Margin)

ISSUER

INVESTOR
Issue Sukuk Istisna’

Creates Special Purpose Vehicle
(SPV)

Istisna’ 2 (Construction Cost)

SPV

Sukuk Istisna’ – Shariah Issues
APPLICATIONS
 Prai Power Plant
(Malaysia – 2002)
 SKS/ Tanjung Bin
Power Plant (Malaysia –
2003)
 Sarawak International
Medical Centre
(Malaysia – 2004)

 Under this structure, Sukuk Istisna’ represent the sale price under Istisna’ 1 (securitization of the obligation to pay the Istisna’ sale price).
 Thus, it can not be traded because it will tantamount to trading of Istisna’ debt (bay’ al-dayn), which is not yet established until the Istisna’ asset is completed and delivered to the satisfaction of the buyer (Issuer).
Shariah Advisory Council of Securities Commission
Malaysia’s Decision (2003):
 Contractual guarantee of payment of Istisna’ Sale Price by the Issuer is sufficient to establish the debt against the
Issuer in favour of the Investor (sukukholders); despite the nature of Istisna’ contract that originally depends on successful construction of the Istisna’ asset in order to confirm the Istisna’ Price.

Sukuk Musharakah - Overview
 Both the Issuer and Investors (represented by SPV) contribute to the project being managed by either the Issuer or third party (as the case maybe).
 The Issuer will issue Sukuk Musharakah evidencing the capital contribution of the investors and the
“indicative rate of profit.” Profit, if any, will be shared between the Issuer and Investors at an agreed sharing ratio. Financial loss will be born by both proportionate to their respective investment.

Sukuk Musharakah – Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS)

1. MUIS contributes land and $35 mil
(waqf land)

3. MUIS appointed as Musharakah’s agent to develop the land.
MUIS receives fixed agency fee.

Shopping
Complex &
Offices 5. Leased for 5 years with

Estate Mgmt
Company

guarantee. Rental will be shared proportionately

2 (b). SPV contributes cash (Proceeds received from
Investor)

2 (a) Receive invesment from Investor (Sukukholders)

SPV
6 Profits distributed to Sukukholders. MUIS irrevocably undertakes to buy at a pre-agreed price the Musharakah shares of SPV/ Investor on semi-annual basis (mutanaqisah).

INVESTOR

Sukuk Murabahah (Tawarruq)
 Tawarruq (Monetisation) is applied by Cagamas (Malaysia’s national mortgage corporation) to purchase receivables from Islamic assets (house financings, hire purchase and leasing) of financial institutions.

Cagamas Sukuk Commodity Murabahah (2007)
3. Proceeds

INVESTOR
2. Issue Sukuk to Investors to evidence ownership of commodity

As Agent
4. Purchase
Price

9. At maturity,
Cagamas pay principal to redeem 1. Cagamas, as Agent (Wakil) of
Investors purchase commodity on spot basis (Purchase Price)

Commodity
Broker A

Trustee
5. Trustee (on behalf of Investors) sell the commodity to Cagamas (Deferred
Sale Price = P+P) on deferred basis

6. Cagamas sells commodity to Broker B on spot basis (P)

Commodity
Broker B

7. Selling Price – used to fund Cagamas Islamic operations

8. Periodic
Profit
Payment

Hybrid Sukuk
6. IDB provides certain guarantee in respect of the Assets and
Purchase Undertaking

3. SPV creates a trust in respect of the Assets and issues
5-Year Sukuk to raise US$400 mil

SPV
(Solidarity
Trust)

2. ICD sells the
Assets to SPV for
US$ 400 mil

SUKUK

INVESTOR

4. SPV appoints ICD as agent to collect receivables from the Assets

5. SPV “delegates” the agency role to IDB

Islamic Development Bank
US$400 Million Sukuk
Istithmar
1. IDB sells the Assets (Ijarah assets US$264 mil i.e. 65.5%, Murabaha assets US$123 mil & Istisna assets US$14 mil) to IDB for US$400 mil

Hybrid Sukuk (IDB) – Shariah
Requirements
1. Shariah Board of IDB viewed that IDB can sell a mixed portfolio of tangible assets (Ijarah properties) and receivables (murabahah and istisna’) given that the Ijarah properties are at least 51%.
2. IDB undertook that the Ijarah contract proportion in the sukuk asset will not fall below
25%.
3. Based on the above, the sukuk can be freely tradable in the secondary market.

Hybrid Sukuk (Istisna’ + Ijarah)
US$200 mil Istisna’ and Ijarah Tabreed Sukuk (UAE – 2006)
 Structured to finance the construction of a cooling plan in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
 In order for the sukuk is tradable (during construction), Shariah Board required that at least 1/3 of the sukuk was in the form of tangible assets. The completed plant during issuance of the sukuk represented only 20% of the sukuk asset. To achieve this, additional tangible asset was introduced in the asset pool
i.e. Tabreed (SPV) bought palladium worth US$26 mil.
2. Istisna’ Agreement. Tabreed to deliver the cooling plan & pay security amount

SPV (Tabreed
5. Pursuant to Purchase
Undertaking; upon maturity,
Tabreed purchase the plants from SPV.

06 Financing
Corp)

3. Upon delivery of plants, Tabreed leases the plant (for 5 years)

1. SPV Issue Sukuk

INVESTOR
4. Periodic rental payment

AGENDA o Overview on Sukuk

o

Fundamental Shariah Requirements

o

Sukuk Structure

o

Example of Sukuk Structuring and Shariah Issues

o

Sukuk Trading

o

Bank Islam and Amana Bank Involvements in
Sukuk Structuring

Tradability of Sukuk
Shariah scholars unanimously agree that sukuk can be sold and purchased except some differences regarding Sukuk al-Murabahah and Salam Sukuk.

 AAOIFI (Shariah Standard No 17, para 5/2/15) on Sukuk
Murabahah:
 The sukuk is acknowledged
 It can be traded after purchasing of asset and before selling it to the buyer.
 It can not be traded after the delivery of the asset to the buyer.  Reason: The subject matter is considered as financial asset
(receivable). Issue on sale of debt (bay’ al-dayn)

 Shariah Advisory Council of
Securities Commission, Malaysia:
 Can be sold at a discount in a securitization exercise.
 Bay’ al-dayn is adopted based on the views of some scholars
(Malikis & Shafiites) who allowed this principle subject to certain conditions.  In capital market, these conditions are met with a transparent regulatory system which can safeguard the interest of the market participants

Thank You…...

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